Character Study on Aram

Character Study on Aram

Genesis 10: The children of Shem; Elam, and Asshur, and Arphaxad, and Lud, and Aram.
Genesis 10: And the children of Aram; Uz, and Hul, and Gether, and Mash.
Genesis 22: Huz his firstborn, and Buz his brother, and Kemuel the father of Aram,
Genesis 25: And Isaac was forty years old when he took Rebekah to wife, the daughter of Bethuel the Syrian of Padanaram, the sister to Laban the Syrian.
Genesis 28: Arise, go to Padanaram, to the house of Bethuel thy mother's father; and take thee a wife from thence of the daughters of Laban thy mother's brother.
Genesis 28: And Isaac sent away Jacob: and he went to Padanaram unto Laban, son of Bethuel the Syrian, the brother of Rebekah, Jacob's and Esau's mother.
Genesis 28: When Esau saw that Isaac had blessed Jacob, and sent him away to Padanaram, to take him a wife from thence; and that as he blessed him he gave him a charge, saying, Thou shalt not take a wife of the daughters of Canaan;
Genesis 28: And that Jacob obeyed his father and his mother, and was gone to Padanaram;
Genesis 31: And he carried away all his cattle, and all his goods which he had gotten, the cattle of his getting, which he had gotten in Padanaram, for to go to Isaac his father in the land of Canaan.
Genesis 33: And Jacob came to Shalem, a city of Shechem, which is in the land of Canaan, when he came from Padanaram; and pitched his tent before the city.
Genesis 35: And God appeared unto Jacob again, when he came out of Padanaram, and blessed him.
Genesis 35: And the sons of Zilpah, Leah's handmaid; Gad, and Asher: these are the sons of Jacob, which were born to him in Padanaram.
Genesis 46: These be the sons of Leah, which she bare unto Jacob in Padanaram, with his daughter Dinah: all the souls of his sons and his daughters were thirty and three.
Numbers 23: And he took up his parable, and said, Balak the king of Moab hath brought me from Aram, out of the mountains of the east, saying, Come, curse me Jacob, and come, defy Israel.
Joshua 13: And in the valley, Betharam, and Bethnimrah, and Succoth, and Zaphon, the rest of the kingdom of Sihon king of Heshbon, Jordan and his border, even unto the edge of the sea of Chinnereth on the other side Jordan eastward.
1 Chronicles 1: The sons of Shem; Elam, and Asshur, and Arphaxad, and Lud, and Aram, and Uz, and Hul, and Gether, and Meshech.
1 Chronicles 2: And he took Geshur, and Aram, with the towns of Jair, from them, with Kenath, and the towns thereof, even threescore cities. All these belonged to the sons of Machir the father of Gilead.
1 Chronicles 7: The sons of Manasseh; Ashriel, whom she bare: (but his concubine the Aramitess bare Machir the father of Gilead:
1 Chronicles 7: And the sons of Shamer; Ahi, and Rohgah, Jehubbah, and Aram.
Psalms 60: {To the chief Musician upon Shushaneduth, Michtam of David, to teach; when he strove with Aramnaharaim and with Aramzobah, when Joab returned, and smote of Edom in the valley of salt twelve thousand.} O God, thou hast cast us off, thou hast scattered us, thou hast been displeased; O turn thyself to us again.
Ezekiel 23: For she doted upon their paramours, whose flesh is as the flesh of asses, and whose issue is like the issue of horses.
Matthew 1: And Judas begat Phares and Zara of Thamar; and Phares begat Esrom; and Esrom begat Aram;
Matthew 1: And Aram begat Aminadab; and Aminadab begat Naasson; and Naasson begat Salmon;
Luke 3: Which was the son of Aminadab, which was the son of Aram, which was the son of Esrom, which was the son of Phares, which was the son of Juda,

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Topics

Ahaz Seeks Help of Aram
Another Aramean War
Aram Defeated
Aram Invades and Defeats Judah
Aram invades Judah
Aramean attacks are stopped
Aramean Invasion of Judah
Elisha Traps Blinded Arameans
Elisha Traps the Arameans
Isaac Sends Jacob to Paddan-aram
Jacob Arrives at Paddan-Aram
Jacob Arrives in Paddan Aram
Jacob in Aram, Israel in Egypt, and Ephraim in Trouble
The Arameans are Defeated
The Arameans Flee
The Arameans Regroup for Attack
Ahab Attacks the Arameans
War with the Ammonites and Arameans
Aram's King Hazael
Alliances with Aram against Israel
Subjugation of Ammon and Aram
The Murder of King Ben-hadad of Aram
War with Aram
Ahab's Third Campaign against Aram
Ammon and Aram Defeated
Four Lepers Relate Arameans' Flight
Israel Fights Ammon and Aram
The Aramean War
The Arameans Attack
Aram and Israel Defeat Judah
Arameans Plot to Take Elisha
Asa's Treaty with Aram
Jacob Flees to Paddan-Aram
The Arameans Plot to Capture Elisha
Aramaic Language
Four Lepers Relate Arameans's Flight
Four Lepers Report the Departure of the Arameans
King Ahab Invites Jehoshaphat to Invade Aram
Adulterous paramour
Arabians and Arameans
aram (region)
aram naharaim
aram-naharaim
Aram's second son
aramaean
aramaeans
Aramaic
aramaic interlinear
Aramaic replaced Hebrew
aramaic translation
Aramean alliance
arameans
aramit
Arams second son
Bethesda an Aramaic word
cephas in aramaic
charam
Jesus spoke Aramaic
Jesus spoke Aramaic.
john in aramaic
king of aram
lion in aramaic
old testament aram
Padan Aram
padanaram
paddan aram
paddan-aram
Paramount
PARAMOUR
paramours
power in aramaic
rock in aramaic
son aram
Son of Aram
Speak Aramaic
Speaking in Aramaic
the wandering aramean
wandering aramean
where is aram
who is aram

Dictionary

People's Dictionary of the Bible - Padan-Aram
Padan-aram (pâ'dan-â'ram), the low highland, where Abraham got a wife for bis son Isaac, Genesis 25:20; Genesis 28:2; Genesis 28:5; Genesis 28:7, and Jacob found his wives, and where Laban lived. Genesis 31:18; Genesis 33:18; Genesis 35:9; Genesis 35:26; Genesis 46:15. It is the region between the two great rivers Euphrates and Tigris.

American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Aram
1. The name of three men in the Bible: a son of Shem, Genesis 10:22 , a grandson of Nahor, Genesis 22:21 , and an ancestor of our Lord, Ruth 4:19 1 Chronicles 2:10 Matthew 1:3 Luke 3:33 2 . Nearly synonymous with Syria; the Hebrew name of the whole region northeast of Palestine, extending from the Tigris on the east nearly to the Mediterranean on the west, and to the Taurus range on the north. It was named after Aram the son of Shem. Thus defined, it includes also Mesopotamia, which the Hebrews named Aram-naharaim, Aram of the two rivers, Genesis 25:20 48:7 . Various cities in the western part of Aram gave their own names to the regions around them: as Damascus, (Aram-Dammesek,) 2 Samuel 8:6 ; Maachah, near Bashan, 1 Chronicles 19:6 ; Geshur, Joshua 12:5 2 Samuel 15:8 ; Zobah, and Beth-rehob, 2 Samuel 10:6,8 . Several of these were powerful states, and often waged war against Israel. David subdued them and made them tributaries, and Solomon preserved this supremacy. After him it was lost, except perhaps under Jeroboam II. See SYRIA , PADAN-ARAM . The Aramaean language, nearly resembling the Hebrew, gradually supplanted the latter as a spoken language, and was in use in Judea at the time of Christ. It is still used by Syrian Christians around Mosul.

Easton's Bible Dictionary - Beth-Aram
House of the height; i.e., "mountain-house", one of the towns of Gad, 3 miles east of Jordan, opposite Jericho (Joshua 13:27 ). Probably the same as Beth-haran in Numbers 32:36 . It was called by king Herod, Julias, or Livias, after Livia, the wife of Augustus. It is now called Beit-haran.

Easton's Bible Dictionary - Padan-Aram
The plain of Aram, or the plain of the highlands, (Genesis 25:20 ; 28:2,5-7 ; 31:18 , etc.), commonly regarded as the district of Mesopotamia (q.v.) lying around Haran.

Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Aram
("high table land".)

1. The elevated region from the N. E. of Palestine to the Euphrates and Tigris. Balaam's home (Numbers 23:7; Deuteronomy 23:4). Syria, stretching from the Jordan and lake Gennesareth to the Euphrates, rising 2000 feet above the level of the sea. In contrast to Canaan, the lowland bordering on the Mediterranean. In Genesis 24:10 (Heb.) Aram Naharaim means "the highland between the two rivers," i.e. Mesopotamia. Padan Aram (from paddah , a plow), "the cultivated highland," is the same as Aram (Genesis 31:18). In Shalmaneser's inscriptions, 900-860 B.C. the Hittites (Khatte), under the name Palena, occur as occupying the valley of the Orontes and eastward.

Some identify this name with Padan Aram and Batanaea or Bashan. Many petty kingdoms in David's time formed parts of the whole Aram, Aram Rehob, Aram Zobah, etc. (See ARAM REHOB, ARAM ZOBAH.) Damascus subsequently absorbed these. In Genesis 10 Aram is described as son of Shem; Elam, Asshur, Arphaxad, and Aram (arranged in the geographical order from E. to W.) being the four brethren. Aram (Syrian) stands for Assyrian in 2 Kings 18:26; Jeremiah 35:11.

2. Another Aram (Genesis 22:21), son of Kemuel, descended from Nahor; probably head of the tribe Ram, to which belonged Elihu, Job's friend (Job 32:2).

Easton's Bible Dictionary - Aram-Zobah
(Psalm 60 , title), probably the region between the Euphrates and the Orontes.
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Aram-Naharaim
Aram of the two rivers, is Mesopotamia (as it is rendered in Genesis 24:10 ), the country enclosed between the Tigris on the east and the Euphrates on the west (Psalm 60 , title); called also the "field of Aram" (Hosea 12:12 , RSV) i.e., the open country of Aram; in the Authorized Version, "country of Syria." Padan-aram (q.v.) was a portion of this country.
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Aram
The son of Shem (Genesis 10:22 ); according to Genesis 22:21 , a grandson of Nahor. In Matthew 1:3,4 , and Luke 3:33 , this word is the Greek form of Ram, the father of Amminadab (1 Chronicles 2:10 ). The word means high, or highlands, and as the name of a country denotes that elevated region extending from the northeast of Palestine to the Euphrates. It corresponded generally with the Syria and Mesopotamia of the Greeks and Romans. In Genesis 25:20 ; 31:20,24 ; Deuteronomy 26:5 , the word "Syrian" is properly "Aramean" (RSV, marg.). Damascus became at length the capital of the several smaller kingdoms comprehended under the designation "Aram" or "Syria."

Holman Bible Dictionary - Beth-Aram
KJV spelling of Beth-haram. See Beth-haram .



Hitchcock's Bible Names - Padan-Aram
Cultivated field or table-land
Hitchcock's Bible Names - Beth-Aram
House of height
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Aram
ARAM . 1 . A grandson of Nahor ( Genesis 22:21 ). 2 . An Asherite ( 1 Chronicles 7:34 ). 3 . AV [Note: Authorized Version.] of Matthew 1:3 , Luke 3:33 . See Arni, Ram.

Hitchcock's Bible Names - Aram
Highness
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Padan Aram
"The flat land of Aram," contrasted with the more mountainous region of the N. and N.E. of Mesopotamia (Hosea 12:12), "the field (sedeh ) of Aram" (Genesis 25:20), the same as Aram Naharaim, "Aram of the two rivers," or Mesopotamia. (See MESOPOTAMIA.) (Genesis 24:10). Aram expresses the highland of Syria, contrasted with the lowland of Canaan. The land between Tigris and Euphrates is a vast flat, except where the Sinjar range intersects it. The home of Rebekah, Laban, etc.

Holman Bible Dictionary - Aram-Maacah
(ay' ram-may' uh cah) Territory in Syria (1 Chronicles 19:6 ), also called Syria-Maachah, Maacah, Maachah. See Maacah . In 2 Samuel 10:6 only Aram-Zobah is named.



Holman Bible Dictionary - Aram-Naharaim
(ay' ram-nay huh ray' im) Country name meaning, “Aram of the two rivers.” Appears in title of Psalm 60:1 in KJV. Transliterated from Hebrew also in Genesis 24:10 ; Deuteronomy 23:4 ; Judges 3:8 ; and 1 Chronicles 19:6 by NIV. It refers to the land between the Tigris and Euphrates River. Nahor, Abraham's brother, lived there; and Rebekah, Isaac's wife, came from there. Balaam, the prophet Balak hired to curse Israel as they entered Moab from the wilderness, came from Aram-Naharaim. So did Cushan-Rishathaim, who oppressed Israel before Othniel delivered them. The Ammonites bought military help from Aram-Naharaim to fight David.



Holman Bible Dictionary - Aram-Zobah
(ay' ram-zoh' buh) Alternate name for the Aramean town and kingdom of Zobah found in the superscription of Psalm 60:1 . See Zobah.



Holman Bible Dictionary - Aram
(ay' ram) Personal, ethnic, and geographical name. 1. Arameans. See Genesis 10:22-23 ). 3 . Grandson of Nahor, Abraham's brother (Genesis 22:21 ). 4 . Member of tribe of Asher (1 Chronicles 7:34 ). See various compound names with Aram below and Beth Rehob; Padan-Aram; Geshur; Maacah; Tob; Zobah.



Morrish Bible Dictionary - Aram
1. Son of Shem. Genesis 10:22,23 ; 1 Chronicles 1:17 .

2. Son of Kemuel, Abraham's nephew. Genesis 22:21 .

3. Son of Shamer, of the tribe of Asher. 1 Chronicles 7:34 .

4. Son of Esrom, and father of Aminadab. Matthew 1:3,4 ; Luke 3:33 : called RAM, Ruth 4:19 ; 1 Chronicles 2:9,10 .

5. Place in the land of Gilead, east of the Jordan, which Jair captured. 1 Chronicles 2:23 .

Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Padan-Aram
called also Sedan-Aram in Hosea; both names denoting Aram or Syria the fruitful, or cultivated, and apply to the northern part of Mesopotamia, in which Haran or Charran was situated. See MESOPOTAMIA .

Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Aram
the fifth son of Shem, Genesis 10:22 . He was the father of the Syrians, who from him were called Aramaeans, or Aramites.

Morrish Bible Dictionary - Aram
1. Son of Shem. Genesis 10:22,23 ; 1 Chronicles 1:17 .

2. Son of Kemuel, Abraham's nephew. Genesis 22:21 .

3. Son of Shamer, of the tribe of Asher. 1 Chronicles 7:34 .

4. Son of Esrom, and father of Aminadab. Matthew 1:3,4 ; Luke 3:33 : called RAM, Ruth 4:19 ; 1 Chronicles 2:9,10 .

5. Place in the land of Gilead, east of the Jordan, which Jair captured. 1 Chronicles 2:23 .

People's Dictionary of the Bible - Aram
Aram (â'ram), high region 1. A son of Shem. Genesis 10:22-23; 1 Chronicles 1:17. 2. A descendant of Nahor, Abraham's brother. Genesis 22:21. 3. An Asherite. 1 Chronicles 7:34. 4. The son of Esrom, elsewhere called Ram. Matthew 1:3-4; Luke 3:33, A. V., but the R. V. reads Ami.

Aram, highlands. The elevated region northeast of Palestine, toward the Euphrates river. Numbers 23:7; 1 Chronicles 1:17; 1 Chronicles 2:23. It was nearly identical with Syria. Aram-naharaim of Genesis 24:10 is translated Mesopotamia in the English Version, and refers to the region between the Euphrates and Tigris rivers. There were probably several petty kingdoms included under Aram, as Aram-zobah, Aram Beth-rehob, Aram Damascus, Padan-aram; all these were gradually absorbed by that of Damascus, which became the capital of all "Aram," or Syria.

Holman Bible Dictionary - Paddan-Aram
(payd' duhn-ay' ram) Place name perhaps meaning, “way of Syria,” “field of Syria,” or “plow of Syria.” The land from where Abraham journeyed to Canaan. One of the principle cities was Haran. Later, Abraham sent his steward to Paddan-Aram to seek a wife for Isaac (Genesis 24:1-9 ), and Jacob fled there and married into Laban and Rebekah's branch of the patriarchal family (Genesis 28:2-5 ). It may be modern tell Feddan near Carrhae. Hosea 12:13 calls it the field or country of Syria.



Holman Bible Dictionary - Padan-Aram
KJV form of Paddan-Aram.



Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Paddan, Paddan-Aram
PADDAN, PADDAN-ARAM (the former in Genesis 48:7 only). The name used hy P [Note: Priestly Narrative.] for the region (or a part of it) designated by J [Note: Jahwist.] Aram-Naharaim (see Aram): see Genesis 28:2 ; Genesis 28:5 ; Genesis 28:7 ; Genesis 31:18 ; Genesis 33:18 ; Genesis 35:9 ; Genesis 35:26 ; Genesis 46:15 . Padanu in Assyr. [Note: Assyrian.] denotes a measure of land (cf. ‘field of Aram’ in Hosea 12:12 ).

American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Padan-Aram
The plains of Aram or Syria, Genesis 25:20 28:2 31:18 , or simply PADAN, Genesis 48:7 , the plain, in distinction from the "mountains" of Aram Numbers 23:7 . See MESOPOTAMIA, and SYRIA.

Smith's Bible Dictionary - Aram-Nahata'im
(highlands of two rivers ). ( Psalm 60:1 ), title. [ARAM ]
Smith's Bible Dictionary - Beth'-Aram
(house of the height ), accurately BETH-HARAM, one of the towns of Gad on the east of Jordan, described as in "the valley," ( Joshua 13:27 ) and no doubt the same place as that named BETH-HARAN in (Numbers 32:36 )
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Aram
The Arameans, or people of Aram, were one of the many groups of Semitic peoples who lived in the region of the Bible story. The ancestor from whom they took their name was Aram, the son of Shem, the son of Noah (Genesis 10:22).

Arameans

By the time the Arameans first appear in the Bible story, they were living in the north-western part of Mesopotamia. This was the territory to which the father of Abraham came when he migrated with his family from Babylonia. They settled around the town of Haran (Genesis 11:31).

Abraham later moved to Canaan, but the rest of his relatives remained in Aram (Genesis 12:1; Genesis 12:4-5). Consequently, they became known as Arameans, though actually they were descended not through Aram but through Arpachshad, another of Shem’s sons (Genesis 10:22-25; Genesis 11:10-32). When Abraham wanted to obtain a wife for his son Isaac from among his relatives, he had to send his servant back to Aram to fetch Rebekah (Genesis 24:10; Genesis 25:20). (Some versions of the Bible call the Arameans Syrians, though the region was not known as Syria till centuries later.)

Jacob, son of Isaac and Rebekah, also went to Aram, where he obtained for himself two wives. Both of them were daughters of Laban, Rebekah’s brother (Genesis 28:2-5). Because Jacob had lived twenty years in Aram, and because his wives were from that region, he and his children became known as Arameans (Genesis 31:20; Genesis 31:38; Deuteronomy 26:5).

This explains how the practice developed of sometimes using the name Aramean’ when referring to the forefathers of the nation Israel. The name was related to the place where the forefathers lived, not to their racial descent. The true Arameans do not become prominent in the Bible story till the time of the Israelite monarchy. By that time Aram was known as Syria (see SYRIA).

Aramaic

One of the greatest influences the Arameans had was through their language, Aramaic. The Aramaic language spread far and wide, and from the time of Israel’s monarchy onwards was the language most commonly used throughout south-west Asia (2 Kings 18:26).

Written Aramaic used letters that were similar to Hebrew letters, and isolated sections of the Old Testament are written in Aramaic instead of the usual Hebrew (Ezra 4:8-24; Ezra 5; Ezra 6:1-18; Ezra 7:12-26; Jeremiah 10:11; Daniel 2:4-49; Daniel 3; Daniel 4; Daniel 5; Daniel 6; Daniel 7). In the Persian Empire (539-333 BC) Aramaic was the official language (Ezra 4:7). With the conquests of Alexander the Great, the Greek language spread throughout his empire and became the official language. But in south-western Asia, Aramaic was still the most commonly used language, in spite of the increasing use of Greek. Aramaic was the language that Jesus and his disciples usually spoke (Mark 5:41; Mark 7:34; Mark 15:34), though they also spoke and wrote Greek, the language in which the New Testament is written.

Sentence search

Aram - ) Aram Naharaim means "the highland between the two rivers," i. Padan Aram (from paddah , a plow), "the cultivated highland," is the same as Aram (Genesis 31:18). ... Some identify this name with Padan Aram and Batanaea or Bashan. Many petty kingdoms in David's time formed parts of the whole Aram, Aram Rehob, Aram Zobah, etc. (See Aram REHOB, Aram ZOBAH. In Genesis 10 Aram is described as son of Shem; Elam, Asshur, Arphaxad, and Aram (arranged in the geographical order from E. Aram (Syrian) stands for Assyrian in 2 Kings 18:26; Jeremiah 35:11. Another Aram (Genesis 22:21), son of Kemuel, descended from Nahor; probably head of the tribe Ram, to which belonged Elihu, Job's friend (Job 32:2)
Aram - Aram (â'ram), high region 1. ... Aram, highlands. Aram-naharaim of Genesis 24:10 is translated Mesopotamia in the English Version, and refers to the region between the Euphrates and Tigris rivers. There were probably several petty kingdoms included under Aram, as Aram-zobah, Aram Beth-rehob, Aram Damascus, Padan-Aram; all these were gradually absorbed by that of Damascus, which became the capital of all "Aram," or Syria
Mesopotamia - MESOPOTAMIA = Aram-naharaim (see Aram)
ar'ni - (Used in the Revised Version for Aram in (Luke 3:33 ) and is probably another name or form of the name of Aram. [Aram , 4])
Padan Aram - "The flat land of Aram," contrasted with the more mountainous region of the N. of Mesopotamia (Hosea 12:12), "the field (sedeh ) of Aram" (Genesis 25:20), the same as Aram Naharaim, "Aram of the two rivers," or Mesopotamia. Aram expresses the highland of Syria, contrasted with the lowland of Canaan
Aram-Naharaim - Aram of the two rivers, is Mesopotamia (as it is rendered in Genesis 24:10 ), the country enclosed between the Tigris on the east and the Euphrates on the west (Psalm 60 , title); called also the "field of Aram" (Hosea 12:12 , RSV) i. , the open country of Aram; in the Authorized Version, "country of Syria. " Padan-Aram (q
Paddan, Paddan-Aram - PADDAN, PADDAN-Aram (the former in Genesis 48:7 only). ] Aram-Naharaim (see Aram): see Genesis 28:2 ; Genesis 28:5 ; Genesis 28:7 ; Genesis 31:18 ; Genesis 33:18 ; Genesis 35:9 ; Genesis 35:26 ; Genesis 46:15 . ‘field of Aram’ in Hosea 12:12 )
pa'Dan-a'Ram - By this name, which signifies the table-land of Aram , i. Syriac, the Hebrews designated the tract of country which they otherwise called the Aram-naharaim, "Aram of the two of rivers," the Greek Mesopotamia, ( Genesis 24:10 ) and "the field (Authorized Version,'country') of Syria. (Genesis 48:7 ) Abraham obtained a wife for Isaac from Padan-Aram. (Genesis 25:20 ) Jacob's wives were also from Padan-Aram, (Genesis 28:2,5,6,7 ; 31:1-8 ; 33:18 )
Arni - Luke (Luke 3:33, Authorized Version Aram). he is called Ram (Authorized Version Aram)
Padan-Aram - called also Sedan-Aram in Hosea; both names denoting Aram or Syria the fruitful, or cultivated, and apply to the northern part of Mesopotamia, in which Haran or Charran was situated
Cushan-Rishathaim - ” King of Aram Naharaim to whom Yahweh gave Israel in the early period of the Judges (Judges 3:8 ). Some have tried to see Aram as an unintentional copying error for an original Edom, but no evidence exists for this conjecture. See Aram Naharaim
Padan-Aram - The plains of Aram or Syria, Genesis 25:20 28:2 31:18 , or simply PADAN, Genesis 48:7 , the plain, in distinction from the "mountains" of Aram Numbers 23:7
Talitha Cumi - TALITHA CUMI (for Greek ταλιθὰ κούμι, which, in turn, is a transliteration of the Aram. Aramaic טְלִיחָא קוּמִי ‘Maiden, arise’). The Aram. Aramaic noun is טַלַי = ‘lamb. טַלְיְתָא; or, according to the analogy of Edessene Aram. Aramaic preserved in the ̣̣̣Peshitta, טְלְיחָא. It is interesting to note that in Palestinian Aram. Aramaic the word טְלֵי passes from meaning ‘lamb’ to being a term of endearment for a ‘child. of Mark 5:41 the Aram. Aramaic words are translated τὸ κοράσιον, ἔγειρε. The latter is more accurate for Galilaean Aramaic. The former is due to the fact that in some Aram. Aramaic dialects the final letter, though written, was not pronounced
Bethharan - See BETH-Aram
Padan-Aram - KJV form of Paddan-Aram
Syria, Syrians - See Aram, Aramæans
a'Ram-zo'Bah - [Aram , 1]
pa'Dan - Padan-Aram
Padan, Padanaram - It is strictly Paddan-Aram, signifying 'table land of Aram. ' Mesopotamia is the translation of Padan-Aram both in the LXX and the Vulgate
Aram - Arameans. See various compound names with Aram below and Beth Rehob; Padan-Aram; Geshur; Maacah; Tob; Zobah
Aram - It was named after Aram the son of Shem. Thus defined, it includes also Mesopotamia, which the Hebrews named Aram-naharaim, Aram of the two rivers, Genesis 25:20 48:7 . Various cities in the western part of Aram gave their own names to the regions around them: as Damascus, (Aram-Dammesek,) 2 Samuel 8:6 ; Maachah, near Bashan, 1 Chronicles 19:6 ; Geshur, Joshua 12:5 2 Samuel 15:8 ; Zobah, and Beth-rehob, 2 Samuel 10:6,8 . See SYRIA , PADAN-Aram . The Aramaean language, nearly resembling the Hebrew, gradually supplanted the latter as a spoken language, and was in use in Judea at the time of Christ
Hul - ” A son of Aram, son of Shem, and grandson of Noah in the Table of Nations (Genesis 10:23 ), thus the original ancestor of an Aramean or Syrian tribe. As often in genealogy lists, 1 Chronicles 1:17 omits the father Shem to emphasize the kinship with Aram
Aramitess - A female belonging to Aram
Aram-Nahata'im - [Aram ]
Arami'Tess - a female inhabitant of Aram
Kemuel - The son of Nahor and father of Aram, Genesis 22:21 (contrast Genesis 10:22 , where Aram is son of Shem)
Aram-Naharaim - (ay' ram-nay huh ray' im) Country name meaning, “Aram of the two rivers. Balaam, the prophet Balak hired to curse Israel as they entered Moab from the wilderness, came from Aram-Naharaim. The Ammonites bought military help from Aram-Naharaim to fight David
Padan - A plain, occurring only in Genesis 48:7 , where it designates Padan-Aram
Hul - Circle, the second son of Aram (Genesis 10:23 ), and grandson of Shem
Hul - Son of Aram, and grandson of Shem
Gether - Son of Aram the son of Shem
Mash - Son of Aram, and grandson of Shem
Beth-ha'Ran - (Numbers 32:36 ) It is no doubt the same place as BETH-Aram
Ram - The margin of 1 Chronicles 2:9 , also Matthew 1:3,4 and Luke 3:33 , have "Aram. The same as Aram of Genesis 22:21
Ram - In Matthew 1:3-4; Luke 3:33, Aram. Uz and Aram recur three times in the race of Shem (Genesis 10:23; Genesis 22:2; Genesis 36:28)
Ishtob - Man of Tob, one of the small Syrian kingdoms which together constituted Aram (2 Samuel 10:6,8 )
Padanaram - (See Genesis 28:6) From Padan, of the field—and Aram, Syria
Mesopotamia - Its Hebrew name Aram Naharaim means "Aram between the rivers. " The tribe sprung from Aram, Shem's fourth son, first colonized it. Padan Aram, "plain Syria," was the N. part of the whole; the whole Syrian "highland" was Aram, in contradistinction from Canaan "the lowland. Orfa, Abram's native city, and Haran, his resting place between Chaldaea and Palestine, are in Padan Aram (Genesis 25:20; Genesis 28:2). Bethuel, Rebekah, and Laban lived in Padan Aram
Beth-Haran - The same as Beth-Aram (Joshua 13:27)
Aramean - ) Of or pertaining to the Syrians and Chaldeans, or to their language; Aramaic. ) A native of Aram
Rain - (Authorized Version Aram. Aramaic )
Syria - Aram), the name in the Old Testament given to the whole country which lay to the north-east of Phoenicia, extending to beyond the Euphrates and the Tigris. Mesopotamia is called (Genesis 24:10 ; Deuteronomy 23:4 ) Aram-naharain (=Syria of the two rivers), also Padan-Aram (Genesis 25:20 ). Other portions of Syria were also known by separate names, as Aram-maahah (1 Chronicles 19:6 ), Aram-beth-rehob (2 Samuel 10:6 ), Aram-zobah (2 Samuel 10:6,8 )
Eloi, Eloi, Lama Sabachthani - These Aram. [Note: Aramaic. The underlying Aram. [Note: Aramaic. Dalman, however, maintains that our Lord spoke the first two words in Hebrew and the other two in Aramaic. Lama for Aram. [Note: Aramaic. word, here, as elsewhere, borrowed in Aramaic. The Aram. [Note: Aramaic
ge'Ther - (fear), the third in order of the sons of Aram
Cushan-Rishathaim - King of Mesopotamia, or Aram-naharaim, first of the oppressors of Israel, from whom Othniel. It has been conjectured that he was a king of the Mitanni, whose territory once covered the district between the Euphrates and Habor, or that ‘Aram [Note: ram Aramaic
Hul - (circle ), the second son of Aram, and grandson of Shem
a'Ram - Its earliest occurrence in the book of Genesis is in the form of Aram-naharaim , i. " In the later history we meet with a number of small nations or kingdoms forming parts of the general land of Aram; but as Damascus increased in importance it gradually absorbed the smaller powers, (1 Kings 20:1 ) and the name of Aram was at last applied to it alone. ... Another Aram is named in (Genesis 22:21 ) as a son of Kemuel and descendant of Nahor
Bar - Aram. [Note: Aramaic
Padan-Aram - The plain of Aram, or the plain of the highlands, (Genesis 25:20 ; 28:2,5-7 ; 31:18 , etc
Kemuel - Nahor's son by Milcah, father of Bethuel (Rebekah's father) and Aram or Ram (Genesis 22:21; compare Job 32:2)
Ishtob - A petty kingdom, part of Aram (2 Samuel 10:6; 2 Samuel 10:8)
Aramitess - (ahr' uh mit ehssss) KJV translation in 1 Chronicles 7:14 for an unnamed concubine from Aram, thus an Aramean or Syrian
Aram-Maacah - In 2 Samuel 10:6 only Aram-Zobah is named
Ish'Tob - (men of Tob ), apparently one of the small kingdoms or states which formed part of the general country of Aram, named with Zobah, Rehob and Maacah
Aram - Aram
el-Bethel - The name which Jacob is said to have given to the scene of his vision on his way back from Paddau-Aram, Genesis 35:7 (P [Note: Priestly Narrative
Abba - ABBA is the ‘emphatic’ form of the Aram. [Note: Aramaic. Aram. [Note: Aramaic. In Mark 14:36 , ho patçr is perhaps a gloss added by the Evangelist, as in Mark 5:41 ; Mark 7:11 ; Mark 7:34 he adds an explanation of the Aram. [Note: Aramaic. ] : but in Romans 8:15 and Galatians 4:6 the Gentile Christians had learned for importunity to use the Aram. [Note: Aramaic
Sheriff - ] of Aram. [Note: Aramaic
Milcah - We meet with two of this name, one the daughter of Aram, (Genesis 11:29) and the other, the daughter of Zslophehad, (Numbers 26:33) The name is derived from Malkah, queen
Aram - The Arameans, or people of Aram, were one of the many groups of Semitic peoples who lived in the region of the Bible story. The ancestor from whom they took their name was Aram, the son of Shem, the son of Noah (Genesis 10:22). ... Arameans... By the time the Arameans first appear in the Bible story, they were living in the north-western part of Mesopotamia. ... Abraham later moved to Canaan, but the rest of his relatives remained in Aram (Genesis 12:1; Genesis 12:4-5). Consequently, they became known as Arameans, though actually they were descended not through Aram but through Arpachshad, another of Shem’s sons (Genesis 10:22-25; Genesis 11:10-32). When Abraham wanted to obtain a wife for his son Isaac from among his relatives, he had to send his servant back to Aram to fetch Rebekah (Genesis 24:10; Genesis 25:20). (Some versions of the Bible call the Arameans Syrians, though the region was not known as Syria till centuries later. )... Jacob, son of Isaac and Rebekah, also went to Aram, where he obtained for himself two wives. Because Jacob had lived twenty years in Aram, and because his wives were from that region, he and his children became known as Arameans (Genesis 31:20; Genesis 31:38; Deuteronomy 26:5). ... This explains how the practice developed of sometimes using the name Aramean’ when referring to the forefathers of the nation Israel. The true Arameans do not become prominent in the Bible story till the time of the Israelite monarchy. By that time Aram was known as Syria (see SYRIA). ... Aramaic... One of the greatest influences the Arameans had was through their language, Aramaic. The Aramaic language spread far and wide, and from the time of Israel’s monarchy onwards was the language most commonly used throughout south-west Asia (2 Kings 18:26). ... Written Aramaic used letters that were similar to Hebrew letters, and isolated sections of the Old Testament are written in Aramaic instead of the usual Hebrew (Ezra 4:8-24; Ezra 5; Ezra 6:1-18; Ezra 7:12-26; Jeremiah 10:11; Daniel 2:4-49; Daniel 3; Daniel 4; Daniel 5; Daniel 6; Daniel 7). In the Persian Empire (539-333 BC) Aramaic was the official language (Ezra 4:7). But in south-western Asia, Aramaic was still the most commonly used language, in spite of the increasing use of Greek. Aramaic was the language that Jesus and his disciples usually spoke (Mark 5:41; Mark 7:34; Mark 15:34), though they also spoke and wrote Greek, the language in which the New Testament is written
Mesopotamia - Aram-naharaim; i. In the Old Testament it is mentioned also under the name "Padan-Aram;" i. , the plain of Aram, or Syria (Genesis 25:20 )
Arni - ] Aram [Note: ram Aramaic
he'Zion - (vision ), a king of Aram (Syria), father of Tabrimon and grandfather of Ben-hadad I
Aramaic - ) The Aramaic language. ) Pertaining to Aram, or to the territory, inhabitants, language, or literature of Syria and Mesopotamia; Aramaean; - specifically applied to the northern branch of the Semitic family of languages, including Syriac and Chaldee
Uz -
The son of Aram, and grandson of Shem (Genesis 10:23 ; 1 Chronicles 1:17 )
Gether - Named in Genesis 10:23 , along with Uz, Hul, and Mash, as one of the ‘sons of Aram’ (in 1 Chronicles 1:17 simply ‘sons of Shem’)
Rebecca - Grew up in Padan Aram, amongst pagans, but remained a pristine “rose amongst thorns
Beth-ma'Achah - (house of oppression ), a place named only in ( 2 Samuel 20:14,15 ) In the absence of more information we can only conclude that it is identical with Maachah or Aram-maachah, one of the petty Syrian kingdoms in the north of Palestine
Laban - After the father of Abraham migrated to the region of Paddan-Aram in northern Mesopotamia, some of the family settled there. Laban became a prominent member of one of the families that remained in Paddan-Aram
Kenath - It was afterwards re-taken with the villages of Jair by Geshur and Aram, as the passage in Chronicles should read
Mash - (drawn out ), one of the sons of Aram
Beth-Haram - ” (KJV, Beth-Aram)
Beth-re'Hob - ( Judges 18:28 ) It was one of the little kingdoms of Aram or Syria
Lud - ; if the Lydians of western Asia were meant, the order would have been Elam, Asshur (Arphaxad), Aram, Lud; not Elam, Asshur (Arphaxad), Lud, Aram
Rebek'ah - She directed and aided him in carrying it out, foresaw the probable consequence of Esau's anger, and prevented it by moving Isaac to send Jacob away to Padan-Aram, (Genesis 27:1 ) . (Genesis 26:7 ) It has been conjectured that she died during Jacob's sojourn in Padan-Aram
Mesopotamia - It was called by the Hebrews Aram-naharaim, or "Aram (or Syria) of the two rivers;" Genesis 24:10; Deuteronomy 23:4; Judges 3:8; Judges 3:10; 1 Chronicles 19:6; and Padan-Aram or "Plain of Syria," Genesis 25:20; Genesis 28:2-7; Genesis 46:15; also Aram or "Syria," Numbers 23:7; Genesis 31:20; Genesis 31:24
Mash - (= Meshech 1 Chronicles 1:17 ), one of the four sons of Aram, and the name of a tribe descended from him (Genesis 10:23 ) inhabiting some part probably of Mesopotamia
Mash - (massh) A son of Aram (Genesis 10:23 ) in Table of Nations and thus original ancestor of Syrian tribal group, possibly from Mount Masius (Tur Abdin) in Northern Mesopotamia or the Mashu mountains of the Gilgamesh epic, probably the Lebanon and anti-Lebanon mountains
Dorcas - form of Aram. [Note: Aramaic
Mouth - pûm , Aram. [Note: Aramaic. tĕra‘ , Aram. [Note: Aramaic
Chilmad - The name has been thought to be the Aram. [Note: Aramaic
Padan-Aram - Padan-Aram (pâ'dan-â'ram), the low highland, where Abraham got a wife for bis son Isaac, Genesis 25:20; Genesis 28:2; Genesis 28:5; Genesis 28:7, and Jacob found his wives, and where Laban lived
Kem'Uel -
The son of Nahor by Milcah, and father of Aram
Mash - Son of Aram, Shem's son (Genesis 10:28). the inhabitants of Mesene near Bassera where the Tigris and Euphrates fall into the Persian gulf; this however seems too far from the other Aramaic settlements. Cappadocia was the original home of the Moschi (Meshech); its population was a mixed one, and a portion connected with Aram (Syria). Thus the name occurring in Japheth's line and also in Shem's line points to the mixture of Aramaic Moschi with Japhetic Moschi in Cappadocia (G
Chushan-Rishathaim - We learn from the Tell-el-Amarna tablets that Palestine had been invaded by the forces of Aram-naharaim (A. , "Mesopotamia") more than once, long before the Exodus, and that at the time they were written the king of Aram-naharaim was still intriguing in Canaan
Kenath - The city was known as Kenath at a later time when it fell into the hands of Aram and Geshur (1 Chronicles 2:23 )
Kemuel - The father of Aram, and the son of Abraham's brother Nahor (Genesis 22:21 )
Amminadab - A son of Aram, of the tribe of Judah, and father of Naashon
Talitha - 1: ταλιθά (Strong's #5008 — Noun Feminine — taleitha | talitha — tal-ee-thah' ) an Aramaic feminine meaning "maiden," Mark 5:41 , has been variously transliterated in the NT Greek mss. and Aram
Geshur, Geshurites - A small Aramæan tribe, whose territory, together with that of Maacah (wh. After the murder of his half-brother Amnon, Absalom took refuge with his maternal grandfather in ‘Geshur of Aram’ ( 2 Samuel 13:37 ; 2 Samuel 15:8 ). In 1 Chronicles 2:23 Geshur and Aram are said to have taken the ‘tent-villages’ of Jair from the Israelites
Ram - Some have supposed that Ram is a contraction for Aram. [Note: Aramaic
Uz - Descendant of Shem's son Aram (Genesis 10:23 ; 1 Chronicles 1:17 ) and progenitor of an Aramaean tribe
Aramaic - (from Aram, a country in southwestern Asia) A Semitic language, used in Babylonia, Mesopotamia, Syria, etc. Fragments of the Old Testament (Daniel 2:4-7:29) and Saint Matthew's Gospel were written originally in Aramaic. Free paraphrastic translations of the Hebrew Bible into Aramaic were made at first orally in the synagogues and later reduced to writing
Zobah - A Syrian kingdom, sometimes called Aram Zobah, and also written "Zoba," whose kings made war with Saul, 1 Samuel 14:47; with David, 2 Samuel 8:3; 2 Samuel 10:6; 2 Samuel 10:8; 1 Chronicles 18:5; 1 Chronicles 18:9; and with Solomon, 2 Chronicles 8:3
Eber - Son of Salah, great grandson of Shem (Genesis 10:21-24; 1 Chronicles 1:19; Numbers 24:24, where the "Eber" whom "ships from Chittim shall afflict" represents not the Hebrew, but in general the western descendants of Shem, sprung from Arphaxad, Lud, and Aram; the posterity of Abraham who descended from Eber through Peleg, and also the descendants of Eber through Joktan
Mahanaim - Two hosts, a place so named because a host of angels here met the host of Jacob, on his return from Padan-Aram, Genesis 32:1-2
Geshur - of Bashan, adjoining Argob and Aram, conquered by Jair of Manasseh, but left in the hands of the original inhabitants (Joshua 13:13; Deuteronomy 3:14; 2 Samuel 15:8). "Geshur at Aram" (Hebrew), i
Jacob - He fled to Padan Aram where he married Leah and Rachel
Ammin'Adab -
Son of Ram or Aram, and father of Nahshon, or NAASSON (as it is written) (Matthew 1:4 ; Luke 3:32 ); (Numbers 1:7 ; 2:3 ; Ruth 4:19,20 ; 1 Chronicles 2:10 ) One of the ancestors of Jesus Christ
uz - Son of Aram, a son of Shem
Paddan-Aram - Later, Abraham sent his steward to Paddan-Aram to seek a wife for Isaac (Genesis 24:1-9 ), and Jacob fled there and married into Laban and Rebekah's branch of the patriarchal family (Genesis 28:2-5 )
Uz - It is uncertain whether its inhabitants were descendants of Uz the son of Aram, Huz the son of Nahor, or Uz the Horite, Genesis 10:23 22:21 36:28
Pha'Rez - From Hezron's second son Ram, or Aram, sprang David and the kings of Judah, and eventually Jesus Christ
Syria - In Hebrew Aram , a large district of Asia, lying, in the widest acceptation of the name, between the Mediterranean, Mount Taurus, and the Tigris, and thus including Mesopotamia, that is, in Hebrew, Syria of the two rivers. See Aram 2
Kenath - of Bashan) and Aram (the Aramaeans or Syrians) took the towns of Jair (rather Havoth Jair) from them (the Jairites) with Kenath and the towns thereof, 60 cities," i
Geshur - ” Small Aramean city-state between Bashan and Hermon. It served as a buffer between Israel and Aram
Herald - ] of Aram. [Note: Aramaic
Mesopotamia - See Aram 2, and PADAN-Aram
Ephphatha - An Aramaic word, found in the Greek text of Mark 7:34. ’... There are two Aram. [Note: Aramaic. ... The form ἑφφαθά, when compared with its Aram. [Note: Aramaic. (2) We note the assimilation of ח to פ, giving ἑφφαθά for ἑθφαθά; or in Aram. This is quite in accordance with a rule in Palestinian Aramaic, that frequently, and especially with the labials כּ, מ and פ, the ח in the passive prefix חא is assimilated to the first radical (Dalman’s Aramaische Grammatik, p. The daghesh forte is also singularly treated in Ματθαῖος from מַחִּי,א and Ζακχαῖος from וַכָי (4) The appearance of ε in ἐφφαθα may possibly indicate that the dialect spoken by our Lord used the Syriac prefix אָח eth with passive forms, and not אח ith, as is found in Palestinian Aramaic; in other words, used Ethpaal for Ithpaal. des Biblisch-Aramaisch, § 5; Dalman, Aram. [Note: Aramaic
Mesopotamia - The name ‘Mesopotamia’ represents the Hebrew Aram-Naharaim in the OT, which is usually rendered ‘Aram of the two rivers,’ but is more correctly Aram Naharim or Naharin, i. ‘Aram of the river-lands’ (Encyclopaedia Biblica i. When the Assyrian power declined, Mesopotamia was overrun (as it had been more or less all along) by Aramaean hordes from the west and south
Hazazon-Tamar - Edom (NIV; TEV; NRSV; REB following one Hebrew manuscript; most manuscripts and early translations read, “Aram,” meaning Syria, as read by NAS; KSV)
Chelod - No probable conjecture as to Aram. [Note: Aramaic
Aram - In Genesis 25:20 ; 31:20,24 ; Deuteronomy 26:5 , the word "Syrian" is properly "Aramean" (RSV, marg. Damascus became at length the capital of the several smaller kingdoms comprehended under the designation "Aram" or "Syria
Mesopotamia - See Aram-NAHARAIM
Decree - and Aram. [Note: Aramaic. The same word is used in Psalms 2:7 of God’s ‘decree’ regarding His king; in Daniel 4:17 ; Daniel 4:24 (Aram. [Note: Aramaic
Amminadab - The son of Ram or Aram, who was great-grandson of Judah
Hadarezer - Psalm 60 by David was composed after victory in part had been gained over Aram Naharaim (Syria of the two floods) and Aram (Syria) of Zobah the kingdom of Hadarezer, who had come to help his vassals of Mesopotamia, the region of the two rivers Tigris and Euphrates; after having conquered the two Syrias, Joab returned and smote Edom in the valley of Salt; Psalm 60 refers to the expedition subsequently undertaken to occupy Edom in revenge for Edom's invasion of Israel
Assyria - (Hebrew: Aram-Naharaim, Aram of the two rivers) A country which occupied the northern and middle part of Mesopotamia, extended as far south as the Persian Gulf, and included Babylonia and Chaldea
Maranatha - An Aram. [Note: Aramaic. Most moderns follow Bickell in holding that the two parts of which the expression is composed mean ‘Our Lord, come I’ (= Aram. [Note: Aramaic. This seems preferable to the older view, according to which the meaning would be ‘Our Lord has come I’ (= Aram. [Note: Aramaic
Rab-Saris - and Aram. [Note: Aramaic
Rebekah - The circumstances under which Abraham's "steward" found her at the "city of Nahor," in Padan-Aram, are narrated in Genesis 2427-27
Succoth - An ancient town on the journey of Jacob from Padan-Aram
Rabbi - -Aram. [Note: Aramaic
Shem - The portion of the earth occupied by the descendants of Shem, (Genesis 10:21,31 ) begins at its northwestern extremity with Lydia, and includes Syria (Aram), Chaldaea (Arphaxad), parts Of Assyria (Asshur), of Persia (Elam), and of the Arabian peninsula (Joktan)
Bethuel - He was an Aramean or Syrian from Padan-Aram (Genesis 25:20 )
Deborah - Rebekah's nurse: she accompanied her mistress when she left Padan-Aram and remained with her till her death; she was buried under the 'oak of weeping
Leah - When Jacob returned to Palestine from Padan-Aram, Leah and her children were placed in front of Rachel and Joseph, evidently to absorb any violence from Esau, Jacob's brother
Hara - Probably HARAN, the Mesopotamian city whither Abram came from Ur, where he received his second call from God, and where his brother Nahor's children settled (Genesis 11:31; Genesis 24:10; Genesis 27:43; Genesis 25:20) in Padan Aram or the low and beautiful region at the foot of the hills below mount Masius, between the Khabour and the Euphrates
Deborah - The nurse of Rebekah, whom she accompanied from Aram into Canaan, Genesis 24:1-67
Rachel - When Jacob went to Paddan-Aram to find a wife, he met and fell in love with Rachel, the younger daughter of his uncle, Laban. This made Rachel so angry that when Jacob and his family left Paddan-Aram for Canaan, she took her father’s idols with her
Chemarim - Chômer , of which Chĕmârim is the plural, is of Aram. [Note: Aramaic
Eliezer - It was probably he who headed the embassy sent by Abraham to the old home of his family in Padan-Aram to seek a wife for his son Isaac
Stone - ... Stones were set up to commemorate remarkable events, as by Jacob at Bethel (Genesis 28:18 ), at Padan-Aram (35:4), and on the occasion of parting with Laban (31:45-47); by Joshua at the place on the banks of the Jordan where the people first "lodged" after crossing the river (Joshua 6:8 ), and also in "the midst of Jordan," where he erected another set of twelve stones (4:1-9); and by Samuel at "Ebenezer" (1 Samuel 7:12 )
Ut -
A son of Aram, (Genesis 10:23 ; 1 Chronicles 1:17 ) end consequently a grand son of Shem
Kenath - Geshur and Aram re-conquered it ( 1 Chronicles 2:23 )
ha'Nan - possibly a Syrian of Aram-maachah, one of the heroes of David's guard
Issachar - " He was Jacob's ninth son, and was born in Padan-Aram (comp 28:2)
ja'Cob - ) Jacob, in his 78th year, was sent from the family home to avoid his brother, and to seek a wife among his kindred in Padan-Aram. After the lapse of twenty-one years he returned from Padan-Aram with two wives, two concubines, eleven sons and a daughter, and large property
Syria - ... Aramean Kingdoms In most English versions of the Old Testament (KJV, NRSV, NAS) “Syria” and “Syrian” (NIV, NRSV “Aram” or “Aramean”) translate the Hebrew word Aram, which refers to the nations or territories of the Arameans, a group akin to Israel (Deuteronomy 26:5 ). The Arameans began to settle in Syria and northern Mesopotamia around the beginning of the Iron Age (about 1200 B. The Old Testament mentions the Aramean kingdoms of Beth-eden in north Syria, Zobah in south-central Syria, and Damascus in the south. David decisively defeated Aram-Zobah (2 Samuel 10:6-19 ) whose king, Hadadezer, had enlisted help from his Aramean subject states (2Samuel 10:16,2 Samuel 10:19 ). Subsequent occurrences of “Aram” or “Arameans” (“Syria” or “Syrians”) in the Old Testament refer to this Aramean kingdom of Damascus. ... The rise of Aram-Damascus' power was facilitated by the division of Israel following the death of Solomon. ... Syrian Culture Aramean culture was essentially borrowed from their neighbors. The most enduring contribution of the Arameans was their language which became the language of commerce and diplomacy by the Persian period. Portions of Daniel and Ezra are written in Aramaic, which is similar to Hebrew. By New Testament times, Aramaic was the language commonly spoken in Palestine and probably used by Jesus. The Aramaic script was adopted and slightly modified for writing Hebrew. See Aramaic
Succoth - Here Jacob (Genesis 32:17,30 ; 33:17 ), on his return from Padan-Aram after his interview with Esau, built a house for himself and made booths for his cattle
Nahor - The sons ascribed to Nahor (Buz, Uz, Aram, etc. Some think we have, instead, the name of a lost tribe once resident in the neighbourhood of Haran, from which the Aramæar tribes were descended. While Abraham appears as the common ancestor of the Israelites and Edomites, Nahor is represented as the father of the Aramæans
Deputy - ] of sâgân or its Aram. [Note: Aramaic
e'Sau - Later he marries a daughter of Ishmael, (Genesis 28:8,9 ) and soon after establishes himself in Mount Seir, where he was living when Jacob returned from Padan-Aram rich and powerful, and the two brothers were reconciled
Armenia - Armenia is often confounded with Aramaea, the land of Aram or Syria; but they are totally different. Armenia, which is separated from Aram by Mount Taurus, was so denominated from Ar-Men, the mountainous country of Meni or Minni, the people of which country are mentioned under this name by Jeremiah, when summoning the nations against Babylon
Haran - It stood on the river Belik, an affluent of the Euphrates, about 70 miles above where it joins that river in Upper Mesopotamia or Padan-Aram, and about 600 miles northwest of Ur in a direct line
Rebekah - She decided to send him north to her brother in Paddan-Aram
Havoth-Jair - “But Geshur and Aram took from them Havvoth-Jair, Kenath and its villages, sixty towns
Lud, Ludim - In Genesis 10:22 ( 1 Chronicles 1:17 ) Lud is named as one of the ‘sons’ of Shem, along with the well-known Elam, Asshur, and Aram, and the uncertain Arpachshad
Grass - (2) deshe ’ (Aram. [Note: Aramaic
Rebekah - ... She saved Jacob from Esau's murderous fury by inducing Isaac to send him away to Padan Aram (Genesis 28:1-5); thus she brought on herself by the one great sin the loss of her favorite's presence for the rest of her life, for she was not alive when he returned, Isaac alone survived (Genesis 35:27). ) She evidently had gone back to Padan Aram, and joined Jacob after her mistress' death
Elihu - Son of Barachel ("God blesses"); the names indicating the piety of the family and their separation from idolatry) the Buzite (Buz being a region of Arabia Deserta, Jeremiah 25:23, called from Buz son of Nahor, Abraham's brother), of the kindred of Ram (probably Aram, nephew of Buz): Job 32:2
Uz - The name occurs... (1) in Genesis 10:23 as son of Aram and grandson (as "son" means in 1 Chronicles 1:17) of Shem;... (2) as son of Nahor by Milcah (Genesis 22:21);... (3) as son of Dishan and grandson of Seir (Genesis 36:28). Evidently the more ancient and northerly members of the Aramaic family coalesced with some of the later Abrahamids holding a central position in Mesopotamia, and subsequently with those still later, the Edomites of the S
Maacah or Maachah - A city and region of Syria or Aram, 1 Chronicles 19:6 ; somewhere near the foot of mount Hermon, and Geshur
ha'Ran - (Genesis 24:10 ) with Genesis27:43 It is said to be in Mesopotamia, (Genesis 24:10 ) or more definitely in Padan-Aram, ch
Arme'Nia - (land of Aram ) is nowhere mentioned under that name in the original Hebrew, though it occurs in the English version, ( 2 Kings 19:37 ) for Ararat
Deborah - The first of these was the maidservant of Rebekah who came with her from Paddan-Aram when Rebekah married Isaac
Mene Mene Tekel Upharsin - Mene is the Aram. [Note: Aramaic. ’ The enigmatic character of the combination apparently consisted partly in the manner in which the words were supposed to have been written perhaps in some unfamiliar form of Aramaic cursive or with some curious inversion in arrangement and partly in determining their import even when read. The term for ‘mina’ is connected with a root meaning ‘to number’; hence it signifies ‘God hath numbered thy kingdom and brought it to an end’: ‘shekel’ is connected with a root meaning ‘to weigh,’ and hence ‘thou hast been weighed in the balance and found wanting’: ‘half-mina’ ( perâs ) suggests a double play; ‘thy kingdom is divided (peris ) and given to the Persians (Aram. [Note: Aramaic
Mesopotamia - " In Scripture this country is called Aram, and Aramea. But as Aram also signifies Syria, it is denominated Aram Naharaim, or the Syria of the rivers. The name of this king bespeaks him a descendant of Nimrod; and it was probably of the Lower Mesopotamia only, or Babylonia, of which he was sovereign; the northern parts being in the possession of the Arameans. This is implied in the history of Abraham; who, when ordered to depart from his country, namely, Chaldea, in the southern part of Mesopotamia, removed to Charran, still in Mesopotamia, but beyond the boundary of the Chaldees, and in the territory of Aram. Diarbeker Proper, called also Mesopotamia from its lying between two famous rivers, and by Moses called PADANAram, that is, ‘the fruitful Syria,' abounds with corn, wine, oil, fruits, and all the necessaries of life
Suc'Coth -
An ancient town, first heard of in the account of the homeward journey of Jacob from Padan-Aram
Shem - ... Aram — the name of Syria, but more especially, referring to the high land of Lebanon
Uz - A son of Aram [Note: ram Aramaic. ] Huz ), whose descendants are placed in Aram-naharaim ( Genesis 24:10 )
Rimmon (1) - Elsewhere there are many Indications that the chief Aramæan divinity was called by that people not Rimmon or Rammân, but Hadad (wh. ... In Assyria, both the Aram [Note: ram Aramaic. The currency of the latter among the Hebrews (as Rimmon ) is to be attributed to the long Babylonian occupation of Palestine before Aramæan times
Deborah - She accompanied her mistress when she left her father's house in Padan-Aram to become the wife of Isaac (Genesis 24:59 )
Dictionaries - Hebrew, Aramaic, Syriac . Dalman, Aram. [Note: Aramaic. ; Dalman, Aram. [Note: Aramaic
Mahanaim - Two camps, a place near the Jabbok, beyond Jordan, where Jacob was met by the "angels of God," and where he divided his retinue into "two hosts" on his return from Padan-Aram (Genesis 32:2 )
Joanna - ] and Nestle; from Aram. [Note: Aramaic
Balaam - When the Israelites were encamped on the plains of Moab, on the east of Jordan, by Jericho, Balak sent for Balaam "from Aram, out of the mountains of the east," to curse them; but by the remarkable interposition of God he was utterly unable to fulfil Balak's wish, however desirous he was to do so
Virgin - ] root means ‘to be mature,’ and the Aram. [Note: Aramaic
Hobab - ’ But this harmonization is doubtful, for (1) though it is true that in Aram. [Note: Aramaic
Yale, Valley - emeq, 'valley or plain,' more resembles an English 'valley': it is applied to Achor, Ajalon, Baca, Berachah, Beth-Aram, 'of decision' ( Joel 3:14 ); Elah; 'of the giants' (Joshua 15:8 ; Joshua 18:16 ); Gibeon, Hebron, Jehoshaphat, Jezreel, Keziz, 'of the King,' or 'the King's Dale' (Genesis 14:17 ; 2 Samuel 18:18 ); Rephaim, Shaveh, Siddim, and Succoth
i'Saac - After the deceit by which Jacob acquired his father's blessing Isaac sent his son to seek a wife in Padan-Aram; and all that we know of him during the last forty-three years of his life in that he saw that GOD , with a large and prosperous family, return to him at Hebron
Eber - from Haran ( Genesis 11:31 ), in Aram-naharaim the home of Abraham and Nahor ( Genesis 24:4 ; Genesis 24:7 ; Genesis 24:10 )
Isaac - ... In seeking a wife for Isaac, Abraham insisted that she come not from the Canaanites (who were under God’s judgment) but from his relatives in Paddan-Aram. Jacob escaped to Paddan-Aram (Genesis 27:41; Genesis 28:1-2; Genesis 28:5)
Mahanaim - ) A place on the Jabbok so-called by Jacob from the two angelic hosts which appeared to him when returning from Padan Aram to Canaan
Aretas - This is the dynastic name (Aram. [Note: Aramaic. ] Charethath ) of several kings of the Nahatæan Arabs whose capital was Petra (Sela), and whose language for purposes of writing and commerce was an Aramaic dialect, as is seen from the existing inscriptions
Teraphim - Laban had some of them; and Rachel took these when leaving Padan-Aram
East - " (See Aram
Jacob - Jacob, in mature years, was sent from the family home to avoid his brother, and to seek a wife among his kindred in PadanAram. After the lapse of 21 years he returned from Padan-Aram with two wives, two concubines, eleven sons and a daughter, and large property
Rezin - ’ [This statement originated in a scribal error, the r in Aram [Note: ram Aramaic
Assyria, History And Religion of - , at Qarqar in north Syria, Shalmaneser fought a coalition of twelve kings including Hadad-ezer (Ben-Hadad, 1Kings 20:26,1 Kings 20:34 ) of Aram-Damascus and Ahab of Israel. This confrontation is not mentioned in the Bible, but it may have taken place during a three-year period of peace between Israel and Aram-Damascus (1 Kings 22:1 ). He is probably the “savior” of 2 Kings 13:5 , who allowed Israel to escape domination by Aram-Damascus. ... As Tiglath-pileser, also called Pul, arrived on the coast of Phoenicia, Menahem of Israel (2 Kings 15:19 ) and Rezin of Aram-Damascus brought tribute and became vassals of Assyria. Israel and Aram-Damascus attacked Jerusalem about 735 B. ), and annexed Aram-Damascus (732 B
Tarshish (1) - The Greek name Tartçssos may possibly come through an Aram [Note: ram Aramaic
Matthew (Apostle) - If then we take the view that this James is neither the brother of our Lord, nor yet the same as James the Little ( Mark 15:40 ), and if we negative the idea that ‘Alpæeus’ (Aram. [Note: Aramaic
Japheth - Nor can it be doubted that he has thrown together under the one head of 'children of Shem' the Assyrians (Asshur), the Syrians (Aram), the Hebrews (Eber), and the Joktanian Arabs (Joktan), four of the principal races which modern ethnology recognizes under the heading of 'Semitic
Nazarene (2) - ] Aram. The Aram. ] the Aram. Aramaic equivalent of the Heb. Halévy suggests the derivation of Ναζωεαῖος from the Aram. Aramaic word adopted above); Neubauer, Géog
Aramaic - ' Aramaic is the language of Aram, and embraces the language of Chaldee and that of Syria. ' In 2 Kings 18:26 ; Isaiah 36:11 the heads of the people asked Rab-shakeh to speak to them in Aramaic that the uneducated might not understand what was said. In Ezra 4:7 the letter sent to Artaxerxes was written in Aramaic, and interpreted in Aramaic, that is, the copy of the letter and what follows as far as Ezra 6:18 is in that language and not in Hebrew. ... In Daniel 2:4 the Chaldeans spoke to the king in Aramaic, the popular language of Babylon, and what follows to the end of chap. Jeremiah 10:11 is a verse in Aramaic. Where the Hebrew has ז z, שׁ sh, צ tz, the Aramaic has ד d, ת th, and ט t. Letters of the same organ are also interchanged, the Aramaic choosing the rough harder sounds. ... When the ten tribes were carried away, the colonists, who took their place, brought the Aramaic language with them. In the ninth century the language in Palestine gave way to the Arabic, and now Aramaic is a living tongue only among the Syrian Christians in the district around Mosul
Syria, Syrian - For the sub-divisions of Syria mentioned in scripture see Aram
ox, Oxen, Herd, Cattle - ; Aram. [Note: Aramaic
Sheep - ’immar ( Aram [Note: ram Aramaic. [Note: Aramaic
Handmaid - , δούλη represents the Hebrew ʼâmâh, which, with the Aramaic equivalent ʼamta and the Bab. In the Aram, text, which probably underlay the Song of the Virgin, ‘handmaiden’ would be ʼamta with suffix (Pal
Generation - Semitics) Asshur (Assyrians), Aram (Syrians), Eber (Hebrew), and Joktan (the Joktanian Arabs)
Boanerges - ] The equation Boanerges = ‘sons of thunder’ presents two difficulties: (a) the Hebrew בִּנַי does not naturally give rise to the two vowels οα; (b) no known Hebrew or Aram. [Note: Aramaic. Just as Dalmanutha (Mark 8:10) is probably a corruption of an Aramaic proper name (see Burkitt, ii. In that case the Evangelist, misreading or mishearing his Aramaic original, has fused two names into one, and has tried to give a rough translation of the word thus formed
Edom - David was striving with Aram of the two rivers (Naharaim) and Aram-Zobah when Joab returned and smote of Edom in the Valley of Salt (the scene also of Amaziah's victory over Edom, the plain S. Translated in the title, "when David had beaten down Aram of the two floods," "when Joab returned," which he did not do all he had fully conquered the Syrians; Psalms 60:4, "Thou hast given a banner," etc. , alludes to this victory and to that over Edom (in 2 Samuel 8:13 "Edom" should be read for "the Syrians," Aram) in the Valley of Salt, the token that the expedition (Psalms 60:9-12) for occupying Edom in revenge for invading Israel would succeed
Bela - A king of Edom, son of Beor, a Chaldean probably by birth (like Balaam also descended from Beor, and originally residing in Pethor of Aram by the Euphrates: Numbers 22:5; Numbers 23:7), and reigning in Edom by conquest (Genesis 36:31-39; 1 Chronicles 1:43-51)
Abba - Abba is the emphatic form of the Aram. word for ‘father’ (see Dalman, Aram. The context of each passage where ‘Abba, Father’ is found appears to prove that the Greek addition is not merely the explanation of the Aramaic word, such as, e. 23) suggests that the phrase is due to the shorter or Lucan form of the Lord’s Prayer, and that the early Christians repeated the first word in the intensity of their devotion, coupling a Hellenistic rendering with the Aramaic Abba. 10), combating Zahn’s theory that Aramaic was the language of St. ... It seems probable (1) that the phrase, ‘Abba, Father,’ is a liturgical formula; (2) that the duality of the form is not due to a Hebraistic repetition for the sake of emphasis, but to the fact that the early Christians, even of non-Jewish descent, were familiar with both Aramaic and Greek; (3) that Abba, being the first word of the Lord’s Prayer, was held in special veneration, and was quoted with the Greek equivalent attached to it, as a familiar devotional phrase (like Maran atha [1 Corinthians 16:22], which would be quite intelligible to Christiana of Gentile origin, though its Greek translation, ὁ Κύριος ἐγγός [Philippians 4:5], was also used; cf
Mizpah -
A place in Gilead, so named by Laban, who overtook Jacob at this spot (Genesis 31:49 ) on his return to Palestine from Padan-Aram
Merom, Waters of - 15:10, section 3); derived from Hul or Chul, son of Aram (Syria), Genesis 10:23 (Rosenmuler), from whence also came Coele-Syria (Michaelis)
Shechem - )... Abraham’s grandson, Jacob, upon returning to Canaan from Paddan-Aram, bought land in Shechem and settled there with his family and flocks (Genesis 33:18-19)
Mercy-Seat - de Lagarde, Uebersicht über die im Aram
Abbreviations - ... Aram. Aramaic
Dan - This city was soon taken by Ben-hadad of Aram and then recaptured by Jeroboam II in the eighth century B. Foreigners were brought in from Babylon, Aram, and other lands to settle Israel's territory. The Greek and Aramaic inscription, “To the god who is in Dan, Zoilos made a vow,” further evidences the religious significance of the city
Shem - " His descendants dwelt chiefly in western Asia, Shem of the Asiatic Japhethites, in an uninterrupted line from the Mediterranean to the mountains of Luristan and the Indian Ocean, Lydia, Palestine, Syria (Aram), Chaldaea (Arphaxad), Assyria (Asshur), Persia (Elam), northern and central Arabia (Joktan). Ethnologists, from the facts of language, divide the Semitic into five main branches, the Aramaean, the Hebrew, the Phoenician, the Assyrian or Assyro Babylonian, and the Arabian. Scripture in Shem's genealogy notices four out of the five: Asshur for the Assyrian, Aram for the Syrian or Aramaean, Eber for the Hebrew, and Joktan for the pure Arabic. The Aramaic has endured longer than Hebrew; but it is poor lexically and grammatically, needing frequent periphrases and particles in aid, and wanting in flexibility and harmony. The Aramaic was too coarse and vague, the Arabic too earthy
Division of the Earth - ) The children of Aram planted the fertile country north of Babylonia, called Aram Naharaim, "Aram between the two rivers," the Euphrates and the Tigris, thence called by the Greeks, Mesopotamia, Genesis 24:10 , and Padan Aram, the level country of Aram, Genesis 25:20 . This country of Aram is frequently rendered Syria in Scripture, Judges 10:6 ; Hosea 12:12 , &c; which is not to be confounded with Palestine Syria, into which they afterward spread themselves, still retaining their original name of Αριμοι , or Arameans, noticed by Homer in his "Iliad
Hadad - The Septuagint read Edom for Aram (Syria), 1 Kings 11:25, thus making Hadad succeed in his attempt to regain rule over Edom, from whence he harassed Israel; but the Septuagint omits all as to Rezon, so that its authority is worth little here
Golgotha - GOLGOTHA ( Matthew 27:33 , Mark 15:22 , John 19:17 , from the Aram. [Note: Aramaic
Kenites - ] an ‘iron-smith’; in Aram, also the word corresponding to ‘Kenite’ denotes a ‘metal-worker’; it has hence been conjectured (Sayce) that the ‘Kenites’ were a nomad tribe of smiths
Benjamin - The youngest son of Jacob, born in Palestine, not far from Bethlehem, after the return from Padan-Aram
Names - The name was selected in honour of a parent or relative (Luke 1:59), or because of some circumstance connected with the birth of the child, as in the case of Thomas (Aram. Aramaic חְּאוֹמָא, Gr. Frequently one person was distinguished from another of the same name by the adding of the father’s name, joined by the Aramaic word bar (בַּר), ‘son of,’ as in Simon bar-Jona (Matthew 16:17), and also in such names as Bartholomew, ‘son of Tolmai,’ and Barabbas, ‘son of a father. Hence persons would have an Aramaic and a Greek name, the second translating the first, or being quite similar in sound
Jacob - His excuse was that he was going to Paddan-Aram to look for a wife among his parent’s relatives (Genesis 27:41-46; Genesis 28:1-5). In Paddan-Aram he fell in love with Rachel, younger daughter of his uncle Laban, and agreed to work seven years for Laban as the bride-price for Rachel
Dispersion - The following table shows how the different families were dispersed: ... | - Japheth | - Gomer | Cimmerians, Armenians | - Magog | Caucasians, Scythians | - Madal | Medes and Persian tribes | - Javan | - Elishah | Greeks | - Tarshish | Etruscans, Romans | - Chittim | Cyprians, Macedonians | - Dodanim | Rhodians | - Tubal | Tibareni, Tartars | - Mechech | Moschi, Muscovites | - Tiras | Thracians | | - Shem | - Elam | Persian tribes | - Asshur | Assyrian | - Arphaxad | - Abraham | - Isaac | - Jacob | Hebrews | - Esau | Edomites | - Ishmael | Mingled with Arab tribes | - Lud | Lydians | - Aram | Syrians | | - Ham | - Cush | Ethiopans | - Mizrain | Egyptians | - Phut | Lybians, Mauritanians | - Canaan | Canaanites, Phoenicians ...
Bethel - This may have induced Jacob to come hither on his way to the north, and again on his return from Paddan-Aram
Servant, Service - ... Many persons in the Old Testament are called "servants, " among them Abraham (Genesis 26:24 ), Jacob (Genesis 32:4 ), Joshua (Joshua 24:29 ), Ruth (Ruth 3:9 ), Hannah (1 Samuel 1:11 ), Samuel (1 Samuel 3:9 ), Jesse (1 Samuel 17:58 ), Uriah the Hittite (2 Samuel 11:21 ), Joab (2 Samuel 14:20 ), Isaiah (Isaiah 20:3 ), Daniel (Daniel 9:17 ), Ben-Hadad of Aram (1 Kings 20:32 ), and Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon (Jeremiah 25:9 )
Amulets And Charms - ] of the Aram. [Note: Aramaic
Raca - Reca; see Dalman, Aram. Aramaic -Neuheb. ] Aram. Aramaic (1896) Dalman assumed that in the form of the NT ai had been contracted to a, and that the spelling with χ in the Manuscripts אD was due to an aspirated pronunciation of the Hebrew qoph, by which it approached to the aspirated kaph
Language of Christ - The practically unanimous verdict of recent scholars is that, considerably before the time of Christ, though when is uncertain, Hebrew had ceased to be spoken in Palestine, and its place as the vernacular had been taken by Aramaic, the language represented in OT by Ezra 4:8-16; Ezra 7:12-26, Jeremiah 10:11, and Daniel 2:4 to Daniel 7:28, and mistakenly named ‘Chaldee. ’... The transition from Hebrew to Aramaic involved no great linguistic revolution, as it was simply a transition from one Semitic language to another, and that a closely cognate one. It was, however, only very gradually effected, and was chiefly due to the predominance to which Aramaic attained in Western Asia during the Persian period, coming, as it did, to be, with dialectical differences, the lingua communis from the Euphrates to the Mediterranean. While, however, Aramaic thus gradually superseded Hebrew as the living tongue of Palestine, and by the time of Alexander the Great had probably reached a position of ascendency, if it had not gained entire possession of the field, yet Hebrew remained, though with some loss of its ancient purity, the language of sacred literature, the language in which Prophet and Psalmist wrote, and as the language of the books ultimately embraced in the OT Canon, continued to be read, with an accompanying translation into Aramaic, in the synagogues, and to be diligently studied by the professional interpreters of the Scriptures. Thenceforward Greek entered into competition with Aramaic. And though, as a non-Semitic language, the adoption of Greek could not come so readily to the Jews as Aramaic, yet the circumstances were such as to tend in no small degree to counterbalance the disadvantage under which Greek thus lay. ... At the time of Christ, then, Palestine was bilingual, Greek as well as Aramaic being, to some extent at least, spoken. Was it, then, Aramaic or Greek that Christ habitually employed in His public ministry? The question resolves itself into that of the relative prevalence of the two languages in the country at the time, so far as that can be determined by such evidence, direct and indirect, as is available. And this evidence, though somewhat meagre, is decisive for Aramaic. All that it certainly establishes is that Christ knew Aramaic, and, apart from His employment of Aramaic terms and proper names, on which perhaps little stress is to be laid, as these terms and proper names may have formed part of the ordinary vocabulary of Greek-speaking Jews, expressed Himself in Aramaic on three different occasions. transliteration of the Aram. Aramaic טַלִיֽתָא or טָלִיחָא קוּם Mark 5:41; (2) ἐφφαθά, euphonic for the Aram. Aramaic אִתְפַתַּח Mark 7:34; and (3) ἠλεὶ ἠλεὶ λαμὰ σαβαχθανεί (Matthew 27:46), or according to Mark 15:34 ἐλωί, ἐλωί, λεμὰ σαβαχθανεί, the Aram. Aramaic אֵלִחִי אֳלָהִי לִמָא שְׁבַקחַּנִי or אֵלי אֵלי. How these three Aramaic expressions alone came to be preserved is matter of conjecture. ... The two main sources of direct evidence conclusively proving the predominance of Aramaic as the popular language, are the Book of Acts and the Works of Josephus. ’ Now Akeldama is the Aram. Aramaic חֲקל דּֽמָא, and points not only to the fact that Aramaic had superseded Hebrew as the vernacular, but that at the time of Christ it was the popular language, even of the inhabitants of Jerusalem. Paul undoubtedly meant Aramaic. The terms Ἑβραΐδι and Ἐβραϊστί, as is generally admitted, are used both in the NT and by Josephus when not Hebrew but Aramaic is meant. Thus in John 19:13 it is said that ‘Pilate sat down in the judgment-seat in a place that is called the Pavement, but in the Hebrew Gabbatha’ (Ἐβραϊστὶ δὲ Γαββαθά); and Γαββαθά is not Hebrew, but Aramaic. That the ascended Christ should have spoken to Saul in Aramaic is unintelligible except on the supposition that that had been the language which He had spoken when on earth, and that it was the prevailing language of Palestine. ... Quite as significant is the circumstance mentioned in Acts 22:2 that Paul addressed the infuriated Jerusalemites in Aramaic, and that when they ascertained from his opening words that he was to speak to them in that language, ‘they kept the more silence’ (μᾶλλον παρέσχον ἡσυχίαν), the reference being to the fact that Paul had not attempted to speak until by a gesture indicative of his desire to be heard he had stilled the uproar, and, as it is said, ‘there was made a great silence. And in any case, even though they had expected to be addressed in Greek, the deeper silence into which they settled when they found that they were to be addressed in Aramaic, proves that they were more familiar with the latter language than the former, and that the latter was the language generally spoken by them. The evidence of Josephus is as direct and conclusive as that furnished by the Acts of the predominance of Aramaic. In the preface to BJ he records how that work was at first written in Aramaic and afterwards translated into Greek. to the Aramaic-speaking peoples, whom he describes in the following paragraph as ‘the Parthians, Babylonians, the remotest Arabians, and those of our nation beyond Euphrates, with the Adiabeni. ’... That a Palestinian Jew such as Josephus, who was of a distinguished priestly family, who received a careful rabbinic education and studied in the various schools of the Pharisees, Sadducees, and Essenes, should not only characterize Aramaic as ‘the language of our own country,’ but should write his first book in that language, is in itself conclusive proof that Aramaic had not then been materially driven from its position as the vernacular of Palestine. Suggestive also in this connexion, and giving added weight to the case for Aramaic, is Josephus’ own confession of the difficulty he experienced in acquiring such mastery of Greek as that which he ultimately attained. The case for Aramaic as the prevailing language of Palestine in the time of Christ, and the language, therefore, which Christ must necessarily have employed generally in His teaching, is thus incontestably established by the direct evidence of the Acts and of Josephus. And though less direct and certain, there is other evidence to the same effect to which reference may be made, and specially that furnished by the Targums and what is known as The Aramaic Gospel. ... (a) The Targums are Aramaic translations or paraphrases of the OT books, and cover the whole of those books with the exception of Daniel, Ezra, and Nehemiah. The important point, however, is that they undoubtedly embody material from a much earlier time, and were the outcome of the practice, originating in the gradual disuse of Hebrew as the vernacular, of translating the synagogue readings of the OT into Aramaic for the benefit of the people generally. But even though it had not, and there were no written Targums till a later date, yet the existence of written Targums at that later date points conclusively to the prevalence of the practice of the oral translation of the synagogue lessons into Aramaic, and therefore to the prevalence of that language as the vernacular. ’ The special arguments in favour of this theory are: (1) that copies of the Septuagint could be had at a much smaller cost than Hebrew or Aramaic Manuscripts , that indeed the price of the latter was prohibitive so far as the people generally were concerned; and (2) that the OT quotations in the NT point to a very general familiarity with the Septuagint, inasmuch as the majority of them are verbatim or practically verbatim, or show unmistakable traces of the Septuagint, and particularly as in some cases the Septuagint is followed when it differs from the Hebrew. ... (b) The question of an Aramaic Gospel (Ur-Evangelium), while important chiefly in connexion with the Synoptic problem, bears closely upon that of the language spoken by Christ. If Christ spoke Aramaic, such a Gospel was to be expected, and at the same time its existence would furnish weighty proof at once of the prevalence of Aramaic and of the use of that language by our Lord. And the labours of recent critical scholars, if they have not conclusively established the existence of an Aramaic Ur-Evangelium, have at least made it much less open to question. ), by Professor Marshall, on ‘The Aramaic Gospel. ’ The theory which Professor Marshall in these articles works out with great ability and skill is that the variant Greek words in parallel passages of the Synoptic Gospels can be traced to one original Aramaic word; and the result of the application of his theory is that the Aramaic Gospel contained, speaking generally, the ministry of Christ in Galilee. But whether or not it may be possible by his or any other method to recover with certainty and to any extent the precise Aramaic words used by our Lord, there can be no doubt that Aramaic had the supreme honour of being the language in which He gave expression to His imperishable thoughts. Meyer, Jesu Mutter-sprache, 1896; Dalman, The Words of Jesus, English translation 1902; Schultze, Gram, der Aram. Aramaic Muttersprache Jesu, 1899; Marshall, Expositor, Ser
Malchus - Aram. Aramaic 104)
Jannes And Jambres - Jambres occurs in the form Mambres also (the b in both is probably euphonic only), and may have been treated as if from Aram
Arise - " This word occurs in nearly every Semitic language, including biblical Hebrew and Aramaic. It occurs about 630 times in biblical Hebrew and 39 times in biblical Aramaic. Thus Genesis 28:2 could simply be rendered, "Go to Padan-Aram," rather than, "Arise, go …" (KJV)
Thorns, Thistles, Etc - na‘utsûts ( Isaiah 7:19 ‘thorns,’ Isaiah 55:13 ‘thorn’), from Aram. [Note: Aramaic
Theophany - Jacob, sent off by Isaac to Paddan-Aram, was granted a dream in which he saw the Lord (Genesis 28:12-13 )
Repetitions - Holtzmann, Meyer); (3) as a hybrid composed of a Semitic element-New Hebrew batal, Aram. Aramaic batal, ‘to be idle,’ ‘vain,’ ‘worthless,’ represented in modern Arabic by batal, a term of contempt (ExpT [Note: xpT Expository Times
Balaam - He belonged to Pethor, a city of Aram Naharaim, i. "Balak, the king of Moab" (he says, Numbers 23:7), "hath brought me from Aram, out of the mountains of the E. with Zimri her pAramour), was principal; and in Numbers 31:8; Numbers 31:16, Israel's slaughter of the Midianites with their five kings (Zur was one), and also of Balaam, son of Beor, because of his "counsel. " Bosor is probably the Aramaic or Chaldee equivalent of Beor, Τsade ( צ ) being submitted for 'Αyin ( ע ). Peter residing at Babylon would naturally adopt the name usual in the Aramaic tradition) "loved the wages of unrighteousness: but was rebuked for his iniquity, the mute (voiceless) donkey, speaking with man's voice, forbad the madness of the prophet": an awful contrast, a dumb beast forbidding an inspired prophet. "Eber," who was to be "afflicted" by Assyria, includes Eber's descendants through Peleg, and also through Joktan; the western Semites, sprung from Arphaxad, Lud, and Aram (Genesis 10:21)
Barnabas - According to Acts 4:36, the surname Barnabas was given him by the apostles, presumably as an honourable distinction, and signifies ‘son of consolation or exhortation’ (υἱὸς παρακλήσεως = Aram. Other derivations therefore have been proposed, which give ‘the son of Nebo,’ ‘the son of peace’ (= Aram. In any case, the statement of Acts implies that Barnabas was noted for his prophetic or preaching gifts; and comparison with Acts 14:12 probably warrants the further inference that he was more fluent in Aramaic than in Greek
am ha'Arez - ’... This idea developed and led to the formation of a party called ‘Separatists,’ Hăsidim or Pĕrûshim (Aram. [Note: Aramaic
Shekinah - Later thought objected to this, as materializing the Divine nature; hence in the Targums (Aram. [Note: Aramaic
Isaac - To protect Jacob from his brother’s resentment Isaac sent him away to obtain a wife from his mother’s kindred in Paddan-Aram ( Genesis 28:2 ), and repeated the benediction
Matthew - On the other hand, it seems to have been common in Galilee for a man to possess two names-a Greek and an Aramaic (cf. Again, if we identify Clopas of John 19:25 with Alphaeus of the Synoptists (Aram
Benjamin - ] , however ( Genesis 35:22-26 ), gives Paddan-Aram as the birth-place of all Jacob’s children
Damascus - It is supposed to have been founded by Ux, the son of Aram; and is, at least, known to have subsisted in the time of Abraham, Genesis 15:2
Rock - ] of the Aram. [Note: Aramaic
Mesopotamia - (For details see Aram; ASSYRIA; BABYLON; EUPHRATES; SYRIA; TIGRIS
Slave/Servant - Canaan, Aram, Assyria, Babylonia, and Persia had fewer slaves because it proved less expensive to hire free persons
Phoeni'ce, Phoenic'ia - The native name of Phoenicia was Kenaan (Canaan) or Kna , signifying lowland, so named in contrast to the ad joining Aram, i
Jacob - Rebekah had to arrange for Jacob to flee to her home in Paddan-Aram to escape Esau's wrath (Genesis 27:46-28:1 ). ... In Aram with his mother's family, the deceiver Jacob met deception
Jordan - The traditional site of Jacob's crossing Jordan (Jisr Benat Yacobe) at his first leaving Beersheba for Padan Aram is a mile and a half from Merom, and six from the sea of Galilee; in those six its descent with roaring cataracts over the basaltic rocks is 1,050 ft. On Jacob's return from Padan Aram he crossed near where the Jabbok (Zerka) enters the Jordan (Genesis 32:10; Genesis 32:22)
Tigris - Two great rivers, the Tigris and the Euphrates, flowed through Mesopotamia, a fertile region that in biblical times was part of the lands of Aram, Assyria, Babylon and Persia (Genesis 2:14-15; Daniel 10:4)
Nazareth - The most likely suggestion is that it signifies ‘Watch-tower’ (from נֹצָרֶת, Aram
Nazareth - The most likely suggestion is that it signifies ‘Watch-tower’ (from נֹצָרֶת, Aram
Transjordan - Transjordan included: The River Jabbok, scene of the account of Jacob's wrestling on his return from Aram (Genesis 32:22-32 ); the Plains of Moab, where the Israelites are said to have camped following their Exodus from Egypt and where Baalam prophesied, and Mount Nebo, from which Moses viewed the Promised Land, (Numbers 22:1-24:25 ; Deuteronomy 34:1 )
Manasseh (1) - ) Manasseh's son by an Aramitess (Syrian) concubine, Machir, had children "borne upon Joseph's knees" (Genesis 50:23), i. "Geshur and Aram (Syria) took the 23 towns of Jair and the 37 of Kenath and her daughters, 60 in all, from them"; so 1 Chronicles 2:23 ought to be translated In Judges 10:4 we find Jair the judge in possession of 30 of them, recovered from the enemy
Damascus - Josephus makes Damascus to have been founded by Uz, son of Aram, grandson of Shem
Chaldaea - This is "the learning and the tongue of the Chaldaeans" (Daniel 1:4), in which the four Jewish youths were instructed, and which is quite distinct from the Aramaean, or Chaldee so-called (allied to Hebrew), of those parts of the book of Daniel which are not Hebrew, as not being so connected with the Jews as with the Babylonians. The Aramaean and the Hebrew are sister languages. of Aram
Daniel, Book of - The Aramaic is a West-Syrian dialect, not in use at the Bab. (1) From Daniel 2:4 b to Daniel 7:26 is in Aramaic . Four explanations have been offered: ( a ) This section was originally written in Aramaic, about b. original was lost and its place filled by an already current Aram. [Note: Aramaic. ( d ) The likeliest suggestion is that the entire book was Aramaic, but would not have found admission into the Canon if it had not been enclosed, so to speak, in a frame of Heb
jo'Seph - He was born in Padan-Aram (Mesopotamia), probably about B
Jacob - ... When sent forth by his parents to escape Esau, and to get a wife in Padan Aram, he for the first time is presented before us as enjoying God's manifestations at Bethel in his vision of the ladder set up on earth, and the top reaching heaven, with "Jehovah standing above, and the angels of God ascending and descending (not descending and ascending, for the earth is presupposed as already the scene of their activity) on it," typifying God's providence and grace arranging all things for His people's good through the ministry of "angels" (Genesis 28; Hebrews 1:14). " The ordinary view that he was only 20 years old in Padan Aram would make him 77 years old in going there; and as Joseph, the second youngest, was born at the end of the first 14 years, the 11 children born before Benjamin would be all born within six or seven years, Leah's six, Rachel's one, Bilhah's two, and Zilpah's two. But in the view of Kennicott and Speaker's Commentary Jacob went to Laban at 57; in the first 14 years had sons, Reuben, Simeon, Levi, and Judah by Leah; Dan and Naphtali by Bilhah; in the 20 years (Genesis 35:38) next had Gad and Asher by Zilpah, Issachar and Zebulun by Leah, lastly Dinah by Leah and Joseph by Rachel; then six years' service for cattle, then flees from Padan Aram where he had been 40 years, at 97
Time (2) - The use of the plural (Matthew 28:1, Mark 16:2, Luke 24:1) may have arisen from the Aram. Aramaic Sabbĕthâ, ‘the Sabbath’ (Heb
Damascus - It is explained in the Aram. [Note: Aramaic
Dereliction - gives Aram. further Aramaicizes אִלָי into אלָהִי
Jacob - After much recrimination and reproach directed against Jacob, Laban is at length pacified, and taking an affectionate farewell of his daughters, returns to his home in PadanAram. The vision of angels was the counterpart of that he had formerly seen at Bethel, when, twenty years before, the weary, solitary traveller, on his way to Padan-Aram, saw the angels of God ascending and descending on the ladder whose top reached to heaven (28:12)
Assur - Chushan-Rishathaim (Judges 3:8), the first foreign oppressor of Israel, was master of the whole of Syria between the rivers (Aram Naharaim) or Mesopotamia, in the time of the judges, so that at that time (about 1400 B. Syria (properly called Aram) N
Phoenice - The native name was Canaan, "lowland," in contrast to Aram "the highland," Syria. Abram originally spoke the language of Ur of the Chaldees, Aramaic, as did Laban (Genesis 11:31; Genesis 31:47); but soon his descendants, as Jacob, spoke the Canaanite or Phoenician Hebrew as their own tongue, compare Deuteronomy 26:5. ... The -a termination of the Greek letters is the Aramaic status emphaticus ; the definite article he , instead of being prefixed was subjoined to the noun; so in Genesis 31:47 the Aramaean (Syrian) Laban adds -a to sahaduth "testimony," Jegar Sahadutha; nine out of the 16 Cadmeian letters are in the Aramaic status emphaticus , i. This proves that when the Greeks received originally the letters from the East the names by which they learned them were Aramaic
Corban - ’ The termination -ας in κορβανᾶς is the Greek method of indicating the Aramaic determinative in קָרבָנָא. and Aram. [Note: Aramaic
Lord's Prayer (i) - If the first Gospel was originally written in (Hebrew or) Aramaic, its author may have had the Lord’s Prayer before him, written or oral, in (Hebrew or) Aramaic, and given it in one of these dialects; then the translator may have formed the Greek under the influence of Lk. , would both correspond to an Aram. Aramaic אַבָּא, which is connected with ὁ πατήρ in Romans 8:15, Galatians 4:6, Mark 14:36. , אֲבוּנַן in Aram. Aramaic , אֲבוּנָא in Galilaean), is shown by Dahman, Worte Jesu, 157, though for the beginning of a prayer the more solemn form appears to him more probable. Among Jews it is customary to add שֶׁבַּשָׁמַיִם in Hebrew (דְּבַשְׁמַיָא in Aramaic) to אָב where it is used of God, but the isolated אַבָּא is not unusual. ’ To רָצוֹן of Biblical Hebrew would correspond צִבְיוֹן in post-Biblical Hebrew and Aramaic
Manuscripts - But with the spread of the Aramaic language and then Greek during the latter centuries BC (see Aram; GREECE), Hebrew had become less widely known in Palestine in New Testament times
Voice (2) - ) is the equivalent of the Rabbinical Hebrew יצאה בח קול מן השמים and the Aram. Aramaic נפקת ברת קלא מן שמיא
Deaf And Dumb - ’] —the taking aside, the mysterious remedies applied, the sigh, the word spoken, not of magic but of power,‡ [Note: The Aram
Holiness - The Aram. [Note: Aramaic
Joab - Psalm 60 (title) was composed by David after he had beaten Aram of the two floods (Naharaim); this victory the psalmist takes as an earnest that the expedition setting out to occupy Edom would succeed; compare Psalms 60:8-9; Psalms 60:12, with 2 Samuel 8:14
Synagogue - -The name ‘synagogue’ (συναγωγή, Aram. Aram. The one who was to translate the text into the vernacular (Aramaic), called metûrgemân (Meg. This prophetic portion was called in Aramaic aphṭartâ (Heb
Isaac - Isaac lived to see Jacob whom he had sent with his blessing (for faith at last prevailed over his partiality, and he gave Jacob the blessing of Abraham, Genesis 28:1; Genesis 28:4) to seek a wife in Padan-Aram return with a large family to him at Hebron (Genesis 35:27),... Before he died at 180; the longest lived of the three patriarchs, the least migratory, the least prolific, and the least favored with revelations
Mammon - equivalent for a late Aram. Aramaic or Syro-Chald
Commerce - Aram or Edom (NIV with footnote) traded “emeralds, purple, embroidered work, fine linen, coral, and rubies” (Ezekiel 27:16 NAS), and Judah sent honey, oil, and balm along with wheat as trade goods to Tyre ( Ezekiel 27:17 )
Name - צְבִי has in Aram
James And John, the Sons of Zebedee - The second half of the word has been connected with Aram. ’ Burkitt has suggested that the Syriac translator connected the word with Aram
Genealogy of Jesus Christ - Both lists agree from Abraham to David, except that Aram or Ram in Matthew 1:3 = Arm in Luke 3:33 (best text); but between David and Joseph the lists have only Shealtiel and Zerubbabel, and possibly two other names (see below), in common
Balaam - And, perhaps, as Balak had promised to reward him with very great honours, he might have quitted his home, in the east of Aram, to be made a prince among the Midianites
Patriarchs, the - Meanwhile Laban's two daughters felt that they, as well as their husband Jacob, were being treated badly by Laban (Genesis 31:15 ), and all of them plotted to leave Paddan-Aram quietly
Peter - ’ Cephas is the Aram. [Note: Aramaic
Joel, Book of - Assyria, Babylonia, and Aram are neither named nor alluded to. There are a few Aramaisms: ’âlâh ‘lament’ ( Joel 1:8 ); sôph ‘hinder part’ ( Joel 2:20 ) for qçts ; the Hiphil of nâchath Joel 3:11 ), and rômach ( Joel 3:10 ) a word of Aramaic affinities; and several expressions often met with in late writers
Time - The Aram [Note: ram Aramaic
Tongues, Confusion of - Ethnologists divide the Shemites into five main branches, Aramaean, Hebrew, Phoenician, Assyrian or Babylonian, and Arabian; Moses recognizes four of these, Asshur or Assyria, Aram or Syria, Eber or the Hebrew, Joktan the pure Arabs
Galilee (2) - —The English form of the name ‘Galilee’ is derived from the Hebrew וָּלִיל (âlîl), Aram. [Note: Aramaic. It was ravaged by Ben-hadad (1 Kings 15:20), probably won back by Ahab, taken again by the Aramaeans under Hazael (2 Kings 12:18; 2 Kings 13:22), and recovered by Jeroboam ii. Their pronunciation of the Aramaic language had peculiarities of its own (Matthew 26:73), one of these being the confusion of the guttural sounds
Jews, Judaism - He was born in Paddan Aram before Jacob returned to Canaan (Genesis 35:23 )
the Disobedient Prophet - Bethel was built on that very spot on which their father Jacob had slept and dreamed when he was on his lonely way to Padan-Aram; and it is that very heaven out of which the ladder was let down on Jacob's pillow that is today to be darkened by the unclean incense of Jeroboam's altar-fires
Entry Into Jerusalem - ] 2 Samuel 7:12), ‘branch’ (Jeremiah 23:5 and Zechariah 6:13, where the Aram. [Note: Aramaic
Passover (i.) - פָּסַח pesah, Aram. Aramaic פַּסְחָא pasha, in Greek πάσχα, φασέκ, and φάσκα [Josephus ], NT πάσχα)
Talmud - ... The Mishna is divided into six Sedarim (Aram. [Note: Aramaic. This is an Aramaic word from the root meaning ‘to learn,’ and has the signification of ‘that which has been learned,’ i
Jacob - Jacob and his staff were a perfect proverb in Padan-Aram
Balaam - And he took up his parable and said, Balak hath brought me out of Aram, saying, Come, curse me Jacob, and come defy Israel
Parable - But, accepting this as true, we have made little progress in determining the exact significance of παραβολή, for as yet agreement has not been attained with reference to the definition of the Semitie original (משל, Aram. Aramaic מתלא)
Golgotha - GOLGOTHA (Γολγοθᾶ, Aram. [Note: Aramaic. corner of the HAram area. If we place Golgotha at the traditional site, we make Jerusalem at the time of its greatest prosperity no larger than the poverty-stricken town of the present day, ‘containing not far from 200 acres, from which 36 acres must be deducted for the HAram area’ (Merrill)
Baruch, Apocalypse of - 70, and now preserved only in Syriac, This Syriac is a translation from the Greek, of which only a tiny fragment is extant; the Greek itself seems to have been a translation from an Aramaic or Hebrew original. ’ This sentence sufficiently shows how difficult it would be to reconstruct the Greek from the Syriac of Baruch, and how impossible to argue back to the wording of a hypothetical Hebrew or Aramaic original. It is possible, of course, if the Greek be a translation from Hebrew or Aramaic, that the Greek translator changed the wording of lxxxii. And, further, it is almost certain that they must have been originally composed in the same language, either both in Greek, or both in Hebrew or Aramaic. ] Ὕψιστος in a Jewish writing corresponds to עליון (Aram. But, as explained above, we are very far from being able to reconstruct the text of this hypothetical Hebrew or Aramaic original (lxiv. ... Not only the language, but also the contents, of Baruch favour a Hebrew or Aramaic original. Baruch is known to us only from a single manuscript of a not very literal translation into Syriac of a Greek translation of a Hebrew or Aramaic original
Sanhedrin - Aram. The name Synhedrion (Aramaized Sanhedrin), which denotes chiefly a court of justice, came into popular use under Ptolemaic rule; and, as its Hebrew equivalent, the name Ḥeber hâ-Yehûdîm appears on Hasmonaean coins, which read: ‘Joḥannan the high priest, the head, and the Council (representative) of the Jews’ (Madden, op
Pentecost - ’ At a very much later date the Jews gave to this festival the name of ḥag ha‛aẓereth or ‛aẓarta’ (Aram
Pentecost - ’ At a very much later date the Jews gave to this festival the name of ḥag ha‛aẓereth or ‛aẓarta’ (Aram
Vicarious Sacrifice - terms, and besides, since Jesus spoke Aramaic, it is not certain that λύτρον, in the way the LXX Septuagint uses it, exactly represents what Jesus said. If an exact interpretation were required, we should have to know the Aramaic word of which λύτρον is the translation. Hollmann has discussed this term cogently and ably, showing that Jesus probably did not use the Aram, cognate of kôpher, but the equivalent of a Heb
Gospels, Apocryphal - Jerome obtained from the Syrian Christians a copy of this Gospel, which was written in Aramaic, and was used among the sects of the Nazarenes and Ebionites, by which two classes he probably meant the Palestinian Christians of the non-Pauline churches. or Aram. [Note: Aramaic
Israel - The sons of Shem were Elam, Assyria, Mesopotamia, Lud (a land of unknown situation, not Lydia), and Aram (the Aramæans). Israel is called an Aramæan ( Deuteronomy 26:5 ), and the account of the marriage of Jacob ( Genesis 29:1-35 ; Genesis 30:1-43 ; Genesis 31:1-55 ) shows that Israel was kindred to the Aramæans. We can now trace in the cuneiform literature the appearance and westward migration of the Aramæans, and we know that they begin to be mentioned in the Euphrates valley about b. The Israelites were a part of this Aramæan migration. Because of his preeminence in the knowledge of Jahweh he acquired this pAramount influence in all their counsels