Character Study on Abaddon

Character Study on Abaddon

Revelation 9: And they had a king over them, which is the angel of the bottomless pit, whose name in the Hebrew tongue is Abaddon, but in the Greek tongue hath his name Apollyon.

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Dictionary

American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Abaddon, or Apollyon
The former name is Hebrew, and the latter Greek, and both signify the destroyer, Revelation 9:11 . He is called the angel of death, or the destroying angel.

Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Abaddon
In the Book of Revelation (9:1-11), when John sees his vision of the fifth trumpet blowing, a vast horde of demonic horsemen is seen arising from the newly opened abyss. They are sent forth to torment the unfortunate inhabitants of earth, but not to kill them. They have a ruler over them, called a king (basileia [ βασιλεία ]), the angel of the abyss, whose name is given in both Hebrew and Greek. In Hebrew it is Abaddon and in Greek Apollyon, both words meaning Destroyer or Destruction.

The word only occurs once in the New Testament (Revelation 9:11 ) and five times in the Old Testament (Job 26:6 ; 28:22 ; 31:12 ; Psalm 88:11 ; Proverbs 15:11 ). In Psalm 88:11 Destruction is parallel to the grave; in Job 26:6 and Proverbs 26:6 it is parallel to Sheol; in Job 28:22 it is parallel to Death. Job 31:12 says sin is a fire that burns to destruction. So in the Old Testament Abaddon means the place of utter ruin, death, desolation, or destruction.

The angel of the abyss is called Destruction or Destroyer because his task is to oversee the devastation of the inhabitants of the earth, although it is curious that his minions are allowed only to torture and not to kill. His identity is a matter of dispute. Some make him Satan himself, while others take him to be only one of Satan's many evil subordinates.

Walter A. Elwell



1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Abaddon
1) Hebrew word meaning ruin, place of destruction, realm of the dead (Job 31)

2) A prince of Hell, evil angel of death and disaster (Apocalypse 9); same as Apollyon, Destroyer.

King James Dictionary - Abaddon
ABAD'DON, n. Heb. Ch. Syr. Sam. to be lost, or destroyed, to perish.

1. The destroyer, or angel of the bottomless pit. Revelation 9 2. The bottomless pit.
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Abaddon
The Hebrew in Job 31:12 and Proverbs 27:20, "destruction," or the place of destruction, sheol (Hebrew); Ηades (Greek). The rabbis use Abaddon, from Psalms 88:12 ("Shall Thy lovingkindness be declared in destruction?") (abaddon ) as the second of the seven names for the region of the dead. In Revelation 9:11 personified as the destroyer, Greek, apolluon , "the angel of the bottomless pit," Satan is meant; for he is described in Revelation 9:1 as "a star fallen from heaven unto earth, to whom was given the key of the bottomless pit"; and Revelation 12:8-9,12: "Woe to the inhabiters of the earth, for the devil is come down." Also Isaiah 14:12; Luke 10:18. As king of the locusts, that had power to torment not kill (Revelation 9:3-11), Satan is permitted to afflict but not to touch life; so in the case of Job (Job 1-2). "He walketh about as a roaring lion, seeking whom he may devour" (1 Peter 5:8). "A murderer from the beginning" (John 8:44), who abode not in the truth.

Elliott identifies the locusts with the Muslims; their turbans being the "crowns" (but how are these "like gold"?); they come from the Euphrates River; their cavalry were countless; their "breast-plates of fire" being their rich-colored attire; the fire and smoke out of the horses' mouths being the Turkish artillery; their standard "horse tails"; the period, an hour, day, month, and year, 396 years 118 days between Thogrul Beg going forth Jan. 18, 1057 A.D., and the fall of Constantinople, May 29, 1453 A.D.; or else 391 years and 1 month, as others say, from 1281 A.D., the date of the Turks' first conquest of Christians, and 1672 A.D., their last conquest. The serpent-like stinging tails correspond to Mohammedanism supplanting Christianity in large parts of Asia, Africa, and even Europe.

But the hosts meant seem infernal rather than human, though constrained to work out God's will (Revelation 12:1-2). The Greek article once only before all the periods requires rather the translation "for (i.e. "against") THE hour and day and month and year," namely, appointed by God. Not only the year, but also the month, day, and hour, are all definitively foreordained. The article "the" would have been omitted, if a total of periods had been meant. The giving of both the Hebrew and the Greek name implies that he is the destroyer of both Hebrew and Gentiles alike. Just as, in beautiful contrast, the Spirit of adoption enables both Jew and Gentile believers to call God, in both their respective tongues, Αbba (Hebrew in marked alliteration with Αbaddon Father (Greek, pater ). Jesus who unites both in Himself (Galatians 3:28; Ephesians 2:14) sets us the example: Mark 14:36; Galatians 4:6. Jesus unites Hebrew and Gentiles in a common salvation; Satan combines both in a common "destruction." ((See ABBA.)

Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Abaddon
The word is found in the NT only in Revelation 9:11. In the OT text ‘ăbhaddôn occurs six times (only in the Wisdom literature), Authorized Version in each case rendering ‘destruction,’ while Revised Version gives ‘Destruction’ in Job 28:22; Job 31:12, Psalms 88:11, but ‘Abaddon’ in Job 26:6, Proverbs 15:11; Proverbs 27:20, on the ground, as stated by the Revisers in their Preface, that ‘a proper name appears to be required for giving vividness and point.’ Etymologically the word is an abstract term meaning ‘destruction,’ and it is employed in this sense in Job 31:12. Its use, however, in parallelism with Sheol in Job 26:6, Proverbs 15:11; Proverbs 27:20 and with ‘the grave’ in Psalms 88:11 shows that even in the OT it had passed beyond this general meaning and had become a specialized term for the abode of the dead. In Job 28:22, again, it is personified side by side with Death, just as Hades is personified in Revelation 6:6. So far as the OT is concerned, and notwithstanding the evident suggestions of its derivation (from Heb. ’âbhadh, ‘to perish’), the connotation of the word does not appear to advance beyond that of the parallel word Sheol in its older meaning of the general dwelling-place of all the dead. In later Heb. literature, however, when Sheol had come to be recognized as a sphere of moral distinctions and consequent retribution, Abaddon is represented as one of the lower divisions of Sheol and as being the abode of the wicked and a place of punishment. At first it was distinguished from Gehenna, as a place of loss and deprivation rather than of the positive suffering assigned to the latter. But in the Rabbinic teaching of a later time it becomes the very house of perdition (Targ. [Note: Targum.] on Job 26:6), the lowest part of Gehenna, the deepest deep of hell (‘Emek Hammelech, 15. 3).

In Revelation 9:11 Abaddon is not merely personified in the free poetic manner of Job 28:22, but is used as the personal designation in Hebrew of a fallen angel described as the king of the locusts and ‘the angel of the abyss,’ whose name in the Greek tongue is said to be Apollyon. In the Septuagint ’ăbhaddôn is regularly rendered by ἀπώλεια; and the personification of the Heb. word by the writer of Rev. apparently led him to form from the corresponding Gr. verb (ἀπολλύω, later form of ἀπόλλυμι) a Gr. name with the personal ending ων. Outside of the Apocalypse the name Abaddon has hardly any place in English literature, while Apollyon, on the contrary, has become familiar through the use made of it in the Pilgrim’s Progress by Bunyan, whose conception of Apollyon, however, is entirely his own. Abaddon or Apollyon was often identified with Asmodaeus, ‘the evil spirit’ of Tob 3:8; but this identification is now known to be a mistake.

Literature.-The articles s.vv. in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) and Encyclopaedia Biblica ; article ‘Abyss’ in Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics ; Expository Times xx. [1908-09] 234f.

J. C. Lambert.

Holman Bible Dictionary - Abaddon
(uh bad' duhn; to perish ) In the KJV Abaddon appears only in Revelation 9:11 as the Hebrew name of the angel of the bottomless pit, whose Greek name was Apollyon. Abaddon occurs six times in the Hebrew Bible ( Job 26:6 ; Job 28:22 ; Job 31:12 ; Proverbs 15:11 ; Proverbs 27:20 ; Psalm 88:11 ). The KJV and NIV translate Abaddon as “destruction,” while the NASB and RSV retain the word “Abaddon.” Abaddon appears in parallel with Sheol and death. It represents the dark side of existence beyond death. See Hell .



Hitchcock's Bible Names - Abaddon
The destroyer
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Abaddon
Destruction, the Hebrew name (equivalent to the Greek Apollyon, i.e., destroyer) of "the angel of the bottomless pit" (Revelation 9:11 ). It is rendered "destruction" in Job 28:22 ; 31:12 ; 26:6 ; Proverbs 15:11 ; 27:20 . In the last three of these passages the Revised Version retains the word "Abaddon." We may regard this word as a personification of the idea of destruction, or as sheol, the realm of the dead.

CARM Theological Dictionary - Abaddon
The Hebrew word for "destroyer" whose Greek equivalent was "Apollyon." Abaddon is the satanic angel of the Abyss (Revelation 9:11 ).

Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Abaddon
ABADDON . A word peculiar to the later Heb. (esp. ‘Wisdom’) and Judaistic literature; sometimes synonymous with Sheol , more particularly, however, signifying that lowest division of Sheol devoted to the punishment of sinners (see Sheol). Properly, its Gr. equivalent would be apôleia (‘destruction’), as found in the LXX [Note: Septuagint.] . In Revelation 9:11 Abaddon is personified, and is said to be the equivalent of Apollyon (‘destroyer’). Abaddon differs from Gehenna in that it represents the negative element of supreme loss rather than that of positive suffering.

Shailer Mathews.

The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Abaddon
This word signifies a Destroyer. As such, it is given to the apostate angel of the bottomless pit, and very properly suits him. His whole pursuit, in scouring the earth, is, we are told, as "a roaring lion, seeking whom he may devour." (See Revelation 9:11; Rev 1:1-20. See Devil. See Satan.)

Morrish Bible Dictionary - Abaddon
In Revelation 9:11 this name is shown to be the same as Apollyon, 'the destroyer,' who is described as 'the angel of the bottomless pit.' It is perhaps not so much one of the names of Satan, as his character personified. It occurs six times in the Old Testament, in three of which it is associated with hell (sheol): Job 26:6 ; Proverbs 15:11 ; Proverbs 27:20 ; once with death: 'Destruction and Death say,' etc., Job 28:22 ; and once with the grave. Psalm 88:11 . In all these passages, and in Job 31:12 , it is translated 'destruction'.

Webster's Dictionary - Abaddon
(1):

(n.) The destroyer, or angel of the bottomless pit; - the same as Apollyon and Asmodeus.

(2):

(n.) Hell; the bottomless pit.

Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Abaddon
Hebrews corresponding to Apollyon, Gr. that is, Destroyer, is represented, Revelation 9:11 : as king of the locusts, and the angel of the bottomless pit. Le Clerc and Dr. Hammond understand by the locusts in this passage, the zealots and robbers who infested and desolated Judea before Jerusalem was taken by the Romans; and by Abaddon, John of Gischala, who having treacherously left that town before it was surrendered to Titus, came to Jerusalem and headed those of the zealots who acknowledged him as their king, and involved the Jews in many grievous calamities. The learned Grotius concurs in opinion, that the locusts are designed to represent the sect of the zealots, who appeared among the Jews during the siege, and at the time of the destruction of Jerusalem. But Mr. Mede remarks, that the title Abaddon alludes to Obodas, the common name of the ancient monarchs of that part of Arabia from which Mohammed came; and considers the passage as descriptive of the inundation of the Saracens. Mr. Lowman adopts and confirms this interpretation. He shows that the rise and progress of the Mohammedan religion and empire exhibit a signal accomplishment of this prophecy. All the circumstances here recited correspond to the character of the Arabians, and the history of the period that extended from A.D. 568 to A.D. 675. In conformity to this opinion, Abaddon may be understood to denote either Mohammed, who issued from the abyss, or the cave of Hera, to propagate his pretended revelations, or, more generally, the Saracen power. Mr. Bryant supposes Abaddon to have been the name of the Ophite deity, the worship of whom prevailed very anciently and very generally.

People's Dictionary of the Bible - Abaddon
Abaddon, or Apollyon (a-bâd'dŏn or a-pŏl'yŏn). The former name is Hebrew and the latter Greek, and both signify the destroyer. Job 31:12; Revelation 9:11. He is the same as the "angel of the abyss," that is, the angel of death, or the destroying angel. Psalms 78:49. Abaddon frequently occurs in the Hebrew, and is translated "destruction," meaning often the world of the dead. Job 26:6; Job 28:22; Psalms 88:11; Proverbs 15:11.

Sentence search

Apollyon - (uh pahll' ihuhn) Greek name for Abaddon (Revelation 9:11 ). See Abaddon
Abaddon - (uh bad' duhn; to perish ) In the KJV Abaddon appears only in Revelation 9:11 as the Hebrew name of the angel of the bottomless pit, whose Greek name was Apollyon. Abaddon occurs six times in the Hebrew Bible ( Job 26:6 ; Job 28:22 ; Job 31:12 ; Proverbs 15:11 ; Proverbs 27:20 ; Psalm 88:11 ). The KJV and NIV translate Abaddon as “destruction,” while the NASB and RSV retain the word “Abaddon. ” Abaddon appears in parallel with Sheol and death
Apollyon - See Abaddon ... ...
Apollyon - See Abaddon
Apollyon - See Abaddon
Apol'Lyon - or, as it is literally in the margin of the Authorized Version of (Revelation 9:11 ) "a destroyer," is the rendering of the Hebrew word Abaddon , "the angel of the bottomless pit. " From the occurrence of the word in (Psalm 88:11 ) the rabbins have made Abaddon the nethermost of the two regions into which they divide the lower world; but that in (Revelation 9:11 ) Abaddon is the angel and not the abyss is perfectly evident in the Greek
Apollyon - See Abaddon, or Apollyon
Apollyon - See Abaddon
Abaddon - Abaddon . In Revelation 9:11 Abaddon is personified, and is said to be the equivalent of Apollyon (‘destroyer’). Abaddon differs from Gehenna in that it represents the negative element of supreme loss rather than that of positive suffering
Apollyon - Greek equivalent of the Hebrew word Abaddon, meaning destruction, destroyer
Apollyon - The Greek translation of the Hebrew Abaddon , (destruction). As the twofold names Αbba (Hebrew) Father (Greek) in Mark 14:36 combine Jew and Gentile in the common salvation, so Satan's two names Abaddon (Hebrew) and Αpollos (Greek) combine them in a common destruction
Destruction - Abaddon) is sheol, the realm of the dead
Apollyon - The Greek equivalent in Revelation 9:11 of Abaddon , the angel of the bottomless pit, who was also the king of the locusts (see Abaddon)
Apollyon - 11) for the angel of the bottomless pit, answering to the Hebrew Abaddon
Abaddon - " Abaddon is the satanic angel of the Abyss (Revelation 9:11 )
Abaddon - Abaddon, or Apollyon (a-bâd'dŏn or a-pŏl'yŏn). Abaddon frequently occurs in the Hebrew, and is translated "destruction," meaning often the world of the dead
Apollyon - ... The destroyer a name used Revelation 9:11 , for the angel of the bottomless pit, answering to the Hebrew Abaddon
Apollyon - It is the Greek translation of the Hebrew Abaddon (q
Apollyon - " He is the angel of the Abyss, "They have as king over them, the angel of the abyss; his name in Hebrew is Abaddon, and in the Greek he has the name Apollyon," (Revelation 9:11 )
Abaddon - Hammond understand by the locusts in this passage, the zealots and robbers who infested and desolated Judea before Jerusalem was taken by the Romans; and by Abaddon, John of Gischala, who having treacherously left that town before it was surrendered to Titus, came to Jerusalem and headed those of the zealots who acknowledged him as their king, and involved the Jews in many grievous calamities. Mede remarks, that the title Abaddon alludes to Obodas, the common name of the ancient monarchs of that part of Arabia from which Mohammed came; and considers the passage as descriptive of the inundation of the Saracens. In conformity to this opinion, Abaddon may be understood to denote either Mohammed, who issued from the abyss, or the cave of Hera, to propagate his pretended revelations, or, more generally, the Saracen power. Bryant supposes Abaddon to have been the name of the Ophite deity, the worship of whom prevailed very anciently and very generally
Apollyon - The Greek translation of the Hebrew name Abaddon, which signifies 'destroyer
Abaddon - In the last three of these passages the Revised Version retains the word "Abaddon
Abaddon - In the OT text ‘ăbhaddôn occurs six times (only in the Wisdom literature), Authorized Version in each case rendering ‘destruction,’ while Revised Version gives ‘Destruction’ in Job 28:22; Job 31:12, Psalms 88:11, but ‘Abaddon’ in Job 26:6, Proverbs 15:11; Proverbs 27:20, on the ground, as stated by the Revisers in their Preface, that ‘a proper name appears to be required for giving vividness and point. literature, however, when Sheol had come to be recognized as a sphere of moral distinctions and consequent retribution, Abaddon is represented as one of the lower divisions of Sheol and as being the abode of the wicked and a place of punishment. ... In Revelation 9:11 Abaddon is not merely personified in the free poetic manner of Job 28:22, but is used as the personal designation in Hebrew of a fallen angel described as the king of the locusts and ‘the angel of the abyss,’ whose name in the Greek tongue is said to be Apollyon. Outside of the Apocalypse the name Abaddon has hardly any place in English literature, while Apollyon, on the contrary, has become familiar through the use made of it in the Pilgrim’s Progress by Bunyan, whose conception of Apollyon, however, is entirely his own. Abaddon or Apollyon was often identified with Asmodaeus, ‘the evil spirit’ of Tob 3:8; but this identification is now known to be a mistake
Abyss - Abaddon rules the Abyss (Revelation 9:11 ), from which will come the beast of the end time of Revelation (Revelation 11:7 )
Devil - Abaddon, and the angel of the bottomless pit, (Revelation 9:11
Devil - He is called Abaddon in Hebrew, Apollyon in Greek, that is, destroyer
Abaddon - In Hebrew it is Abaddon and in Greek Apollyon, both words meaning Destroyer or Destruction. So in the Old Testament Abaddon means the place of utter ruin, death, desolation, or destruction
Abyss - Abaddon; Gk. Elwell... See also Abaddon ; Revelation, Theology of ... ...
Bottomless Pit - In Revelation 9:1-11 , to a star fallen from heaven the key of the abyss is given, and on its being opened great moral darkness rises, out of which destructive agents proceed: Abaddon (Apollyon) 'the destroyer' is their king
Abaddon - The rabbis use Abaddon, from Psalms 88:12 ("Shall Thy lovingkindness be declared in destruction?") (Abaddon ) as the second of the seven names for the region of the dead
Abba - " (Especially (See Abaddon above
Nicolaitans - 46) explain, followers of Nicolas one of the seven (Acts 6:3; Acts 6:5) as there was a Judas among the twelve; confounding the later Gnostic Nicolaitans with those of Michaelis explains Nicolas (conqueror of the people) is the Greek for the Hebrew Balsam ("destroyer of the people," bela' 'am ); as we find both the Hebrew and Greek names, Abaddon, Apollyon; Satan, devil
Devil - He is called the angel of the bottomless pit, Abaddon, in Hebrew; Apollyon, in Greek; that is, destroyer, Revelation 9:11; adversary, 1 Peter 5:8; accuser, Revelation 12:10; Belial, Judges 19:23; 2 Corinthians 6:15; deceiver, Revelation 12:9, R
Abyss - The abyss has an angel of its own whose name is Abaddon (q
Abyss - The abyss has an angel of its own whose name is Abaddon (q
Perish - The noun ‘Abaddon occurs 6 times and means “the place of destruction” (Job 26:6)
Angels - Abaddon or Apollyon is the name of 'the angel of the bottomless pit,' Revelation 9:11 , that is, 'the abyss,' not hell, which, as seen above, is the place of punishment
Destroy, Destruction - In Revelation 9:1,11 , the king of this bottomless pit is called "Abaddon" (destruction). ... Paul Ferguson... See also Abaddon ; Death, Mortality ; Devote, Devoted ; Hell ; Judgment ; War, Holy War ... Bibliography
Hell - Closely connected with the idea of the abyss is its demonic ruler Abaddon (Revelation 9:11, see Abaddon), whose name figures frequently in the Wisdom-literature, and is generally translated in the Septuagint by ἀπώλεια = ‘destruction. ’ According to one Hebrew authority, Abaddon is itself a place-name, and designates the lowest deep of Gehenna, from which no soul can ever escape (see H
Hell - Closely connected with the idea of the abyss is its demonic ruler Abaddon (Revelation 9:11, see Abaddon), whose name figures frequently in the Wisdom-literature, and is generally translated in the Septuagint by ἀπώλεια = ‘destruction. ’ According to one Hebrew authority, Abaddon is itself a place-name, and designates the lowest deep of Gehenna, from which no soul can ever escape (see H
Hades - Like the Old Testament, the New Testament personifies Hades and associated terms, such as death, abyss, and Abaddon, as the demonic forces behind sin and ruin (Acts 2:24 ; Romans 5:14,17 ; 1 Corinthians 15:25-26 ; Revelation 6:8 ; 9:1-11 ; 20:14 )
Resurrection - 6); "Abaddon" (v. The psalmist then asks the rhetorical questions: "Do you work wonders for the dead? Do the shades rise up to praise you? Is your steadfast love declared in the grace, or your faithfulness in Abaddon? Are your wonders known in the darkness, or your saving help in the land of forgetfulness?" (vv
Angel - A particularly sinister figure was Abaddon (Apollyon in Greek), the "angel of the bottomless pit" (9:11), who with his minions was involved in a fierce battle with Michael and his angels (12:7-9)
Serpent - Abadon, or Abaddon, mentioned in the Revelation 9:11 , is supposed by Mr
Enoch Book of - ] In those days earth, Sheol, and Abaddon give up what they hold