Character Study on Annas

Character Study on Annas

Luke 3: Annas and Caiaphas being the high priests, the word of God came unto John the son of Zacharias in the wilderness.
John 18: And led him away to Annas first; for he was father in law to Caiaphas, which was the high priest that same year.
John 18: Now Annas had sent him bound unto Caiaphas the high priest.
Acts 4: And Annas the high priest, and Caiaphas, and John, and Alexander, and as many as were of the kindred of the high priest, were gathered together at Jerusalem.

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Dictionary

American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Annas
A high priest of the Jews, Luke 3:2 ; John 18:13,24 ; Acts 4:6 . He is mentioned in Luke as being high priest along with Caiaphas, his son in-law. He was first appointed to that office by Cyrenius, or Quirinus, proconsul of Syria, about A. D. 7 or 8, but was afterwards deprived of it. After various changes, the office was given to Joseph, also called Caiaphas, the son-in-law of Annas, about A. D. 25, who continued in office until A. D. 35 or 36. In the passages of the New Testament above cited, therefore, it is apparent that Caiaphas was the only actual and proper high priest; but Annas being his father-in-law, and having been formerly himself high priest, and being also perhaps his substitute, had great influence and authority, and could with propriety be still termed high priest along with Caiaphas. It was before him that Christ was first taken on the night of his seizure. He also assisted in presiding over the Sanhedrin which sat in judgment upon Peter and John, Acts 4:6 .

Easton's Bible Dictionary - Annas
Was high priest A.D. 7-14. In A.D. 25 Caiaphas, who had married the daughter of Annas (John 18:13 ), was raised to that office, and probably Annas was now made president of the Sanhedrim, or deputy or coadjutor of the high priest, and thus was also called high priest along with Caiaphas (Luke 3:2 ). By the Mosaic law the high-priesthood was held for life (Numbers 3:10 ); and although Annas had been deposed by the Roman procurator, the Jews may still have regarded him as legally the high priest. Our Lord was first brought before Annas, and after a brief questioning of him (John 18:19-23 ) was sent to Caiaphas, when some members of the Sanhedrim had met, and the first trial of Jesus took place (Matthew 26:57-68 ). This examination of our Lord before Annas is recorded only by John. Annas was president of the Sanhedrim before which Peter and John were brought (Acts 4:6 ).
Hitchcock's Bible Names - Annas
One who answers; humble
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Annas
Son of Seth. Appointed A.D. 7, in his 37th year, to the high priesthood by Quirinius, the imperial governor of Syria; obliged to give way to Ismael by Valerius Gratus, procurator of Judaea, in the beginning of Tiberius' reign, A.D. 14. Eleazar, son of Annas, followed Ismael; then Simon; then Joseph Caiaphas, son-in-law of Annas (John 18:13.) He remained until A.D. 37. Annas is put before Caiaphas, and both are called "high priests (Luke 3:2). Jesus' case was first heard before Annas, who virtually wielded the high priest's power, and perhaps was sagan, the high priest's deputy; then He was tried before Caiaphas. Annas probably was president of the Sanhedrin, Caiaphas actually high priest. But in Acts 4:6 Annas is called "high priest," Caiaphas, John, and Alexander are called "of his kindred." He lived to old age, and had five sons high priests.

Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Annas
ANNAS . 1 . High priest from a.d. 6 to 15, an astute and powerful ecclesiastical statesman. At the time of our Lord’s trial he was merely high priest emeritus , and his son-in-law Caiaphas, the acting high priest, presided ex officio over the meeting of the Sanhedrin ( John 18:24 , Matthew 26:67 ). Nevertheless, since the high priest emeritus retained not only his title (cf. John 18:15-16 ; John 18:19 ; John 18:22 , Acts 4:6 ), but all his obligations and many of his prerogatives, it is not surprising that the masterful Annas took an active and independent part in the proceedings. After Jesus’ arrest at dead of night, ‘they led him to Annas first’ ( John 18:13 ). The Sanhedrin might not meet until daybreak, and the interval seemed well employed in a preliminary examination of the prisoner by the skilful veteran ( John 18:12 ; John 18:19-23 ). Subsequently be took part also in the trial of Peter and John ( Acts 4:6 ). 2 . Esther 9:32 Esther 9:32 = Ezra 10:31 Harim .

David Smith.

1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Annas
Jewish high priest A.D. 6-15, son of Seth. His son-in-law, Caiaphas, was high priest during the ministry of Our Lord, but Annas was still influential. He interrogated Our Lord and delivered Him bound to Caiaphas and the Sanhedrin for trial (John 28).

Holman Bible Dictionary - Annas
(an' nuhss), son of Seth, was a priest at the time John the Baptist began his public preaching (Luke 3:2 ). Evidently, Annas, whose name means “merciful,” was appointed to the high priesthood about A.D. 6 by Quirinius, governor of Syria. Though he was deposed in A.D. 15 by Gratus, he continued to exercise considerable influence. When Jesus was arrested, He was taken before Annas (John 18:13 ). After Pentecost, Annas led other priests in questioning Peter and the other church leaders (Acts 4:6 ).



Morrish Bible Dictionary - Annas
High priest, appointed in A.D. 7 by Cyrenius, or Quirinus, governor of Syria. In the reign of Tiberius he was deposed, and was followed at short intervals by Ismael, Eleasar son of Ananus or Annas, Simon, and Joseph Caiaphas, son-in-law of Annas. Luke 3:2 ; John 18:13,24 ; Acts 4:6 . It is supposed that Annas was called high priest by courtesy, having once held the office: the Lord was taken to him first, perhaps as being the father-in-law of Caiaphas. Josephus relates that the five sons of Annas became high priests, and under the last, also named Annas, James the Lord's brother was martyred. Ant. xx. 9,1.

Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Annas
(Gr. Ἄννας, Heb. הָנָן, ‘merciful’ [in Josephus, Ananos])

Annas the son of Sethi, appointed high priest by Quirinius in a.d. 6 or 7, retained office till he was deposed by Valerius Gratus in a.d. 15 (Jos. Ant. XVIII. ii. 1, 2). Josephus tells us that he was regarded as the most fortunate of men, for he had live sons who all held the office of high priest (Ant. XX. ix. 1). From the Fourth Gospel we learn that Joseph Caiaphas, the high priest at the date of the Crucifixion, was a son-in-law of Annas (John 18:13). His removal from office in a.d. 15 did not by any means diminish his influence. Being extremely wealthy, he was able to exert the powers of high priest long after he was deposed. His wealth and that of his sons was acquired by the institution of the ‘booths or bazaars of the sons of Annas,’ which enjoyed the monopoly for the sale of all kinds of sacrificial requirements. These booths were situated either in the temple court (Keim, Jesus of Nazara, v. 116; Edersheim, LT [Note: T Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah (Edersheim).] iii. 5) or on the Mount of Olives (J. Derenbourg, Essai sur l’histoire … de la Palestine, 1867, p. 465). The words of Jesus regarding the unholy traffic (Matthew 21:13, Luke 19:46) aroused the hostility of the priestly party and led to His arrest and examination by Annas (John 18:13-24). The Talmud accuses the sons of Annas of ‘serpentlike hissings’ (or whisperings [Pes. 57a]). Probably the meaning is that they exerted private influence on the judges and perverted justice for their own ends. Their attitude towards Jesus and the apostles as revealed in the NT seems to bear out this interpretation. Although, as we have seen, Annas was deposed from the high-priestly office in a.d. 15, he retains the title all through the NT. Both Josephus and the writers of the NT uniformly give the title ‘high priest’ not only to the actual occupant of the office at the time, but to all his predecessors who were still alive, as well as to all the more influential members of the families from which the high priests were selected. The phrase in Luke 3:2 ‘in the high-priesthood of Annas and Caiaphas’ is unique, and may be accounted for by the fact that the combination had become so familiar in connexion with the history of the Crucifixion that St. Luke couples the two together here (Ewald, Hl, vol. vi. [1883] p. 430, n. [Note: . note.] 3).

The important and influential position held by Annas even after his deposition is proved by the fact that it was to him that Jesus was first sent before He appeared at the more formal tribunal of the Sanhedrin (John 18:13). The interview with Annas (John 18:19-23) determined the fate of the prisoner, and probably Annas was the chief instigator in compassing the death. In Acts 4:6 Annas again appears as the head of the party who tried the apostles and enjoined them to keep silent about the Resurrection.

Literature.-Josephus, Antiquities, passim; A. Edersheim, LT [Note: T Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah (Edersheim).] i. [1886] 263; T. Keim, Jesus of Nazara, 1867-1882, vi. 36ff.; E. Schürer, GJV [Note: JV Geschichte des jüdischen Volkes (Schürer).] 4 ii. [1907] 256, 270, 274, 275.

W. F. Boyd.

Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Annas (2)
ANNAS (Ἂννας, Heb. חָנָן, Hanan, Josephus Ἄνανος, Ananos).—High priest of the Jews from a.d. 6 to 15, and thereafter exercising commanding influence through his high priestly rank and his family connexions. The son of one named Sethi, who is otherwise unknown, he was appointed high priest by Quirinius, probably in a.d. 6, and exercised that office, which involved political as well as religious headship of the nation, until he was deposed by the procurator Valerius Gratus in a.d. 15 (Josephus Ant. xviii. ii. 2). The duration of his rule, and the fact that of his sons no fewer than five succeeded him at intervals in the high priesthood (‘which has never happened to any other of our high priests’), caused him to be regarded by his contemporaries as a specially successful man (Ant. xx. ix. 1). On the other hand, he incurred in an unusual degree the unpopularity for which the high priests were proverbial. In addition to their common faults of arrogance and injustice, Annas was notorious for his avarice, which found opportunity in the necessities of the Temple worshippers. It was he, probably, who established the ‘bazaars of the sons of Annas’ (hǎnnûyôth běnê Hânân), a Temple market for the sale of materials requisite for sacrifices, either within the Temple precinct (Keim, Jesus of Nazara, v. 116) or on the Mount of Olives (Derenbourg), the profits of which enriched the high priestly family. Beyond this, the house of Annas is charged with the special sin of ‘whispering’ or hissing like vipers, ‘which seems to refer to private influence on the judges, whereby “morals were corrupted, judgment perverted, and the Shekinah withdrawn from Israel” ’ (Edersheim, Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah, i. 263).

Annas is referred to by St. Luke and by St. John. In Luke 3:2 (‘in the high priesthood of Annas and Caiaphas’) he is linked with Caiaphas, who alone was actually high priest at the time (a.d. 26). The explanation of this is found partly in the fact that the office having become to some extent the prerogative of a few families, it had acquired some degree of hereditary and indelible quality, and partly in the unusual personal authority exercised by Annas. The result was that even after his deposition he continued to enjoy much of the influence, and even to receive the title, of his former office (Schürer, HJP [Note: JP History of the Jewish People.] ii. i. 195 ff.; against this Keim, l.c. vi. 36 ff.; H. Holtzmann, Hdeom. ad Luke 3:2). In like manner in Acts 4:6 Annas appears at the head of the chiefs of the Sanhedrin in its action against the Apostles, though the actual president was the high priest. See Chief Priests.

The only other passage in which Annas is referred to is in the narrative of the trial of Jesus in the Fourth Gospel (John 18:13-24). The Evangelist, speaking with technical accuracy, refrains from calling him high priest, and assigns as a reason for Jesus being led before Annas the relationship between Annas and Caiaphas. The ex-highpriest had probably been the chief instigator of the plot against Jesus, and before him He was brought not for trial, but only for an informal and private examination (so Schürer, l.c. p. 182). ‘The Lord Himself is questioned, but there is no mention of witnesses, no adjuration, no sentence, no sign of any legal process’ (Westcott, ad loc.).

C. A. Scott.

Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Annas
or ANANUS, as Josephus calls him, was the son of Seth, and high priest of the Jews. He succeeded Joazar, the son of Simon, enjoyed the high priesthood eleven years, and was succeeded by Ishmael, the son of Phabi. After he was deposed, he still preserved the title of high priest, and had a great share in the management of public affairs. He is called high priest in conjunction with Caiaphas, when John the Baptist entered upon the exercise of his mission; though Calmet thinks that at that time he did not, strictly speaking, possess or officiate in that character, Luke 3:2 . On the contrary, Macknight and some others are of opinion, that at this time Caiaphas was only the deputy of Annas. He was father-in-law to Caiaphas; and Jesus Christ was carried before him, directly after his seizure in the garden of Olives, John 18:13 . Josephus remarks, that Annas was considered as one of the happiest men of his nation, for five of his sons were high priests, and he himself possessed that great dignity many years. This was an instance of good fortune which, till that time, had happened to no person.

People's Dictionary of the Bible - Annas
Annas (ăn'nas), answer, response. The son of Seth, and a high priest of the Jews. He was appointed by Quirinus, governor of Syria, a.d. 7, and was removed by Valerius Gratus, procurator of Judæa, a.d. 23.

The office was originally held for life, but in Judæa's degenerate and dependent position it was one of the spoils of office, to be given to the ruler's favorite, and to be taken away upon the loss of favor. After his deposition Annas continued to hold the title; and although Caiaphas, his son-in-law, was the actual high priest, he was the ruling power. This explains the reference in Luke 3:2. This power he retained for nearly fifty years, having had five sons in succession in the high priest's office. Our Lord was brought first before Annas on the night of his seizure. John 18:13; John 18:24. The guilt of Christ's crucifixion rests most upon Annas, since Pilate tried to shield him, and Caiaphas was but Annas' tool. Annas is mentioned as the president of the Sanhedrin, before whom Peter and John were brought. Acts 4:6.

Smith's Bible Dictionary - Annas
(humble ), the son of one Seth was appointed high priest A.D. 7 by Quirinus, the imperial governor of Syria, but was obliged by Valerius Gratus, procurator of Judea, to give way to Ismael, son of Phabi, at the beginning of the reign of Tiberius, A.D. 14. About A.D. 25 Joseph Caiaphas, son-in-law of An-nas, became high priest, ( John 18:13 ) but in Luke 3:2 Annas and Caiaphas are both called high priests. Our Lord's first hearing, ( John 18:13 ) was before Annas, who then sent him bound to Caiaphas. Some maintain that the two, Annas and Caiaphas, were together at the head of the Jewish people,--Caiaphas as actual high priest, Annas as resident of the Sanhedrin- (Acts 4:6 ) Others again suppose that Annas held the office of sagin , or substitute of the high priest; others still that Annas held the title and was really the ruling power. He lived to old age, having had five sons high priests.

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Annas - In the reign of Tiberius he was deposed, and was followed at short intervals by Ismael, Eleasar son of Ananus or Annas, Simon, and Joseph Caiaphas, son-in-law of Annas. It is supposed that Annas was called high priest by courtesy, having once held the office: the Lord was taken to him first, perhaps as being the father-in-law of Caiaphas. Josephus relates that the five sons of Annas became high priests, and under the last, also named Annas, James the Lord's brother was martyred
Annas - Eleazar, son of Annas, followed Ismael; then Simon; then Joseph Caiaphas, son-in-law of Annas (John 18:13. Annas is put before Caiaphas, and both are called "high priests (Luke 3:2). Jesus' case was first heard before Annas, who virtually wielded the high priest's power, and perhaps was sagan, the high priest's deputy; then He was tried before Caiaphas. Annas probably was president of the Sanhedrin, Caiaphas actually high priest. But in Acts 4:6 Annas is called "high priest," Caiaphas, John, and Alexander are called "of his kindred
Annas - 25 Caiaphas, who had married the daughter of Annas (John 18:13 ), was raised to that office, and probably Annas was now made president of the Sanhedrim, or deputy or coadjutor of the high priest, and thus was also called high priest along with Caiaphas (Luke 3:2 ). By the Mosaic law the high-priesthood was held for life (Numbers 3:10 ); and although Annas had been deposed by the Roman procurator, the Jews may still have regarded him as legally the high priest. Our Lord was first brought before Annas, and after a brief questioning of him (John 18:19-23 ) was sent to Caiaphas, when some members of the Sanhedrim had met, and the first trial of Jesus took place (Matthew 26:57-68 ). This examination of our Lord before Annas is recorded only by John. Annas was president of the Sanhedrim before which Peter and John were brought (Acts 4:6 )
Annas - 25 Joseph Caiaphas, son-in-law of An-nas, became high priest, ( John 18:13 ) but in Luke 3:2 Annas and Caiaphas are both called high priests. Our Lord's first hearing, ( John 18:13 ) was before Annas, who then sent him bound to Caiaphas. Some maintain that the two, Annas and Caiaphas, were together at the head of the Jewish people,--Caiaphas as actual high priest, Annas as resident of the Sanhedrin- (Acts 4:6 ) Others again suppose that Annas held the office of sagin , or substitute of the high priest; others still that Annas held the title and was really the ruling power
Annas - Annas (ăn'nas), answer, response. After his deposition Annas continued to hold the title; and although Caiaphas, his son-in-law, was the actual high priest, he was the ruling power. Our Lord was brought first before Annas on the night of his seizure. The guilt of Christ's crucifixion rests most upon Annas, since Pilate tried to shield him, and Caiaphas was but Annas' tool. Annas is mentioned as the president of the Sanhedrin, before whom Peter and John were brought
ca'Iaphas, - (Matthew 26:3,57 ; John 11:49 ; 18:13,14,24,28 ; Acts 4:6 ) The procurator Valerius Gratus appointed him to the dignity, He was son-in-law of Annas. [Annas ]
Annas - Evidently, Annas, whose name means “merciful,” was appointed to the high priesthood about A. When Jesus was arrested, He was taken before Annas (John 18:13 ). After Pentecost, Annas led other priests in questioning Peter and the other church leaders (Acts 4:6 )
John - Kinsmanof Annas the high priest
Annas - הָנָן, ‘merciful’ [in Josephus, Ananos])... Annas the son of Sethi, appointed high priest by Quirinius in a. From the Fourth Gospel we learn that Joseph Caiaphas, the high priest at the date of the Crucifixion, was a son-in-law of Annas (John 18:13). His wealth and that of his sons was acquired by the institution of the ‘booths or bazaars of the sons of Annas,’ which enjoyed the monopoly for the sale of all kinds of sacrificial requirements. The words of Jesus regarding the unholy traffic (Matthew 21:13, Luke 19:46) aroused the hostility of the priestly party and led to His arrest and examination by Annas (John 18:13-24). The Talmud accuses the sons of Annas of ‘serpentlike hissings’ (or whisperings [Pes. Although, as we have seen, Annas was deposed from the high-priestly office in a. The phrase in Luke 3:2 ‘in the high-priesthood of Annas and Caiaphas’ is unique, and may be accounted for by the fact that the combination had become so familiar in connexion with the history of the Crucifixion that St. ... The important and influential position held by Annas even after his deposition is proved by the fact that it was to him that Jesus was first sent before He appeared at the more formal tribunal of the Sanhedrin (John 18:13). The interview with Annas (John 18:19-23) determined the fate of the prisoner, and probably Annas was the chief instigator in compassing the death. In Acts 4:6 Annas again appears as the head of the party who tried the apostles and enjoined them to keep silent about the Resurrection
Annas (2) - Annas (Ἂννας, Heb. In addition to their common faults of arrogance and injustice, Annas was notorious for his avarice, which found opportunity in the necessities of the Temple worshippers. It was he, probably, who established the ‘bazaars of the sons of Annas’ (hǎnnûyôth běnê Hânân), a Temple market for the sale of materials requisite for sacrifices, either within the Temple precinct (Keim, Jesus of Nazara, v. Beyond this, the house of Annas is charged with the special sin of ‘whispering’ or hissing like vipers, ‘which seems to refer to private influence on the judges, whereby “morals were corrupted, judgment perverted, and the Shekinah withdrawn from Israel” ’ (Edersheim, Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah, i. ... Annas is referred to by St. In Luke 3:2 (‘in the high priesthood of Annas and Caiaphas’) he is linked with Caiaphas, who alone was actually high priest at the time (a. The explanation of this is found partly in the fact that the office having become to some extent the prerogative of a few families, it had acquired some degree of hereditary and indelible quality, and partly in the unusual personal authority exercised by Annas. In like manner in Acts 4:6 Annas appears at the head of the chiefs of the Sanhedrin in its action against the Apostles, though the actual president was the high priest. ... The only other passage in which Annas is referred to is in the narrative of the trial of Jesus in the Fourth Gospel (John 18:13-24). The Evangelist, speaking with technical accuracy, refrains from calling him high priest, and assigns as a reason for Jesus being led before Annas the relationship between Annas and Caiaphas
Aseas - One of the sons of Annas who agreed to put away his ‘strange’ wife; called Isshijah , Ezra 10:31
Annas - Annas . John 18:15-16 ; John 18:19 ; John 18:22 , Acts 4:6 ), but all his obligations and many of his prerogatives, it is not surprising that the masterful Annas took an active and independent part in the proceedings. After Jesus’ arrest at dead of night, ‘they led him to Annas first’ ( John 18:13 )
Annas - His son-in-law, Caiaphas, was high priest during the ministry of Our Lord, but Annas was still influential
Alexander - (al ehx an' dehr) names five New Testament men including the son of Simon of Cyrene (Mark 15:21 ), a relative of Annas (Acts 4:6 ), a Jew of Ephesus (Acts 19:33 ), a false teacher (1 Timothy 1:19-20 ), and a coppersmith (2 Timothy 4:14 )
Annas - After various changes, the office was given to Joseph, also called Caiaphas, the son-in-law of Annas, about A. In the passages of the New Testament above cited, therefore, it is apparent that Caiaphas was the only actual and proper high priest; but Annas being his father-in-law, and having been formerly himself high priest, and being also perhaps his substitute, had great influence and authority, and could with propriety be still termed high priest along with Caiaphas
John - With Annas and Caiaphas, tried Peter and John for curing the impotent man and preaching in the temple (Acts 4:6)
Caiaphas - His wife was the daughter of Annas, who had formerly been high priest, and was probably the vicar or deputy (Heb. (See Annas
Annas - On the contrary, Macknight and some others are of opinion, that at this time Caiaphas was only the deputy of Annas. Josephus remarks, that Annas was considered as one of the happiest men of his nation, for five of his sons were high priests, and he himself possessed that great dignity many years
Caiaphas - He was the son-in-law of Annas and a leader in the plot to have Jesus arrested and executed
Caiaphas - He was son-in-law of the former high priest Annas (John 18:13), he became high priest before Jesus began his ministry (Luke 3:2), and he was still high priest in the days of the early church (Acts 4:6). In the middle of the night, only a few hours before the dawn of Passover day, they captured him and took him to the house where Annas and Caiaphas lived. He was questioned first by Annas (John 18:12-14) and then by the Sanhedrin, whom Caiaphas had assembled in his house (Matthew 26:57-58)
Zebedee - It has been inferred from the mention of his "hired servants," Mark 1:20, and from the acquaintance between the apostle John and Annas the high priest, John 18:15, that the family of Zebedee were in easy circumstances: comp
Caiaphas - 4029 to 4038, he was succeeded by Jonathan, son of Ananas, or Annas. He married a daughter of Annas, who also is called high priest in the Gospel, because he had long enjoyed that dignity. When Judas had betrayed Jesus, he was first taken before Annas, who sent him to his son- in-law, Caiaphas, who possibly lived in the same house, John 18:24
Caiaphas (2) - He is referred to as the high priest in Luke 3:2 (with Annas), Matthew 26:3; Matthew 26:57, and is mentioned along with Annas, John, and Alexander among the heads of the Sanhedrin in Acts 4:6. ... The resolution thus prompted took effect in the arrest of Jesus; but, as son-in-law to Annas, Caiaphas permitted the prisoner to be taken first before him (John 18:13) for a private examination. Whether this took place in the ‘palace’ of Caiaphas, where Annas was living, or elsewhere, is not clear. ... Caiaphas appears again in Acts 4:6 in company with Annas and others, as initiating the persecution of the Apostles, and in the later proceedings is probably the ‘high priest’ referred to in Acts 5:17; Acts 5:21; Acts 5:27; Acts 7:1; Acts 9:1
Zeb'Edee - It has been inferred from the mention of his "hired servants," (Mark 1:20 ) and from the acquaintance between the apostle John and Annas the high priest, (John 18:15 ) that the family of Zebedee were in easy circumstances
Caiaphas, Joseph - (See Annas , his father-in-law, and father of five High priests, besides having been High priest himself, wielded a power equal to that of Caiaphas, whose deputy (sagan) he probably was. Annas is called the high priest Acts 4:6, perhaps because he presided over the council (Sanhedrin)
Alexander -
A relative of Annas the high priest, present when Peter and John were examined before the Sanhedrim (Acts 4:6 )
Trial of Jesus - The Jewish portion of the trial had three separate phases: (1) an appearance before Annas; (2) an informal investigation by Caiaphas and (3) a condemnation by the Sanhedrin. Annas was father-in-law of the high priest Caiaphas. The details of the interview before Annas are meager (John 18:12-14 ,John 18:12-14,18:19-24 ). The high priest mentioned in John 18:19 may have been Annas. See Annas ; Caiaphas ; Pontius Pilate ; Roman Law ; Sanhedrin
Caiaphas - He was son-in-law of Annas (cf. article Annas)
Caiaphas - Joseph Caiaphas, the son-in-law of Annas ( John 18:13 ), was high priest between a
Zebedee - John's acquaintance with Annas the high priest implies the good social position of the family
Caiaphas - These plots against Christ, Matthew 26:1-5 Mark 14:1 Luke 22:2 , led to his seizure, and he was brought first before Annas, formerly high priest, who sent him to Caiaphas his son-in-law
Priest - , Abiathar, Mark 2:26 ; Annas and Caiaphas, Luke 3:2 , where the RV rightly has "in the high priesthood of A. As to the combination of the two in this respect, Annas was the "high priest" from A. That Annas was still called the "high priest" is explained by the facts (1) that by the Mosaic law the high priesthood was held for life, Numbers 35:25 ; his deposition was the capricious act of the Roman procurator, but he would still be regarded legally and religiously as "high priest" by the Jews; (2) that he probably still held the office of deputy-president of the Sanhedrin (cp
High Priest - During the Roman period, Annas (high priest A. Even when deposed by the Romans, Annas succeeded in having five of his sons and a son-in-law, Joseph Caiaphas (high priest A. Some confusion has resulted from New Testament references to the joint high priesthood of Annas and Caiaphas (Luke 3:2 ). The passage is perhaps best understood as an acknowledgment of Annas as the power behind his immediate successors. Another possibility is that Annas retained the title of respect on the grounds that the high priesthood was for life. Ananias, one of Annas' sons, was the high priest to whom Paul was brought in Acts 23:2 ; Acts 24:1
Chief Priests - —In the Gospels ἀρχιερεύς properly denotes the individual who for the time being held the office of Jewish high priest; and when the word occurs in its singular form, ‘high priest’ is the almost invariable rendering it receives throughout the NT, both in Authorized Version and Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 (in Luke 3:2 ἐπὶ ἀρχιερέως Ἄννα καὶ Καιάφα is rendered in Authorized Version ‘Annas and Caiaphas being the high priests,’ and in Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 ‘in the high priesthood of Annas and Caiaphas. In the notable case of Annas, we even have an ex-high priest whose influence was plainly greater than that of the ἀρχιερεύς proper (cf
High Priest (2) - Of these, the Gospels mention the tenth, Annas, appointed by Quirinius (a. Previous to this trial there was a preliminary trial or hearing, whether with or without legal right, before Annas, father-in-law of Caiaphas. Annas was a man of long continued influence among his people
Trial of Jesus - Gabbatha and Pavement), the problem whether Annas and Caiaphas had separate residences or stayed together in an official house, and the site of the meeting-place of the Sanhedrin (in the house of Caiaphas or elsewhere). ... The probability is, therefore, that while, no doubt, Caiaphas, Annas, and some others were on the spot, the Council was not formally convened until the early morning, about 6 a. As to the reasons which led the Markan tradition to dilate on a nocturnal trial, the clue is probably to be found in the fact that there really was such a hasty preliminary cross-questioning of Jesus; only, it was not before Caiaphas, but before Annas (see Annas), the influential ex-high priest, who had been at the bottom of the whole movement to arrest Jesus. ... The fact that this preliminary examination or ἀγάκρισις before Annas is recorded only in the Fourth Gospel (John 18:12-14; John 18:19-24) has excited, not unnaturally, strong suspicion of its authenticity, and efforts, more or less plausible (cf. ), have been made to show that the author has wrongly inferred from Luke 3:2, Acts 4:6; Acts 5:17, the high authority of Annas; and that the latter is brought in for the sake of novelty or variety. ) are winning more and more credence from critics of all schools, and the insuperable difficulty about eliminating the Annas trial is the impossibility of detecting any adequate motive for its invention and introduction. ), but this does not explain why the author should have invented the Annas trial for it. The Fourth Gospel, it is true, ignores the details of the trial before Caiaphas; but this difficulty is not more serious than that of the Synoptic silence upon the Annas trial, for the latter might well appear too insignificant or private to be retained beside the Caiaphas trial, or even to be accurately distinguished from it. was Annas
High Priest - We consequently read in the New Testament of several high priests living at the same time, and Annas and Caiaphas are particularly mentioned
Den - Certain booths are frequently mentioned as belonging to the ‘sons of Hanan’ (Annas), and appear to have existed until about three years before the destruction of Jerusalem, when they were destroyed
Dives - Another equally improbable suggestion, put forward by Michaelis, is that Dives represents Caiaphas, son-in-law of Annas, and that Lazarus is Christ; and so the five brethren of the rich man are explained as the five sons of Annas (Josephus Ant
John -
One who, with Annas and Caiaphas, sat in judgment on the apostles Peter and John (Acts 4:6 )
Zadok - The double high priesthood of Zadok and Abiathar answers to that of the chief priest and second priest (2 Kings 25:18; Luke 3:2 "Annas and Caiaphas being high priest);" compare 2 Chronicles 31:10, "Azariah the chief priest of the house of Zadok
Malchus - If John was the unnamed disciple who was ‘known unto the high priest’ (John 18:15), possibly because he supplied the family of Annas with fish (according to an old tradition; cf
Jannes And Jambres - 1) compares the action of Jannes and Jambres to that of Annas and Caiaphas
Alexander - After the healing of the impotent man we are told that Alexander was present at a meeting of the Jewish authorities along with Annas, Caiaphas, and John, and ‘as many as were of the kindred of the high priest’ (Acts 4:6)
Guard - Arrested by the high priest Annas, and put ‘in public ward’ (Acts 5:18 : ἐν τηρήσει δημοσίᾳ), Peter and John were not chained; their keepers merely shut the prison-house (δεσμωτήριον) and stood on guard outside
Lead, Led - , John 18:13 , to Annas (the best mss
New Testament - Annas made high priest... 8 Jesus at Jerusalem
High Priest - Though at first chosen for life, we find that Solomon deposed Abiathar, (1 Kings 2:35 ) and that Herod appointed a number of high priests, which may account for there being at least two living in Christ's time, Annas and Caiaphas
James, the Lord's Brother - The high priest Ananus (a son of the Annas of the Gospels), a man of violent temper, seized the opportunity of the interval between the death of Festus (circa, about a
Ananias - He is not to be identified or confused with Annas (q
Alexander - A kinsman of Annas the high priest (Acts 4:6); supposed the same as Alexander the alabarch (governor of the Jews) at Alexandria, brother of Philo-Judaeus, an ancient friend of the emperor Claudius
Denial - It was indeed ardent attachment to Christ that led him, after his hasty retreat, to follow at a distance, and seek admission to the house of Annas, before whom the preliminary examination of Christ took place
Jesus Christ - After the agony in the garden he was arrested and in the night brought before Annas, and then Caiaphas and the Sanhedrin, and in the morning before Pilate and Herod
High Priest - Annas was deposed by Valetins Gratus (A. Annas retained in the Jews' feeling the lawful high priesthood, and had influence enough to get his five sons successively appointed; as sagan he evaded the Roman deposition and kept his power
Jesus Christ - 780 (30 counted back bring our Lord's birth to 750), when Pontius Pilate was procurator of Judea and Annas and Caiaphas jointly in fact exercised the high priesthood, Caiaphas being nominally the high priest (John 18:13), John Baptist, as last prophet of the Old Testament dispensation, by preaching repentance for sin and a return to legal obedience, prepared the way for Messiah, the Saviour from sin; whereas the people's desire was for a Messiah who would deliver them from the hated foreign, yoke. (See Annas; CAIAPHAS
John - Relative of Annas, the high priest (Acts 4:6 ), unless manuscripts reading Jonathan are right
the Ethiopian Eunuch - On the other hand, it is much more likely that he was directed and recommended to some of the heads of the Temple: to Annas, or to Caiaphas, or to some other ecclesiastical dignitary
Pilate - The informal questioning by Annas (John 18:19-24) is special to Jn
David - in His Races - After death we shall be done both with death and hell; and after death we shall awake in His likeness who died, not cursing Judas, and Annas, and Caiaphas, and Herod, and the soldier with the spear, but saying over them all with His last breath, Father, forgive them, for they know not what they do
Priest - The term is used with some laxity even in Acts, as in Acts 4:6, where it is applied to Annas, whose son-in-law Caiaphas was the actual holder of the office
Jesus Christ - He was taken to the high priest's compound where he was interviewed, first by Annas, then by Caiphas, then when it had fully gathered, by the whole Sanhedrin, the ruling body of the Jews