Character Study on Baruch

Character Study on Baruch

Nehemiah 3: After him Baruch the son of Zabbai earnestly repaired the other piece, from the turning of the wall unto the door of the house of Eliashib the high priest.
Nehemiah 10: Daniel, Ginnethon, Baruch,
Nehemiah 11: And Maaseiah the son of Baruch, the son of Colhozeh, the son of Hazaiah, the son of Adaiah, the son of Joiarib, the son of Zechariah, the son of Shiloni.
Jeremiah 32: And I gave the evidence of the purchase unto Baruch the son of Neriah, the son of Maaseiah, in the sight of Hanameel mine uncle's son, and in the presence of the witnesses that subscribed the book of the purchase, before all the Jews that sat in the court of the prison.
Jeremiah 32: And I charged Baruch before them, saying,
Jeremiah 32: Now when I had delivered the evidence of the purchase unto Baruch the son of Neriah, I prayed unto the LORD, saying,
Jeremiah 36: Then Jeremiah called Baruch the son of Neriah: and Baruch wrote from the mouth of Jeremiah all the words of the LORD, which he had spoken unto him, upon a roll of a book.
Jeremiah 36: And Jeremiah commanded Baruch, saying, I am shut up; I cannot go into the house of the LORD:
Jeremiah 36: And Baruch the son of Neriah did according to all that Jeremiah the prophet commanded him, reading in the book the words of the LORD in the LORD'S house.
Jeremiah 36: Then read Baruch in the book the words of Jeremiah in the house of the LORD, in the chamber of Gemariah the son of Shaphan the scribe, in the higher court, at the entry of the new gate of the LORD'S house, in the ears of all the people.
Jeremiah 36: Then Michaiah declared unto them all the words that he had heard, when Baruch read the book in the ears of the people.
Jeremiah 36: Therefore all the princes sent Jehudi the son of Nethaniah, the son of Shelemiah, the son of Cushi, unto Baruch, saying, Take in thine hand the roll wherein thou hast read in the ears of the people, and come. So Baruch the son of Neriah took the roll in his hand, and came unto them.
Jeremiah 36: And they said unto him, Sit down now, and read it in our ears. So Baruch read it in their ears.
Jeremiah 36: Now it came to pass, when they had heard all the words, they were afraid both one and other, and said unto Baruch, We will surely tell the king of all these words.
Jeremiah 36: And they asked Baruch, saying, Tell us now, How didst thou write all these words at his mouth?
Jeremiah 36: Then Baruch answered them, He pronounced all these words unto me with his mouth, and I wrote them with ink in the book.
Jeremiah 36: Then said the princes unto Baruch, Go, hide thee, thou and Jeremiah; and let no man know where ye be.
Jeremiah 36: But the king commanded Jerahmeel the son of Hammelech, and Seraiah the son of Azriel, and Shelemiah the son of Abdeel, to take Baruch the scribe and Jeremiah the prophet: but the LORD hid them.
Jeremiah 36: Then the word of the LORD came to Jeremiah, after that the king had burned the roll, and the words which Baruch wrote at the mouth of Jeremiah, saying,
Jeremiah 36: Then took Jeremiah another roll, and gave it to Baruch the scribe, the son of Neriah; who wrote therein from the mouth of Jeremiah all the words of the book which Jehoiakim king of Judah had burned in the fire: and there were added besides unto them many like words.
Jeremiah 43: But Baruch the son of Neriah setteth thee on against us, for to deliver us into the hand of the Chaldeans, that they might put us to death, and carry us away captives into Babylon.
Jeremiah 43: Even men, and women, and children, and the king's daughters, and every person that Nebuzaradan the captain of the guard had left with Gedaliah the son of Ahikam the son of Shaphan, and Jeremiah the prophet, and Baruch the son of Neriah.
Jeremiah 45: The word that Jeremiah the prophet spake unto Baruch the son of Neriah, when he had written these words in a book at the mouth of Jeremiah, in the fourth year of Jehoiakim the son of Josiah king of Judah, saying,
Jeremiah 45: Thus saith the LORD, the God of Israel, unto thee, O Baruch;

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Dictionary

Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Baruch
("blessed, Benedict".) Neriah's son, Jeremiah's (Jeremiah 32:12; Jeremiah 36:4-32) steadfast attendant and amanuensis; brother to Seraiah, of princely family (Jeremiah 51:59) and position. He was the friend to whom Jeremiah in prison entrusted the papers of the purchase of his uncle's field at Anathoth, the year before Jerusalem's destruction, to assure the Jews of the certainty of their return from Babylon. He wrote out Jeremiah's prophecies against the Jews and other nations, and, while the prophet was shut up, i.e. prevented coming forward, read them before the people; in consequence of which king Jehoiakim sought to kill him and Jeremiah, but the Lord hid them. Jehoiakim having destroyed the first roll, Baruch wrote again the same words with many additions. Azariah and Johanan after the capture of the city, when Jeremiah warned them against going to Egypt, said: "Baruch setteth thee on against us for to deliver us into the hand of the Chaldeans."

On, the former occasion Baruch yielded to despondency; and as Paul subjoins epistles to individuals after epistles to churches, so Jeremiah subjoins a prophecy concerning Baruch after the prophecies and histories concerning the Jews and their kings: "Thus saith the Lord the God of Israel, unto thee, O Baruch. Thou didst say, Woe is me now, for the Lord hath added grief to my sorrow, I fainted in my sighing, and I find no rest." When a "whole land," the people of My "planting," are being plucked up; "seekest thou great things for thyself?" i.e., dost thou expect to be exempt from trial?

A promise is added to the reproof: "thy life will I give unto thee for a prey." How striking, that Jeremiah (Jeremiah 12:1-5; Jeremiah 15:10-18; Jeremiah 15:45), who once was so desponding himself, is enabled to minister counsel to Baruch falling into the same error. God allows His servants to be tempted, in order to fit them for succoring others who are tempted. Baruch was carried with Jeremiah by Johanan into Egypt (Jeremiah 43:6). The apocryphal book of Baruch is evidently one of later composition.

2. Son of Zabbai (Nehemiah 3:20).

3. Son of Colhozeh (Nehemiah 11:5).

Easton's Bible Dictionary - Baruch
Blessed.
The secretary of the prophet (Jeremiah 32:12 ; 36:4 ). He was of the tribe of Judah (51:59). To him Jeremiah dictated his prophecies regarding the invasion of the Babylonians and the Captivity. These he read to the people from a window in the temple in the fourth year of the reign of Jehoiakim, king of Judah (Jeremiah 36 ). He afterwards read them before the counsellors of the king at a private interview; and then to the king himself, who, after hearing a part of the roll, cut it with a penknife, and threw it into the fire of his winter parlour, where he was sitting. During the siege of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar, he was the keeper of the deed of purchase Jeremiah had made of the territory of Hanameel (Jeremiah 32:12 ). Being accused by his enemies of favouring the Chaldeans, he was cast, with Jeremiah, into prison, where he remained till the capture of Jerusalem (B.C. 586). He probably died in Babylon.





Nehemiah 3:20 ; 10:6 ; 11:5 .
Holman Bible Dictionary - Baruch
(bay' ryooch) The son of Neriah who served as Jeremiah's scribe and friend. He helped Jeremiah purchase a field from the prophet's cousin Hanameel and used the purchase as a symbol of hope (Jeremiah 32:12 ). Baruch, whose name means “blessed,” served Jeremiah as an amanuensis or scribe. He appears, moreover, to have had a close personal association with the prophet and to have exercised a significant influence in the ministry of Jeremiah. He wrote down Jeremiah's preaching and read it to the king's counselors who took it to the king. Jehoiakim burned it, but Jeremiah dictated it again (Jeremiah 36:1 ). Jeremiah was even accused of being a mere instrument of Baruch's enmity (Jeremiah 43:3 ). The prophet counseled Baruch to place his confidence wholly in the Lord and not to seek great things for himself (Jeremiah 45:1 ). A wide range of later literature was attributed to Baruch in Jewish tradition. See Jeremiah .



Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Baruch
BARUCH (‘blessed’). 1 . Son of Neriah, the son of Mahseiah and brother of Seraiah ( Jeremiah 51:59 ); known from Jeremiah 36:1-32 ; Jeremiah 45:1-5 ; Jeremiah 32:12-16 ; Jeremiah 43:3 ; Jeremiah 43:8 ; by Jeremiah’s side in the conflict with Jehoiakim (b.c. 604), again during the last siege of Jerusalem (587 6), and again amongst the Judæans left behind after the Second Captivity. ‘Baruch’ the scribe, named in Jeremiah 36:26 along with ‘Jeremiah the prophet,’ is already the recognized attendant and amanuensis of the latter; he seems to have rendered the prophet over twenty years of devoted service. He belonged to the order of ‘princes,’ among whom Jeremiah had influential friends ( Jeremiah 26:16 ; Jeremiah 36:25 ); Baruch’s rank probably secured for Jeremiah’s objectionable ‘roll’ (ch. 36) the hearing that was refused to his spoken words. When he cast in his lot with Jeremiah, Baruch made a heavy sacrifice; he might have ‘sought great things’ for himself, and is warned against his natural ambition ( Jeremiah 45:3-5 ). The promise that Baruch’s ‘life shall be given’ him ‘for a prey’ wherever he goes, placed where it is ( Jeremiah 45:5 ), suggests that he survived his master, to act as his literary executor. The Book of Jeremiah (see art.) owes much to this loyal secretary, though the final arrangement of the materials is far from satisfactory. Tradition adds nothing of any certainty to the references of Scripture; see, however, Jos. [Note: Josephus.] Ant . X. ix. 1, 7. For the Apocryphal writings attached to his name, see Apocrypha and Apocalyptic Literature. 2 . One of the wall-builders ( Nehemiah 3:20 ). 3 . A signatory to the covenant ( Nehemiah 10:5 ). 4 . A Judahite ( Nehemiah 11:5 ).

G. G. Findlay.

Hitchcock's Bible Names - Baruch
Who is blessed
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Baruch
1. Son of Zabbai: he helped to build the wall of Jerusalem. Nehemiah 3:20 .

2. A priest who sealed the covenant. Nehemiah 10:6 .

3. Father of Maaseiah who returned from exile. Nehemiah 11:5 .

4. Son of Neriah, and faithful secretary to Jeremiah. He was eventually carried with Jeremiah into Egypt. Jeremiah 32:12-16 ; Jeremiah 36:4-32 ; Jeremiah 43:3,6 ; Jeremiah 45:1,2 .

BARUCH, BOOK OF. This forms part of the O.T. Apocrypha, though its professed author is Baruch, the friend and secretary of Jeremiah. It relates that the Jews in Babylon sent a deputation to Jerusalem with money for sacrifices, and requested that prayers might be offered for Nebuchadnezzar and his son Belshazzar. It confesses that their sufferings were in consequence of their sins. It points to the sin ofneglectingthe source of wisdom, and exhorts to a return. It laments over Jerusalem; but exults in its future blessing. It ends with an Epistle of Jeremiah to those who were to be led captive into Babylon, warning them against the idols they would find there. It is generally agreed that the book was not written by its assumed author, but there is great diversity of opinion as to its probable date: some placing it B.C. 160, and others not till B.C. 79-69.

1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Baruch
(Hebrew: blessed)

Prophet of the Old Testament, disciple of Jeremias, and author of the Book of Baruch. He lived during the days of the decline and fall of the Kingdom of Juda, and, like Jeremias, was desolated at the prospect of the subjugation of Juda by Babylon. He was forced into the office of prophesying failure upon the dismal statesmanship of the kings of Juda. He warned them against provoking a foe whom they could not withstand; and, when they had fallen into captivity with the best of their people, he warned the remnant to cease arousing Babylon and place their trust in God. He continued consistently to bear witness against the melancholy unfaithfulness of the Jews and to point to the day when Jerusalem, purged by penitence, should rise from her desolation and reclaim her scattered children.

1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Baruch, Book of
In the Catholic Bible, an inspired writing containing, in five chapters, the prophecy with which Baruch consoled the Jewish exiles on the River Sedi and which they sent, with some rescued silver vessels, back to Jerusalem. A sixth chapter is made of the Epistle of Jeremias, which seems rather to be of the authorship of Jeremias than of Baruch.

Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Baruch, Apocalypse of
The subject of this article is a Jewish work composed not long after the Destruction of Jerusalem in a.d. 70, and now preserved only in Syriac, This Syriac is a translation from the Greek, of which only a tiny fragment is extant; the Greek itself seems to have been a translation from an Aramaic or Hebrew original.

The Apocalypse of Baruch was first published as a whole by Ceriani from the Ambrosian manuscript of the Peshitta OT (6th cent.). The Latin translation appeared in 1866, and the Syriac text in 1871. An English translation with full critical and explanatory commentary by R. H. Charles appeared in 1896. In Patrologia Syriaca, vol. ii. [1907] 1055-1306, M. Kmosko gives the Syriac, together with an amended test of Ceriani’s translation. The Greek fragment appeared in 1903 in Oxyrhynchus Papyri, vol. iii. pp. 3-7. By some oversight Kmosko does not notice this important discovery.

1. Contents.-The work professes to be written by Baruch, the scribe of Jeremiah, immediately after the capture of Jerusalem by Nebuchadrezzar. It does not readily fall into sections, but may be analyzed as follows:

i-xx. The capture of Jerusalem, and the vindication of God’s power and justice in respect to it.

Baruch is miraculously shown the destruction of the wall of Jerusalem by angels and the hiding of the holy vessels* [Note: Note that the seven-branched candlestick is not included: that was actually carried in triumph by Titus.] (vi, vii.), after which the Chaldaeans enter. Baruch laments over Zion (x. 6-xii. 4); after seven days God reveals to him that justice will be done on the heathen (xiii. 5-12); the Fall of Jerusalem is a step towards the final judgment (xx. 2).

xxi-xxxiv. Prayer of Baruch, and first Messianic revelation to him.

The world will last until all the predestined sons of Adam have been born (xxiii. 4, 5). At the end will come the Messiah, the Manna will descend again, and Behemoth and Leviathan will be there for the saints to eat (xxix.). After that comes the resurrection of the dead (xxx.).

Baruch assembles the people and warns them that Zion will be rebuilt and then again destroyed; the tribulation at the end of time is the worse (xxxii. 2, 6).

xxxv-xlvi. Vision of the cedar and the vine.

The cedar is the Roman Empire, the vine is Messiah (xxxix. 5, 7); in the end the last great heathen ruler will be destroyed by Messiah (xl.).

Baruch again warns the people to keep the Law (xliv. 3, xlvi. 5).

xlvii.-lxxvii. Second prayer of Baruch, followed by a revelation to him about the resurrection of the good and the bad, and the vision of the black and the bright waters.

The dead will rise unaltered, but the righteous will then become glorious while the wicked waste away (l, li.). All history is divided into 12 parts: the black waters are the six bad periods, beginning with the Fall (‘O Adam, what hast thou done to all those who are born from thee?’ xlviii. 42); the bright waters are the short alternating gleams of righteousness, beginning with Abraham (lvi.-lxxii.). At the end the saints will have a glorious time (lxxiii f.).

Baruch again warns the people to keep the Law: if they do so, those left in the Holy Land will never be removed (lxxvii. 5, 6). To the captive Jews in Babylon he sends a letter by hand (lxxvii. 17), while to the lost Nine-and-a-half Tribes he sends a letter by an eagle (lxxvii. 19ff.).

lxxviii-lxxxvii. Baruch’s letter to the Lost Tribes.

Baruch tells them of the destruction of Jerusalem, announces the approaching end of all things, and exhorts them to keep the law. ‘If we set our hearts straight we shall receive everything that we have lost and more’ (lxxxv. 4).

2. Problems raised by the book.-The chief problems connected with the Apocalypse of Baruch are (1) its place in Jewish thought, especially in connexion with 4 Ezra (i.e. ‘2 Esdras’ in the English Apocrypha, which it much resembles); and (2) its literary history in Syriac and the relation of the Syriac text to the underlying Greek. It will be convenient to take this second group first.

(1) Literary history, etc,-The Ambrosian manuscript is the only one that contains the whole work, but the Epistle of Baruch (chs. lxxviii-lxxxvii., see above) is extant in several Syriac Manuscripts and found a place in the Paris and London Polyglots. This extract must be of exclusively Jacobite origin: it appears as a sort of Appendix to Jeremiah and is included in the Jacobite Massora. Its readings are inferior to that of the full text preserved in the Ambrosian Codex,* [Note: Here and there the extract is better, e.g. lxxxii. 4, where all the editors rightly prefer ‘drop’ (= σταγών, " translation="">Isaiah 40:15) to ‘pollution.’] where it is dissociated from Jeremiah and immediately precedes 4 Ezra.

The Syriac style indicates a very early date for the translation. It is idiomatic and flowing, like the Syriac translation of Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History. So full, indeed, is it of genuine Semitic idiom that various perfectly good Syriac phrases have actually been regarded by R. H. Charles as the survival of original Hebrew idioms, persisting through the lost Greek intermediary. Especially is this the case with regard to the use of the infinitive absolute for emphasis, which is quite good Syriac and occurs in the Ev. da-Mepharrěshe, though the construction is usually avoided in later forms of the Syriac NT.† [Note: A good instance is Eus. HE iv. 15. 29, where ταῦτα οὗν μετὰ τοσούτου τάχους ἐγένετο θᾶττον ἢ ἐλέγετο in rendered in Syriac, ‘And these things quicker than they were said were indeed done (mest‘âru est‘ar).’ It is obvious that such a rendering, white perfectly adequate, does not enable us to reconstruct the wording of the original.] And this general impression has been signally confirmed by the discovery of the Oxyrhynchus Fragment. Short as the fragment is, it gives us enough of the Greek text of chs. xii, xiii. and xiv. to tell us in what manner the Syrian translator has gone to work. Especially important is xiii. 12, where the Greek has [ὑμεῖς γὰρ εὐερ]γετούμενοι ἀεὶ ἠχα[ριστεῖτε (ἀεί)],* [Note: The reconstruction is practically certain, except the last ἀεί.] but the Syriac is ‘For always I have been benefiting you, and ye have been denying benefit always.’ This sentence sufficiently shows how difficult it would be to reconstruct the Greek from the Syriac of Baruch, and how impossible to argue back to the wording of a hypothetical Hebrew or Aramaic original. At the same time ‘denying benefit’ (kâphar beṭaibûthâ) is actually used for ἀχάριστος in 2 Timothy 3:2 and in Luke 6:35 syr.-sin. (not Pesh.): in a word, the Syriac of Baruch is akin in style to the earliest Syriac translations of the NT.

The Apocalypse of Baruch contains no formal quotations from canonical Scripture, but several sentences are obviously moulded upon the OT. As Charles has founded an argument on these for a Hebrew original, it is necessary to point out that the evidence is really indecisive. ‘The quotations from the OT agree in all cases but one with the Massoretic Hebrew against the Septuagint,’ says Charles. In support of this he adduces eight passages. In four of these, however (iv. 2, vi. 8, li. 4, lviii. 1), Baruch agrees with the Peshiṭta, as we might expect in a work which pays so much attention to Syriac idiom and is so little of a word-for-word rendering of the Greek, In two others (‘Thy wisdom is correctness,’ xxxviii. 2; and ‘fled under Thy wings,’ xli. 4) the Syriac does not agree with any biblical text.† [Note: In xli. 4, Charles translates ‘fled for refuge …’ But ’ěraq means ‘fled’; the ‘taking refuge’ which is inherent in the Heb. çñä (" translation="">Ruth 2:12 etc.) is not expressed in the Syriac.] The allusion in xxxv. 2 is admitted by Charles to be merely a paraphrase. The remaining passage is lxxxii. 4, 5, where the heathen are said to be ‘like a drop’ and ‘counted as spittle’: this agrees with the Septuagint of Isaiah 40:15 (ὡς σταγών … ὡς σἱελος), but not with the Hebrew or the Syriac.‡ [Note: The same comparisons are used in 4 Ezra 6:56, which must similarly also be considered to show the influence of the Greek Bible.] Thus the biblical allusions in Baruch do not prove that the author was acquainted with the Massoretic text: they merely show that the Syriac translator was familiar with the Peshiṭta. It is possible, of course, if the Greek be a translation from Hebrew or Aramaic, that the Greek translator changed the wording of lxxxii. 5 to agree with the Greek Bible; but there is no actual evidence which points in that direction. The ‘sirens,’ the ‘Lilith,’ the ‘devils,’ and the ‘jackals’ of x. 8 are all found in the Peshiṭta of Isaiah 13:21-22; Isaiah 34:13-14. It should be added that there is nothing to suggest that the Syriac translator of the Apocalypse was a Christian rather than a Jew.

(2) Relation to 4 Ezra.-It is obvious that the Apocalypse of Baruch and that of Salathiel, commonly known as 4 Ezra, have a great deal in common, both in ideas and in language.§ [Note: A good account of these resemblances is to be found in H. St. J. Thackeray’s art. ‘Esdras, Second Book of,’ in HDB i. 763 f. See also G. H. Box in Charles’ Apoc. and Pseudepigr. ii. 553 ff.] They must have issued from the same circle, if they are not actually the work of the same author. And, further, it is almost certain that they must have been originally composed in the same language, either both in Greek, or both in Hebrew or Aramaic. As has been indicated in the preceding paragraphs, most of the arguments for a Semitic origin of Baruch founded upon the Syriac text are inconclusive; but if the Latin text of 4 Ezra (which is undoubtedly a literal translation of the lost Greek) creates the impression that this Greek was itself a translation, then after all we must regard the Greek of Baruch also as a translation.

From the linguistic side the chief arguments concern the names used for God and the occurrence of the infinitive absolute. Beside words which imply Κύριος (as in the Septuagint ), we find Altissimus and Fortis (e.g. 4 Ezra 9:45) in both works; these must correspond to Ὕψιστος and Ἰσχυρός in the Greek.* [Note: The Greek fragment of Apoc. Baruch actually contains the word ἰσχυ[ροῦ].] Ὕψιστος in a Jewish writing corresponds to עליון (Aram. עלאה); but as it was also a name of God in Greek its occurrence proves nothing as to the original language of our book. Ἰσχυρός, on the other hand, is only found as a name of God in translations, and implies אל (El); it is characteristic of the later Jewish translators Aquila and Theodotion, to a leas degree of Symmachus, and not at all of the genuine Septuagint , which only uses ἰσχυρός as an adjective in the ordinary sense of ‘strong’ (Psalms 7:12; Psalms 41:3). Thus a reader of the Greek Bible would not be likely to use it by itself as a proper name for ‘the Almighty.’ Its presence in Apoc. Baruch , 4 Ezra must therefore be held to suggest that the Greek texts of these works are translations.

The use of the infinitive absolute points in the same direction. If it were merely attested in Syriac, it might be explained away as an idiom introduced by the translator, But its frequent occurrence in the Latin text of 4 Ezra (e.g. excedens excessit, 4:2) cannot thus be disposed of, and at present no real example of this idiom is known in works composed originally in Greek, though it is common in translations such as the Septuagint . The linguistic evidence, therefore, though not quite conclusively, points to a Semitic, and consequently to a Palestinian, origin for both 4 Ezra and the Apocalypse of Baruch. But, as explained above, we are very far from being able to reconstruct the text of this hypothetical Hebrew or Aramaic original (lxiv. 7, 8).

Not only the language, but also the contents, of Baruch favour a Hebrew or Aramaic original. The circle of thought and tradition is throughout Palestinian, und uninfluenced by Greek speculation and culture. The legends incidentally referred to are specifically Jewish, and can be illustrated from the Talmud, such as that of Behemoth and Leviathan created to be the food of the saints (xxix. 4); or the story of Manasseh, who was cast into the brazen ‘horse’ (i.e. mule), and who, though he prayed from it to God and was delivered, yet was finally tormented.† [Note: Another instance, important from the incidental manner of its occurrence, is in lxxvii. 25, where we read: ‘Solomon also … whithersoever he wished to send or seek for anything, commanded a bird and it obeyed him’ This is a manifest allusion to the story of the wildfowl by which Solomon sent a Letter to the Queen of sheba at Kiṭṭor (2nd Targum to " translation="">Esther 1:2), a legend familiar in Arabic, but not current in Greek]

3. Integrity.-In what has been said above, the Apocalypse of Barueh has been treated as an organic whole. This has been controverted by Charles, who splits the book up into no fewer than six (or seven) separate fragments, on the assumption that an apocalyptist’s anticipations of the future will be clear-cut and self-consistent. But this is hardly to be expected in a work which reflects the mind of an orthodox Jew just after the Destruction of Jerusalem. The Temple with its priests and sacrifices, nay, the very national existence, had been brought utterly to an end by the heathen. The individual Jews that remained were left with nothing but the Law and a tumult of impossible hopes. The author is swayed by his subject. He may believe that the captured city was not the true, the heavenly Jerusalem (iv. 2-6), and that it had been destroyed by the angels of God before the enemy were allowed to capture it (vi-viii.). Yet the catastrophe is too recent to allow him calmly to contemplate the Fall of Zion, and his lament over the ruins (x. 6-xii. 4) is uninterrupted by any gleam of hope. Surely this is what might be expected in a work of literature, apart from the fact that it is not till later in the book that revelations about the future are given to Baruch.

While, however, absolute consistency is not to be expected, it is necessary to show that the Fall of Jerusalem is assumed all through the book. A Jewish apocalyptist may vary in his anticipations of the future, but after a.d. 70 he would never write as if the Temple were still standing. No great weight, indeed, can be laid on passages like ch. xxvii., where neither the building nor the destruction of the Herodian Temple is mentioned; for the historical situation implied throughout is that of Baruch lamenting over the ruins of the recently destroyed Solomonic Temple, it being obvious that the author often practically identifies himself with Baruch, and his own recently destroyed Temple with the Solomonic. But besides these passages it has been asserted that the present existence of a Temple at Jerusalem is assumed in xxxii. 2ff., lix. 4, and lxviii. 5. On closer examination, however, this is seen not to be the case. Ch. xxxii. is an address by Baruch to the Jews left in the land after the Fall of Jerusalem. He tells them that Zion will be built again (v. 2); but that building will not last; it will be thrown down and remain desolate, and only afterwards will it be renewed in glory (vv. 3, 4). The whole context shows that it is a prophecy of there-building of the Temple of Zerubbabel and its subsequent destruction, and we must interpret, or if necessary amend, the wording of v. 2 in accordance with that context. It is literally, ‘Because after a little time the building of Zion will be shaken that it may be built again.’ Either, therefore, this is an adaptation of Haggai 2:6, Ezekiel 37:7, or the word for ‘shaken’ is a mistranslation for some word like set in motion.’ In lix. 4 it is said that God showed Moses ‘the likeness of Zion and its measurements, made in the likeness of the present Sanctuary.’ But this phrase, corresponding to τὰ νῦν ἅγια, does not necessarily mean ‘the Sanctuary which is now in good repair’; it need mean no more than ‘the modern Temple,’ as contrasted with the heavenly Pattern (Exodus 25:40). In lxviii. 5, Baruch is told that Zion will be built again, but in the later predictions of the final troubles before the advent of Messiah no mention is made of its subsequent destruction. But this is not conclusive, as no detailed historical Predictions are made in lxix.-lxxiv. ‘The Most High … alone knows what will befall’ (lxix. 2).

In all this it must be borne in mind that Apoc. Baruch is known to us only from a single manuscript of a not very literal translation into Syriac of a Greek translation of a Hebrew or Aramaic original. It is, therefore, only likely that some minor incoherencies may be due to accidents of transmission. But they are, after all, very few.

4. General point of view.-The Apocalypse of Baruch, then, is here regarded as a unity, and as the work of a Palestinian Jew writing soon after a.d. 70. 4 Ezr. 3-14 may be described in similar terms. We have noticed some of the linguistic connexions between these works.* [Note: Among single phrases, the political situation is reflected in habitatio Hierusalem (4 Ezr. 10:47) and ‘the habitation or Zion’ (Bar. lxxx. 7), i.e. ‘the fact that Jerusalem, or Zion, was inhabited.’] They coincide also in much of their teaching, in the division of history into 12 parts, in the importance attached to Adam’s sin, in the legend of Behemoth and Leviathan, in the interest taken in the Lost Tribes,† [Note: It is possible that to this interest the books owed their preservation in Syriac. Edessa Itself is situated on ‘the other side’ of the Euphrates, and those Edessenes who read the Epistle may have fancied that the Epistle of Baruch was addressed to their own ancestors.] in the stress laid on the permanence of the Law.

The chief difference between them lies in the psychology of the writers. The fate they anticipate for Israel is similar, but it affects them differently. The author of 4 Ezra is not really a pessimist in the sense of believing that evil is ultimately victorious in this world. The eagle, i.e. Rome, is destroyed in the end; the last act in the world-drama is the glorious 400 years’ reign of Messiah. Then comes the other world of full retribution. The scheme satisfies the Most High, who says, ‘Let the multitude perish, which was born in vain’ (9:22). The really interesting thing is that it does not satisfy Ezra. ‘This is my first and last saying,’ says he, ‘that it had been better that the earth had not given Adam, or else when it had given him to have restrained him from sinning’ (7:6 [116]). ‘We are tormented, because we perish and know it. Let the race of men lament and the beasts of the field be glad, for it is better with them than with us; for they look not for judgment, neither do they know of torments or of salvation promised unto them after death’s (7:64ff.).

There is nothing of this arraignment of Providence in the Apocalypse of Baruch. When the author thinks for a moment about the fate of apostate Israelites, he falls into intentional obscurity (xlii. 4, 5). In general, he is quite content to nerve himself to believe that the Mighty One will ultimately make the Israelites triumph in this world, and that, after that, in the world to come, the righteous will be abundantly rewarded and the sinners tormented. His main interests are immediate and practical. He has a definite message for his countrymen. Let those who are left in the Holy Land stay there (lxxvii. 6), and let one and all, especially the exiles, hold fast by the Law, though the Temple be destroyed. ‘Zion hath been taken from us, and we have nothing now save the Mighty One and His Law’ (lxxxv. 3); but ‘if ye have respect to the Law and are intent upon wisdom, the lamp will not fail, and the shepherd will not depart, and the fountain will not run dry’ (lxxvii. 16). This is the message of the last of the great series of Jewish Apocalypses. As Daniel shows us what was the spirit that nerved the Ḥasîdîm to resist Antiochus, so Baruch lets us see in what frame of mind it was possible for the Rabbis under Johanan ben Zakkai and his successors to sit down and adapt the religion and the hopes of Israel to the times of the long dominion of the Gentiles.

Cf. also article Esdras (second).

Literature.-This is sufficiently indicated in the first paragraph of this article. In addition, since, this article was written, the Apocalypse of Baruch has been re-edited by R. H. Charles in The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the OT, Oxford, 1913, ii. 470-526; but the positions adopted in that edition only differ in unimportant details from the separate edition or 1896, to which Charles frequently refers bock for the discussion of details.

F. C. Burkitt.

The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Baruch
Son of Neriah, An interesting character, as related to us in the prophecy of Jeremiah. (Jeremiah 32:1-44; Jeremiah 36:1-32; Jeremiah 43:1-13; Jeremiah 45:1-5) His name is derived from Barach, to bless.

Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Baruch
the son of Neriah, and grandson of Maaseiah, was of illustrious birth, and of the tribe of Judah. He had a brother of the name of Seraiah, who occupied an important station in the court of King Zedekiah; but he himself adhered to the person of the Prophet Jeremiah, and was his most steady friend, though his attachment to him drew on himself several persecutions and much ill treatment. He appears to have acted as his secretary during a great part of his life, and never left him till they were parted by death. In the reign of Jehoiakim, king of Judah, A.M. 3398, Jeremiah having been thrown into prison, the Lord commanded him to commit to writing all the prophecies that he had delivered until that time.

He accordingly sent for Baruch, and dictated them to him by word of mouth. Some time afterward he instructed the latter to go and read them to the people, who were then assembled in the temple; on which Michaiah, who happened to be present, and heard them, instantly gave notice of them to the king's counsellors. The latter immediately sent for Baruch, and commanded him to repeat to them what he had been reading to the people in the temple; which he accordingly did, to their great astonishment: and, finding that they contained some very unwelcome tidings respecting the fate of the kingdom, they inquired how he came into possession of them; intimating that their duty to the king required that they should make him acquainted therewith. Baruch was at the same time advised to consult his own safety, and to let no man know where he was to be found; after which they took from him the roll of his prophecies, and deposited it in the chamber of Elishama, the scribe. They next waited on the king, and told him what had passed. The latter sent Jehudi to fetch the book; which being brought, Jehoiakim commanded it to be read in his presence, and in the presence of his nobles who surrounded him. But Jehudi had not proceeded far before the king took the book, cut it with his secretary's penknife, and threw it into the fire, where it was consumed before their faces. He at the same time gave orders to have both Baruch and Jeremiah seized; but the hand of Providence concealed them from his fury.

Jeremiah was instructed a second time to commit his prophecies to writing; and Baruch wrote them as before, with the addition of several others which were not contained in the former book. In the fourth year of the reign of Zedekiah, Baruch went to Babylon, carrying with him a long letter from Jeremiah, in which the Prophet foretold the judgments that should come upon Babylon, and promised the Jews, who were then captives in that country, that they should again be restored to their own land. The latter were exceedingly affected at hearing Jeremiah's letter read to them, and returned an answer to their brethren at Jerusalem. After his return to Jerusalem, Baruch continued his constant attendance on Jeremiah; and when Jerusalem was besieged by Nebuchadnezzar, and Jeremiah thrown into prison, Baruch also was confined with him: but when the city had surrendered, Nebuzaraddan showed him much kindness, granted him his liberty, and permitted him to go with Jeremiah wherever he chose.

The remnant of the people who had been left in Judea under the care of Gedaliah, having adopted the resolution of going into Egypt, and finding that Jeremiah opposed their taking that journey, threw the blame upon Baruch; insinuating that the latter had influenced the Prophet to declare against it. They were, however, both of them at last compelled to follow the people into Egypt, where Jeremiah soon afterward died; on which Baruch retired to Babylon, where the rabbins say he also died in the twelfth year of the captivity, Jeremiah 36-43. The book of Baruch is justly placed among the apocryphal writings. Grotius thinks it a fiction written by some Hellenistic Jew; and St. Jerome gives as the reason why he did not write a commentary upon it, that the Jews themselves did not deem it canonical.

People's Dictionary of the Bible - Baruch
Baruch (bâ'rook), blessed. 1. The secretary of the prophet Jeremiah, and who was of a distinguished Jewish family. Jeremiah 32:12. His friendship for Jeremiah was strong and constant. At his dictation Baruch wrote Jeremiah's prophecies. These he read before the princes, who rehearsed them to Jehoiakim, the king, having previously placed the writing in one of the offices of the temple. The king ordered the writing to be read in his presence, and he became so angry that he destroyed the manuscripts and gave orders to arrest both the prophet and his secretary, but they had concealed themselves. Jehovah, however, repeated the prophecies to Jeremiah, with some additions, and Baruch wrote them a second time. Baruch was falsely accused of influencing Jeremiah in favor of the Chaldæans, and they were both imprisoned until the capture of Jerusalem, b.c. 586. They were afterward forced to go down to Egypt. Jeremiah 43:6; Jeremiah 7:2. The name of three other persons, otherwise unknown. Nehemiah 3:20; Nehemiah 10:6; Nehemiah 11:5.

American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Baruch
1. The son of Neriah, of a distinguished family in the tribe of Judah. He was the faithful friend of Jeremiah. About 605 B. C. he wrote down, from the lips of Jeremiah, all the divine messages to that prophet, and subsequently read them to the people, and again to certain princes. These last took the book, and soon made known its contents to king Jehoiakim, who impiously destroyed it. Baruch wrote it down a second time as before, with some additions, Jeremiah 36:1 - 32 .

He is supposed by some to have accompanied his brother Seraiah to Babylon, with the predictions of Jeremiah respecting that city, Jeremiah 51:59-64 . He afterwards shared the persecution of the prophet, was imprisoned with him, and forced to go to Egypt with the rebellious Jews, Jeremiah 43:1-13 . After the death of Jeremiah, the rabbins say, he returned to Babylon. An apocryphal book is ascribed to him.

2. Another Baruch is mentioned among the friends of Nehemiah, Nehemiah 3:20 10:6 11:5 .

Chabad Knowledge Base - Baruch hashem
"Thank G-d."

Chabad Knowledge Base - Baruch shepetarani
(lit. "Blessed is He who has absolved me"); the blessing recited at the reading of the Torah by the father of a bar-mitzvah

Sentence search

Baruch, Book of - In the Catholic Bible, an inspired writing containing, in five chapters, the prophecy with which Baruch consoled the Jewish exiles on the River Sedi and which they sent, with some rescued silver vessels, back to Jerusalem. A sixth chapter is made of the Epistle of Jeremias, which seems rather to be of the authorship of Jeremias than of Baruch
Baruch - Jehoiakim having destroyed the first roll, Baruch wrote again the same words with many additions. Azariah and Johanan after the capture of the city, when Jeremiah warned them against going to Egypt, said: "Baruch setteth thee on against us for to deliver us into the hand of the Chaldeans. "... On, the former occasion Baruch yielded to despondency; and as Paul subjoins epistles to individuals after epistles to churches, so Jeremiah subjoins a prophecy concerning Baruch after the prophecies and histories concerning the Jews and their kings: "Thus saith the Lord the God of Israel, unto thee, O Baruch. " How striking, that Jeremiah (Jeremiah 12:1-5; Jeremiah 15:10-18; Jeremiah 15:45), who once was so desponding himself, is enabled to minister counsel to Baruch falling into the same error. Baruch was carried with Jeremiah by Johanan into Egypt (Jeremiah 43:6). The apocryphal book of Baruch is evidently one of later composition
Neri'ah - (lamp of Jehovah ), the son of Maaseiah and father of Baruch and Seraiah
Baruch - Baruch (bâ'rook), blessed. At his dictation Baruch wrote Jeremiah's prophecies. Jehovah, however, repeated the prophecies to Jeremiah, with some additions, and Baruch wrote them a second time. Baruch was falsely accused of influencing Jeremiah in favor of the Chaldæans, and they were both imprisoned until the capture of Jerusalem, b
Maaseas - The grandfather of Baruch ( Bar 1:1 ) = Mahseiah of Jeremiah 32:12 ; Jeremiah 51:59
Neriah - Son of Maaseiah and father of Baruch and Seraiah
Colhozeh - A man of Judah in Nehemiah's time (Nehemiah 3:15; Nehemiah 11:5); father of Shallum and Baruch
Mahseiah - Grandfather of Baruch and Seraiah ( Jeremiah 32:12 ; Jeremiah 51:52 ); called in Bar 1:1 Maaseas
Asadias - An ancestor of Baruch ( Bar 1:1 )
Abdeel - Father of Shelemiah ( Jeremiah 36:26 ), one of those ordered by Jeboiakim to arrest Jeremiah and Baruch
Mahseiah - ” Grandfather of the scribe Baruch (Jeremiah 32:12 ; Jeremiah 51:59 )
Sedekias - An ancestor of Baruch ( Bar 1:1 )
Zabbai - ... ... The father of Baruch, who "earnestly repaired" part of the wall of Jerusalem (Nehemiah 3:20 ; marg
Jehudi - He was sent by the princes to invite Baruch to read Jeremiah's roll to them (Jeremiah 36:14,21 )
Zabbai - Father of Baruch, who helped at the wall (Nehemiah 3:20)
Zabbai - Father of Baruch, who earnestly helped to repair the wall of Jerusalem
Michaiah - (See GEMARIAH; Baruch; JEREMIAH. On hearing all the Lord's words, through Jeremiah, read by Baruch Michaiah went down to the king's house, into the scribe's chamber where sat all the princes, and declared unto them all the words
Baruch - Baruch, whose name means “blessed,” served Jeremiah as an amanuensis or scribe. Jeremiah was even accused of being a mere instrument of Baruch's enmity (Jeremiah 43:3 ). The prophet counseled Baruch to place his confidence wholly in the Lord and not to seek great things for himself (Jeremiah 45:1 ). A wide range of later literature was attributed to Baruch in Jewish tradition
Pesukei dzimra - "verses of praise"); the bracket of passages of praise, mainly from Psalms, which appear early in the morning services, opening with Baruch SheAmar and closing with Yishtabach
Baruch - ... He accordingly sent for Baruch, and dictated them to him by word of mouth. The latter immediately sent for Baruch, and commanded him to repeat to them what he had been reading to the people in the temple; which he accordingly did, to their great astonishment: and, finding that they contained some very unwelcome tidings respecting the fate of the kingdom, they inquired how he came into possession of them; intimating that their duty to the king required that they should make him acquainted therewith. Baruch was at the same time advised to consult his own safety, and to let no man know where he was to be found; after which they took from him the roll of his prophecies, and deposited it in the chamber of Elishama, the scribe. He at the same time gave orders to have both Baruch and Jeremiah seized; but the hand of Providence concealed them from his fury. ... Jeremiah was instructed a second time to commit his prophecies to writing; and Baruch wrote them as before, with the addition of several others which were not contained in the former book. In the fourth year of the reign of Zedekiah, Baruch went to Babylon, carrying with him a long letter from Jeremiah, in which the Prophet foretold the judgments that should come upon Babylon, and promised the Jews, who were then captives in that country, that they should again be restored to their own land. After his return to Jerusalem, Baruch continued his constant attendance on Jeremiah; and when Jerusalem was besieged by Nebuchadnezzar, and Jeremiah thrown into prison, Baruch also was confined with him: but when the city had surrendered, Nebuzaraddan showed him much kindness, granted him his liberty, and permitted him to go with Jeremiah wherever he chose. ... The remnant of the people who had been left in Judea under the care of Gedaliah, having adopted the resolution of going into Egypt, and finding that Jeremiah opposed their taking that journey, threw the blame upon Baruch; insinuating that the latter had influenced the Prophet to declare against it. They were, however, both of them at last compelled to follow the people into Egypt, where Jeremiah soon afterward died; on which Baruch retired to Babylon, where the rabbins say he also died in the twelfth year of the captivity, Jeremiah 36-43. The book of Baruch is justly placed among the apocryphal writings
Jeberechiah - Josephus mentions another Zachariah, son of Baruch, slain by the Jews in the temple shortly before the last siege (B. If Berechiah was father of the house, not of the individuals, the "Zachariah son of Baruch" in Matthew 23:35 (where "Zechariah the son of Jehoiada," 2 Chronicles 24:20, in the individual sense is meant) may be identical with Zechariah, son of Je ("Jah ") berechiah
Neriah - ” Father of two men who assisted Jeremiah: Baruch the scribe (Jeremiah 32:12 ; Jeremiah 36:4-19 ) and Seraiah the quartermaster (Jeremiah 51:59 )
Neriah - The father of Baruch, Jeremiah 32:12 and the son of Melchi, Luke 3:27
Jehudi - The princes' ready tool in fetching Baruch to read Jeremiah's (Jeremiah 36:14; Jeremiah 36:21-23) denunciations; then employed by Jehoiakim to bring and read the roll, which the king cut and burned
Gemariah - Baruch read aloud to the people from Gemariah's chamber, and again in the hearing of Gemariah and other scribes, the prophecies of Jeremiah (Jeremiah 36:11-20 ), which filled him with terror. He joined with others in entreating the king not to destroy the roll of the prophecies which Baruch had read (21-25)
Abdeel - ) commanded to arrest Baruch, Jeremiah's scribe, and Jeremiah (Jeremiah 36:26 )
Zab'ba-i - ) ... Father of Baruch who assisted Nehemiah in rebuilding the city wall
Neriah - The father of Baruch ( Jeremiah 32:12 ; Jeremiah 32:16 ; Jeremiah 36:4 ; Jeremiah 36:8 ; Jeremiah 36:32 ; Jeremiah 43:3 ; Jeremiah 43:6 ; Jeremiah 45:1 ; Jeremiah 51:59 )
Jehu'di - (a Jew ), son of Nethaniah, a man employed by the princes of Jehoiakim's court to fetch Baruch to read Jeremiah's denunciation, ( Jeremiah 36:14 ) and then by the king to fetch the volume itself and read it to him
Gemariah - The son of Shaphan, from whose chamber Baruch read to the people the roll of Jeremiah's prophecies
Azriel - Father of royal officer commanded to arrest Baruch, Jeremiah's scribe (Jeremiah 36:26 )
Jehudi - An officer of Jehoiakim, at whose summons Baruch read to the princes of Judah the roll of Jeremiah’s prophecies, and who was afterwards himself employed to read the roll to the king
Apocrypha - The entire list of books of the apocrypha are: 1 Esdras 2Esdras, Tobit, Judith, the Rest of Esther, the Wisdom of Solomon, Sirach, (also titled Ecclesiasticus), Baruch, The Letter of Jeremiah, Song of the Three Young Men, Susanna, Bel and the Dragon, The Additions to Daniel, The Prayer of Manasseh, and 1,2Maccabees. ... The books accepted as inspired and included in the Catholic Bible are Tobit, Judith, 1,2Maccabees Wisdom of Solomon Sirach (also known as Ecclesiasticus), and Baruch... The Jews never recognized these books as being canonical (inspired)
Zabbai - The father of Baruch who worked on the wall of Jerusalem with Nehemiah (Nehemiah 3:20 )
Ink, Inkhorn - Jeremiah caused Baruch to write in a book with ink the denunciations against Israel and Judah
Gemariah - From his chamber in the Lord's house Baruch read Jeremiah's threatening prophecy in the people's hearing (Jeremiah 36). Michaiah reported it, anti Baruch being summoned read it again before the princes seated in council in the scribe's chamber in the king's house
Baruch - Baruch wrote it down a second time as before, with some additions, Jeremiah 36:1 - 32 . Another Baruch is mentioned among the friends of Nehemiah, Nehemiah 3:20 10:6 11:5
Jehudi - ” Messenger for Jewish leaders calling Baruch to read Jeremiah's preaching to them and then messenger of the king to get the scroll so the king could read it
Gemari'ah - He was one of the nobles of Judah, and had a chamber int he house of the Lord, from which Baruch read Jeremiah's alarming prophecy in the ears of all the people, B
Baruch, Apocalypse of - ... The Apocalypse of Baruch was first published as a whole by Ceriani from the Ambrosian manuscript of the Peshitta OT (6th cent. -The work professes to be written by Baruch, the scribe of Jeremiah, immediately after the capture of Jerusalem by Nebuchadrezzar. ... Baruch is miraculously shown the destruction of the wall of Jerusalem by angels and the hiding of the holy vessels* [Note: Note that the seven-branched candlestick is not included: that was actually carried in triumph by Titus. Baruch laments over Zion (x. Prayer of Baruch, and first Messianic revelation to him. ... Baruch assembles the people and warns them that Zion will be rebuilt and then again destroyed; the tribulation at the end of time is the worse (xxxii. ... Baruch again warns the people to keep the Law (xliv. Second prayer of Baruch, followed by a revelation to him about the resurrection of the good and the bad, and the vision of the black and the bright waters. ... Baruch again warns the people to keep the Law: if they do so, those left in the Holy Land will never be removed (lxxvii. Baruch’s letter to the Lost Tribes. ... Baruch tells them of the destruction of Jerusalem, announces the approaching end of all things, and exhorts them to keep the law. -The chief problems connected with the Apocalypse of Baruch are (1) its place in Jewish thought, especially in connexion with 4 Ezra (i. ... (1) Literary history, etc,-The Ambrosian manuscript is the only one that contains the whole work, but the Epistle of Baruch (chs. ’ This sentence sufficiently shows how difficult it would be to reconstruct the Greek from the Syriac of Baruch, and how impossible to argue back to the wording of a hypothetical Hebrew or Aramaic original. ): in a word, the Syriac of Baruch is akin in style to the earliest Syriac translations of the NT. ... The Apocalypse of Baruch contains no formal quotations from canonical Scripture, but several sentences are obviously moulded upon the OT. 1), Baruch agrees with the Peshiṭta, as we might expect in a work which pays so much attention to Syriac idiom and is so little of a word-for-word rendering of the Greek, In two others (‘Thy wisdom is correctness,’ xxxviii. ] Thus the biblical allusions in Baruch do not prove that the author was acquainted with the Massoretic text: they merely show that the Syriac translator was familiar with the Peshiṭta. -It is obvious that the Apocalypse of Baruch and that of Salathiel, commonly known as 4 Ezra, have a great deal in common, both in ideas and in language. As has been indicated in the preceding paragraphs, most of the arguments for a Semitic origin of Baruch founded upon the Syriac text are inconclusive; but if the Latin text of 4 Ezra (which is undoubtedly a literal translation of the lost Greek) creates the impression that this Greek was itself a translation, then after all we must regard the Greek of Baruch also as a translation. Baruch actually contains the word ἰσχυ[ροῦ]. Baruch , 4 Ezra must therefore be held to suggest that the Greek texts of these works are translations. The linguistic evidence, therefore, though not quite conclusively, points to a Semitic, and consequently to a Palestinian, origin for both 4 Ezra and the Apocalypse of Baruch. ... Not only the language, but also the contents, of Baruch favour a Hebrew or Aramaic original. Surely this is what might be expected in a work of literature, apart from the fact that it is not till later in the book that revelations about the future are given to Baruch. , where neither the building nor the destruction of the Herodian Temple is mentioned; for the historical situation implied throughout is that of Baruch lamenting over the ruins of the recently destroyed Solomonic Temple, it being obvious that the author often practically identifies himself with Baruch, and his own recently destroyed Temple with the Solomonic. is an address by Baruch to the Jews left in the land after the Fall of Jerusalem. 5, Baruch is told that Zion will be built again, but in the later predictions of the final troubles before the advent of Messiah no mention is made of its subsequent destruction. Baruch is known to us only from a single manuscript of a not very literal translation into Syriac of a Greek translation of a Hebrew or Aramaic original. -The Apocalypse of Baruch, then, is here regarded as a unity, and as the work of a Palestinian Jew writing soon after a. Edessa Itself is situated on ‘the other side’ of the Euphrates, and those Edessenes who read the Epistle may have fancied that the Epistle of Baruch was addressed to their own ancestors. ... There is nothing of this arraignment of Providence in the Apocalypse of Baruch. As Daniel shows us what was the spirit that nerved the Ḥasîdîm to resist Antiochus, so Baruch lets us see in what frame of mind it was possible for the Rabbis under Johanan ben Zakkai and his successors to sit down and adapt the religion and the hopes of Israel to the times of the long dominion of the Gentiles. In addition, since, this article was written, the Apocalypse of Baruch has been re-edited by R
Baruch - Baruch (‘blessed’). ‘Baruch’ the scribe, named in Jeremiah 36:26 along with ‘Jeremiah the prophet,’ is already the recognized attendant and amanuensis of the latter; he seems to have rendered the prophet over twenty years of devoted service. He belonged to the order of ‘princes,’ among whom Jeremiah had influential friends ( Jeremiah 26:16 ; Jeremiah 36:25 ); Baruch’s rank probably secured for Jeremiah’s objectionable ‘roll’ (ch. When he cast in his lot with Jeremiah, Baruch made a heavy sacrifice; he might have ‘sought great things’ for himself, and is warned against his natural ambition ( Jeremiah 45:3-5 ). The promise that Baruch’s ‘life shall be given’ him ‘for a prey’ wherever he goes, placed where it is ( Jeremiah 45:5 ), suggests that he survived his master, to act as his literary executor
Michaiah - He reported to the king's officers Jeremiah's prediction, which he had heard Baruch read (Jeremiah 36:11,13 ) from his father Gemariah's chamber in the temple
Zabbai - Father of Baruch who assisted in the re-building of the wall ( Nehemiah 3:20 )
Gemariah - Son of Shaphan, the court scribe, who had a room in the Temple, where Baruch read from Jeremiah's sermons to the congregation (Jeremiah 36:10 )
Deuterocanonical - ... Of the Old Testament these are: ...
1,2Machabees

Baruch

Ecclesiasticus

Judith

Tobias

Wisdom

parts of Daniel (3,24-90; 13,14)

parts of Esther (10:4, to 16:14)
Of the New Testament these are: ...
2,3John

2Peter

Apocalypse

Hebrews

James

John (7,53, to 8,11)

Luke (22,43-44)

Mark (16,9-20)
Protestants commonly reject the deuterocanonical books of the Old Testament as apocryphal
Helkias - A distant ancestor of Baruch ( Bar 1:1
Jerah'me-el - ) ... Son of Hammelech, who was employed by Jehoiakim to make Jeremiah and Baruch prisoners, after the had burnt the roll of Jeremiah's prophecy
Baruch - ... Baruch, BOOK OF. Apocrypha, though its professed author is Baruch, the friend and secretary of Jeremiah
Jerahmeel - Son of Hammelech (Hebrew, “the king” and so translated by modern versions), who was one of a group whom King Jehoiakim sent to arrest Baruch and Jeremiah (Jeremiah 36:26 ); but the Lord showed He has more power than human rulers by hiding His faithful servants from the king
Gemariah - In his apartment Baruch read aloud the prophecies of Jeremiah; and he, with others, secured a second and more public reading, and brought the roll to be read to the king, who cause it to be burned, Jeremiah 36:1-32
Seraiah - One of those sent to apprehend Jeremiah and Baruch ( Jeremiah 36:26 ). Son of Neriah and brother of Baruch ( Jeremiah 51:59-64 )
Laurier, Wilfrid - He was educated at Assumption College and at McGill University; was admitted to the Baruch 1864; entered Parliament, 1871; and became the leader of the Liberal Party, 1891-1911
Ahikam - It was in the chamber of another son (Germariah) of Shaphan that Baruch read in the ears of all the people Jeremiah's roll
Nethaniah - Father of Jehudi sent to Baruch by the princes of Jehoiakim (Jeremiah 36:14 )
Shelemiah - Son of Abdeel: he was ordered by Jehoiakim to arrest Baruch and Jeremiah
Wilfrid Laurier - He was educated at Assumption College and at McGill University; was admitted to the Baruch 1864; entered Parliament, 1871; and became the leader of the Liberal Party, 1891-1911
Fidelis of Sigmaringen, Saint - Graduated at Freiburg, 1603, he was admitted to the Baruch 1604-1610, received his degree of Doctor of Laws, 1611, and began to practise at Ensisheim where he was known as "lawyer of the poor
Sigmaringen, Fidelis of, Saint - Graduated at Freiburg, 1603, he was admitted to the Baruch 1604-1610, received his degree of Doctor of Laws, 1611, and began to practise at Ensisheim where he was known as "lawyer of the poor
Shelemi'ah - (Jeremiah 36:14 ) ... Son of Abdeel; one of those who received the orders of Jehoiakim to take Baruch and Jeremiah
Roll - Hence we are told that the prophet Jeremiah was commanded to take the roll of a book, and write all the words which the Lord had said unto him concerning Israel and Judah; and that Baruch wrote upon a roll, from the mouth of Jeremiah, all the words of the Lord
Jehoiakim - After his secretary Baruch read them in the temple, the city leaders became so disturbed that they read them to Jehoiakim. The king defiantly burnt the scroll, and tried unsuccessfully to arrest Jeremiah and Baruch (Jeremiah 36:1-26). Jeremiah then rewrote the scroll, with additions, and gave some encouragement to the frightened Baruch (Jeremiah 36:27-32; Jeremiah 45)
Isaiah, Martyrdom of - 225) and IV Baruch (about A
Baruch - (Hebrew: blessed) ... Prophet of the Old Testament, disciple of Jeremias, and author of the Book of Baruch
Apocrypha - ), the Books of Esdras, the Book of Wisdom, the Book of Baruch, the Book of Esther, Ecclesiasticus, Tobit, Judith, etc
Tahapanes, Tahpanhes, Tehaphnehes - City in Lower Egypt, where Pharaoh had a house, and whither in disobedience the people of Judah fled after the murder of Gedaliah, taking Jeremiah and Baruch with them
ba'Ruch - (Jeremiah 51:59 ) Baruch 1:1 , and of distinguished acquirements
Jehoiakim - In the year after this, Jeremiah caused his prophecies to be read by Baruch in the court of the temple. The words displeased him, and taking the roll from the hands of Baruch he cut it in pieces and threw it into the fire (Jeremiah 36:23 )
ma-Ase'Iah - (Nehemiah 10:25 ) ... Son of Baruch the descendant of Pharez the son of Judah, (Nehemiah 11:5 ) ... A Benjamite, ancestor of Sallu. (Jeremiah 35:4 ) comp, 1 Chronicles 9:19 ... A priest; ancestor of Baruch and Seraiah, the sons of Neriah
Jeremiah - Then he received the order to write all that God had revealed to him, since the time of Josias, in a volume, and to have it read on the solemn day by his disciple Baruch. But Joakim, enraged, threw the volume into a fire, and imprisoned Jeremias and Baruch (36). The prophecy or Book of Jeremias, was probably put together by Baruch
Jeremias - Then he received the order to write all that God had revealed to him, since the time of Josias, in a volume, and to have it read on the solemn day by his disciple Baruch. But Joakim, enraged, threw the volume into a fire, and imprisoned Jeremias and Baruch (36). The prophecy or Book of Jeremias, was probably put together by Baruch
Jeremiah - This was done by Baruch his servant in his stead, and produced much public excitement. In his recklessness he seized the roll, and cut it to pieces, and cast it into the fire, and ordered both Baruch and Jeremiah to be apprehended. Johanan succeeded Gedaliah, and refusing to listen to Jeremiah's counsels, went down into Egypt, taking Jeremiah and Baruch with him (Jeremiah 43:6 )
Sera'Iah - (Nehemiah 12:12 ) ... The son of Neriah and brother of Baruch
Silver - Images for idolatrous worship were made of silver or overlaid with it, (Exodus 20:23 ; Hosea 13:2 ); Habb 2:19 Baruch 6:39 , and the manufacture of silver shrines for Diana was a trade in Ephesus
Beard - The custom was and is to shave or pluck it and the hair out in mourning, (Ezra 9:3 ; Isaiah 15:2 ; 50:6 ; Jeremiah 41:5 ; 48:37 ) Baruch 6:31 ; to neglect it in seasons of permanent affliction, (2 Samuel 19:24 ) and to regard any insult to it as the last outrage which enmity can inflict
Justinus - 148) has given of one of them, called the book of Baruch. The principal part is played by the third paternal angel, Baruch, the chief minister of good, and the third maternal, Naas, or the serpent, the chief author of evil
Bible, Books of the - According to the Council of Trent, there are three groups in the Old Testament, embracing 46 books: ...
21 historical books:

Genesis

Exodus

Leviticus

Numbers

Deuteronomy

Josue

Judges

Ruth

1,2Kings (1,2Samuel)

3,4Kings (1,2Kings)

1,2Paralipomenon (1,2Chronicles)

Esdras

Nehemiah

Tobias

Judith

Esther

1,2Machabees

7 didactical books:

Job

Psalms

Proverbs

Ecclesiastes

Canticle of Canticles (Song of Solomon)

Wisdom and

Ecclesiasticus (Sirach)

18 prophetical books:

Isaias

Jeremias (with Lamentations)

the major prophets

Baruch

Ezechiel

Daniel

the minor prophets

Osee

Joel

Amos

Abdias or Obadiah

Jonas

Micah

Nahum

Habacuc

Sophonias or Zephaniah

Aggeus or Haggai

Zacharias

Malachias
The difference between the Jewish and Catholic counting is due to the fact that the Catholics accept also the so-called deuterocanonical books
Maaseiah - Son of Baruch, a descendant of Judah
Evidence - I delivered the evidence of the purchase to Baruch
Zacharias - Others refer it to a Zacharias the son of Baruch, who was put to death just before the destruction of Jerusalem; but it seems unnatural and unnecessary to suppose that Christ here spoke prophetically
Book - ”... Jeremiah dictated to Baruch, who wrote with ink on the scroll (36:18). Baruch took the “book” to the Judeans who had come to the temple to fast. When the “book” had been confiscated and burned, Jeremiah wrote another scroll and had another “book” written with a strong condemnation of Jehoiakim and his family: “Then took Jeremiah another roll, and gave it to Baruch the scribe, the son of Neriah; who wrote therein from the mouth of Jeremiah all the words of the book which Jehoiakim king of Judah had burned in the fire: and there were added besides unto them many like words” (Jer
Seraiah - Son of Azriel: he was ordered by Jehoiakim to seize Baruch and Jeremiah
Calamus - Baruch wrote his prophecies with ink, Jeremiah 36:4 ; and, consequently, used reeds; for it does not appear that quills were then used to write with
Apoc'Rypha - Baruch; IX
Jerahmeel - Hammelech's son sent by king Jehoiakim to apprehend Baruch and Jeremiah, "but the Lord hid them" (Jeremiah 36:26; Psalms 31:20; Psalms 83:3; Isaiah 26:20)
Crown - (Esther 2:17 ) The head-dress of bridegrooms, (Ezekiel 24:17 ; Isaiah 61:10 ) Baruch 5:2 , and of women, (Isaiah 3:20 ) a head-dress of great splendor, (Isaiah 28:5 ) a wreath of flowers, (Proverbs 1:9 ; 4:9 ) denote crowns
Jehoiakim - He ordered the arrest of Jeremiah and of Baruch who had written the book; but the Lord hid them
Myrtle - The apocryphal Baruch, 5:8, speaking of the return from Babylon, expresses the protection afforded by God to the people by the same image: "Even the woods and every sweet-smelling tree shall overshadow Israel by the commandment of God
Jeremi'ah, Book of - "There can be little doubt that the book of Jeremiah grew out of the roll which Baruch wrote down at the prophet's mouth in the fourth year of Jehoiakim
Johanan - But Johanan and his party charged Jeremiah with false prophecy (though their city and temple in ruins attested his truth), as if he were instigated by Baruch so as to deliver them up to the Chaldees. All they gained by forcing Jeremiah and Baruch to accompany them to Egypt was that Jeremiah there under the Spirit foretold their doom and that of Pharaoh upon whom they trusted instead of God
Apocrypha - ... These apocryphal writings are ten in number: namely, Baruch, Ecclesiasticus, Wisdom of Solomon, Tobit, Judith, two books of the Maccabees, Song of the Three Children, Susannah, and Bell and the Dragon
Jehoiakim - Things were so had that in the fourth year of his reign Jeremiah dictated to Baruch a summary of all his earlier discourses, and bade him read it in public as though to indicate that there was no longer any hope
Jerahmeel - One of the three men ordered by Jehoiakim to arrest Jeremiah and Baruch ( Jeremiah 36:26 )
Benediction - Rabbi Nehemiah Baruch, in 1688, published a discourse on the manner wherein the sacerdotal benediction is to be pronounced
Kings - Ancient tradition in the Talmud names Jeremiah; some have supposed them compiled by Ezra or Baruch
Scribes - Such, for example, was Baruch, who "wrote from the mouth of Jeremiah all the words of the Lord" (Jeremiah 36:4,32 )
Burn - 9:21), and the scroll that Jeremiah had dictated to Baruch (Jer
Zachariah, Zacharias - It is more likely to be due to the Evangelist, or, still more, to a scribe, who perhaps was misled by the mention by Josephus of a ‘Zacharias son of Baruch,’ murdered in the Temple by the Zealots ( BJ IV
Apocrypha - ... The following is a list of the Apocrypha: ... Apocrypha of Jewish Origin ... Jewish Apocalypses ...
Book of Henoch

Assumption of Moses

Fourth Book of Esdras

Apocalypse of Baruch

Apocalypse of Abraham
Legendary Apocrypha of Jewish Origin ...
Book of Jubilees, or Little Genesis

Third Book of Esdras

Third Book of Machabees

History and Maxims of Ahikar, the Assyrian
Apocryphal Psalms and Prayers ...
Psalms of Solomon

Prayer of Manasses
Jewish Philosophy ...
Fourth Book of Machabees
Apocrypha of Jewish Origin with Christian Accretions ...
Sibylline Oracles

Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs

Ascension of Isaias
Apocrypha Of Christian Origin ... Apocryphal Gospels of Catholic Origin ...
Protoevangelium Jacobi, or Infancy Gospel of James, describing the birth, education, and marriage of the Blessed Virgin

Gospel of the Pseudo-Matthew

Arabic Gospel of the Infancy

History of Joseph the Carpenter

Transitu Marire, or Evangelium Joannis, describing the death and assumption of the Blessed Virgin
Judaistic and Heretical Gospels ...
Gospel according to the Hebrews

Gospel according to the Egyptians

Gospel of Peter

Gospel of Philip

Gospel of Thomas

Gospel of Marcion

Gospel of Bartholomew

Gospel of Matthias

Gospel of Nicodemus

Gospel of the Twelve Apostles

Gospel of Andrew

Gospel of Barnabas

Gospel of Thaddeus

Gospel of Philip

Gospel of Eve

Gospel of Judas Iscariot
Pilate Literature and Other Apocrypha concerning Christ ...
Report of Pilate to the Emperor

Narrative of Joseph of Arimathea

Pseudo-Correspondence of Jesus and Abgar, King of Edessa
Gnostic Acts of the Apostles ...
Acts of Peter

Acts of John

Acts of Andrew

Acts and Martyrdom of Matthew

Acts of Thomas

Acts of Bartholomew
Catholic Apocryphal Acts of the Apostles ...
Acts of Peter and Paul

Acts of Paul

Acts of Paul and Thecla

Acts of Philip

Acts of Matthew

Acts of Simon and Jude

Acts of Barnabas

Acts of James the Greater
Apocryphal Doctrinal Works ...
Testamentum Domini

Nostri Jesu

Preaching of Peter, or Kerygma Petri
Apocryphal Epistles ...
Pseudo-Epistle of Peter

Pseudo-Epistles of Paul

Pseudo-Epistles to the Laodiceans

Pseudo-Correspondence of Paul and Seneca
Christian Apocryphal Apocalypses ...
Apocalypse of Peter

Apocalypse of Paul
Zedekiah - Baruch (Baruch 1:8) represents Zedekiah as having caused silver vessels to be made to replace the golden ones carried off by Nebuchadnezzar; possibly this may have been owing to the impression made on Zedekiah by Hananiah's death. One of the princes assembled in the scribes' chamber when Micaiah announced that Baruch had read Jeremiah's words to the people (Jeremiah 36:12)
Abbreviations - ... Bar Baruch
Apocrypha - Prophetical : Baruch (ch. This Council names as canonical the following hooks and parts of books: First and Second Maccabees, Additions to Esther, History of Susanna, Song of the Three Holy Children, Bel and the Dragon, Tobit, Judith, Baruch, Sirach, and Wisdom of Solomon; omitting from the above list the Prayer of Manasses, First and Second Esdras [Vulgate Third and Fourth Esdras]. Baruch . This is a pseudepigraphical book attributed to Baruch, the scribe of Jeremiah. Of apocalyptical and prophetical works, there are the Book of Enoch , quoted in Jude, the Assumption of Moses , the Apocalypse of Baruch , the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs
Jeremiah - According to Jeremiah 36:1-26 , Baruch had written a first version at the dictation of Jeremiah. Jeremiah therefore dictated a second and enlarged edition of the first book to Baruch (Jeremiah 36:32 ). Traditional scholarly theories have tried to attribute poetic oracles to Jeremiah, stories about the prophet to Baruch, and prose sermons to a later editor who used the Book of Jeremiah to exemplify and teach the theology of the Book of Deuteronomy
New Jerusalem - Second Baruch 32:1-4 speaks of the new city that will be rebuilt after the old is shaken and uprooted as being "perfected into eternity" (cf. Second Baruch 4 compares the new city to the original "paradise, " an interesting comparison in light of Revelation 2:7
Sheol - ] Baruch 23
Canon of the Holy Scriptures - Of the Old Testament: the five books of Moses; Josue; Judges; Ruth; four books of Kings; two of Paralipomenon; two of Esdras; Tobias; Judith; Esther; Job; the Psalter; Proverbs; Ecclesiastes; Canticle of Canticles; Wisdom; Ecclesiasticus; Isaias; Jeremias with Baruch; Ezechiel; Daniel; the 12 minor prophets; and two books of Machabees
Mischna - According to Prideaux's account, they passed from Jeremiah to Baruch, from him to Ezra, and from Ezra to the men of the great synagogue, the last of whom was Simon the Just, who delivered them to Antigonus of Cocho: and from him they came down in regular succession to Simeon, who took our Saviour in his arms; to Gamaliel, at whose feet Paul was educated; and last of all, to Rabbi Judah the Holy, who committed them to writing in the Mischina
Crown - Baruch says that the idols of the Babylonians wore golden crowns, Bar_6:9
Mishna - Prideaux, they passed from Jeremiah to Baruch, from him to Ezra, and from Ezra to the men of the great synagogue, the last of whom was Simon the Just, who delivered them to Antigonus of Socho
Month - (1 Kings 8:2 ) In the second place we have the names which prevailed subsequent to the Babylonish captivity; of these the following seven appear in the Bible: Nisan, the first, in which the passover was held, (Nehemiah 2:1 ; Esther 3:7 ) Sivan, the third (Esther 8:9 ) Baruch 1:8 ; Elul, the sixth, (Nehemiah 6:15 ) 1 Maccabees 14:27 ; Chisleu, the ninth, (Nehemiah 1:1 ; Zechariah 7:1 ) 1 Maccabees 1:54 ; Tebeth, the tenth, (Esther 2:16 ) Sebat, the eleventh, (Zechariah 1:7 ) 1 Maccabees 16:14 ; and Adar, the twelfth
Apocalyptic Literature - The book is no doubt closely related to the Apocalypse of Baruch , and both apparently reproduce the same originally Jewish material. The Apocalypse of Baruch is a composite work which embodies in itself a ground-work which is distinctly Jewish, and certain sections of which were probably written before the destruction of Jerusalem. The probability is that the Apocalypse of Baruch, as it now stands, was written in the second half of the 1st cent. In both the Apocalypse of Baruch and Second Esdras we have the most systematized eschatological picture that has come down to us from Pharisaism. In general, however, this Sibylline literature, although of great extent, gives us no such distinct pictures of the future as those to be found in the Ezra-Baruch apocalypses
Apocrypha - ... Baruch... The Book of Baruch is also in the wisdom category. The first section is in prose and claims to give a history of the period of Jeremiah and Baruch. ... Letter of Jeremiah... The Letter of Jeremiah is often added to Baruch as chapter 6
Apocrypha - ... 8 Baruch, including the Epistle of Jeremiah
Witness - Thus “witness” takes on the new nuance of those able and willing to affirm the truth of a transaction by affixing their signatures: “And I gave the evidence of the purchase unto Baruch the son of Neriah … in the sight of Hanameel mine uncle’s son, and in the presence of the witnesses that subscribed the book of the purchase …” (Jer
Jehoiakim - prevented by fear of the king, sent Baruch to read them to the people assembled out of Judah to the Lord's house on the fasting day. ... Even Elnathan, who had been his tool against Urijah, recoiled from this, and interceded with Jehoiakim not to burn the roll; but he would not hear, nay even commanded his minions to apprehend Baruch and Jeremiah: but the Lord hid them (Psalms 31:20; Psalms 83:3; Isaiah 26:20)
Torment - Charles, The Apocalypse of Baruch, London, 1896; P
Micah, Micaiah - Micaiah , the son of Gemariah, and a contemporary of Jeremiah, who heard Baruch reading out the prophecies of Jeremiah, and then spoke of them to the princes who were assembled in the scribe’s chamber ( Jeremiah 36:9-13 ), perhaps identical with the Micaiah of 2 Kings 22:12 and the Micah of 2 Chronicles 34:20
Hagar - (In Baruch 3:23 the Arabians are called the ‘sons of Hagar
Jeremiah - Indications of affinity or friendship with some of the actors in it occur in the sameness of names: Jeremiah's father bearing the name of Hilkiah, Josiah's high priest; his uncle that of Shallum, Huldah's husband (Jeremiah 32:7; compare 2 Kings 22:14); Ahikam, Jeremiah's protector (Jeremiah 26:24), was also the fellow worker with Huldah in the revival; moreover Maaseiah, governor of Jerusalem, sent by Josiah as ally of Hilkiah in repairing the temple (2 Chronicles 34:8), was father of Neriah, the father of both Baruch and Seraiah, Jeremiah's disciples (Jeremiah 36:4; Jeremiah 51:59). ) In Jehoakim's (and see Baruch; JEHUDI. ) fifth year Jeremiah escaped his violence by the Lord's hiding him and Baruch (Jeremiah 36:27-32), after the king had destroyed the prophetic roll of prophecies for the 23 years past of Jeremiah's ministry, which Jeremiah was commanded to write in Jehoiakim's fourth year, and which in the fifth Baruch, having first written them, read to the people assembled on the fast. (See Baruch
Spirits in Prison - Baruch, lvi. Baruch, xxiii
Apocrypha - The Protestant churches not only account those books to be apocryphal and merely human compositions which are esteemed such by the church of Rome, as the Prayer of Manasseh, the third and fourth books of Esdras, the addition at the end of Job, and the hundred and fifty-first Psalm; but also the books of Tobit, Judith, the additions to the book of Esther, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, Baruch the Prophet, with the Epistle of Jeremiah, the Song of the Three Children, the Story of Susanna, the Story of Bel and the Dragon, and the first and second books of Maccabees
Apocrypha - Baruch. ‘Baruch’), is on similar lines to Sirach. ‘He that knoweth all things knoweth her’ (Baruch 3:32). Still it goes on into a sort of myth, for Wisdom thus discovered by God hidden in some remote region afterwards appears on earth and becomes conversant with men (Baruch 3:37). But Baruch has no conception of incarnation, and the idea has no place in the Hebrew personification of wisdom. The difficulty of acquiring wisdom suggested in Baruch is not found here
Barachiah - 4, where it is recorded that shortly before the last siege of Jerusalem one Zacharias the son of Baruch or Bariscaeus was murdered in the temple by the Zealots
Babylon - ] Baruch
New Creation - Baruch 32:6 ; Baruch 57:2 ; Apoc
Salvation - Sirach 51:12 (ἐξ ἀτωλείας), Wisdom of Solomon 16:7, Judith 9:11, Enoch 48:7 (of ‘the Son of Man’; ‘in his name are they being saved, and he is the God of their life’) 50:3 (eschatological-negative, mere salvation without glory) 63:8, 4 Ezr 6:25, 7:131, 9:8, 12:34, 13:26, 8:39 (the righteous shall he satisfied with salvation in connexion with the Messiah), Ps-Sol 6:2, 10:8, 12:6, 18:6, Baruch 4:22; Baruch 4:24; Baruch 4:29, Test
Pre-Existence - ’ To these may perhaps be added Baruch 3:37
Jeremiah, Book of - Jeremiah caused Baruch to write his prophecy against Jerusalem in a roll. On this being read to king Jehoiakim he burnt it, and sought to arrest the prophet and Baruch; but God hid them
Winter - ) develops into an unmistakable avatar doctrine, wherein Wisdom becomes incarnate, and dwells among men (Baruch 3:37, cf. 3, " translation="">Job 28:12-14; " translation="">Job 28:20-24, " translation="">Baruch 3:29, " translation="">Sirach 24:4), and as coming to earth and desiring to make her abode with men " translation="">Proverbs 1:20 ff. On the Jewish side, from this time forward, all personifications of the Divine Wisdom were rigidly restricted in their application to the Mosaic Torah (Sirach 24:23-27, Baruch 4:1, Pirke Aboth, iii
Apocrypha - ... The Roman Catholic Apocrypha consists of Tobit, Judith, the Additions to Esther, the Additions to Daniel (the Prayer of Azariah and the Three Young Men, Susanna, and Bel and the Dragon), the Wisdom of Solomon, Ecclesiasticus (also called Sirach), Baruch (also called 1Baruch), the Letter of Jeremiah, 1Maccabees, and 2Maccabees. Two books are associated with Jeremiah: the Letter of Jeremiah is an attack on idolatry, and Baruch, attributed to Jeremiah's secretary (cf
Judgment Day - ... Intertestamental Period This orientation became more prominent in Jewish writings in the interbiblical period (Enoch 47:3; 90:2-27; 4Ezra 7:33; 12; Baruch 24 ; Testament of Benjamin 10:6-8; Judith 16:17 )
Theodotion, Otherwise Theodotus - Of the apocryphal books, he is only known to have included Baruch and the additions to Daniel
Hell - The intertestamental literature constructed divergent scenarios for the wicked dead, including annihilation (4Ezra 7:61; 2Apoc Baruch 82:3 ff. This final punishment was usually located in a valley south of Jerusalem, known in Hebrew as Gen Hinnom or the Valley of Hinnom (2Apoc Baruch 59:10 ; 4 Ezra 7:36 ), and in Greek as gehenna [ 2 Kings 16:3 ; 2 Chronicles 28:3 ; 33:6 ; Jeremiah 7:31-34 ; 19:6 ), this valley was further desecrated when Josiah used it as Jerusalem's refuse dump (2 Kings 23:10 ) and it was prophesied as the place of God's future fiery judgment (Isaiah 30:33 ; 66:24 ; Jeremiah 7:31-32 )
Fast, Fasting - This at least is what Jeremiah instructed Baruch to encourage them to do (vv
Call - ... At least once, the verb qârâ' means “to dictate”: “Then Baruch answered them, He [dictated] all these words unto me … and I wrote them with ink in the book” (Jer
Mouth - 36:4 “from the mouth of Jeremiah” means “by dictation”: “… And Baruch wrote from the mouth of Jeremiah all words of the Lord … upon a [scroll]
Paradise - The principal references for our period occur in the Apocalypse of Moses, more correctly known as the Books of Adam and Eve, in 4 Ezra , 2 Baruch; there is also one reference in the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs (‘Levi,’ xviii
Esdras, the Second Book of - , which it follows in the English Apocrypha, It belongs to the apocalyptic order, and is closely related in time and thought to the Apocalypse of Baruch (q. Charles, The Apocalypse of Baruch, 1896, and Eschatology; Hebrew, Jewish, and Christian, 1899 (21913); R
Restore, Renew - , new heaven and new earth Isaiah 65:17 ; 66:22 ; Revelation 21:1-5 ; 2 Baruch 32:6 ; 44:12 )
Apocalyptic - The best known of the extra-biblical apocalyptic books are 1Enoch (often called “Ethiopic Enoch,” since it survives in that language), 2Enoch, 4Ezra, and 2Baruch. The end therefore is good !... Most apocalyptic works are ascribed to an ancient saint, as their names imply (for example, the books of Enoch , the Apocalypse of Abraham , of Noah , of Ezra , of Baruch )
Scribes - Baruch was an amanuensis or scribe to Jeremiah; and Ezra is called "a ready scribe in the law of Moses, having prepared his heart to seek the law of the Lord, and to do it, and to teach in Israel statutes and judgments," Ezra 7:6 ; Ezra 7:10 ; but there is no mention of the scribes being formed into a distinct body of men till after the cessation of prophecy
Resurrection - ... In the Apocalypse of Baruch, for example, the questions were asked, ‘In what shape shall those live who live in thy day?’ ‘Will they then resume this form of the present, and put on these entrammelling members, which are now involved in evils, and in which evils are consummated, or wilt thou perchance change these things which have been in the world, as also the world?’ (49. ] of Baruch ed. ] of Baruch (30
Greek Versions of ot - 1 28 and 29 51 (in the Greek order of the chapters), the latter, who was an inferior scholar, being responsible also for Baruch. ; and Baruch is attached to Jeremiah. to Kings, Baruch and Lam
Pseudepigrapha - ... Second Baruch is apocalyptic and shows how some Jews responded to the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans in A
Jehoiachin - The Apocrypha (Baruch 1:3, and the History of Susanna) relates dubious stories
John the Baptist - ... John was to be "great in the sight of the Lord" (contrast Baruch, Jeremiah 45:5)
Demon, Demoniacal Possession, Demoniacs - , Baruch 4:7; Baruch 4:35, Wisdom of Solomon 2:24, Sirach 21:27; cf
Versions - Wycliffe next brought out the complete English New Testament Nicholas de Hereford proceeded with the Old Testament and Apocrypha as far as the middle of Baruch, then was interrupted by Arundel. He includes Baruch in the canonical books, and is undecided as to the authority of the Apocrypha
Heaven - Baruch and 2 Esdras. He seems rather to have brought all the symbols of the previous apocalyptic, from Babylonia and Egypt in the remote past down to the almost contemporary visions or Ezra and Baruch, under the sway of the spiritual conception of the kingdom of God
Cerinthus, Opponent of Saint John - He insisted upon a partial observance of the "divine" law such as circumcision and the ordinances of the sabbath; resembling in this severance of the genuine from the spurious elements of the law the school which produced the Clementina and the Book of Baruch
Jeremiah - ... The idolatrous apostasy, and other criminal enormities of the people of Judah, and the severe judgments which God was prepared to inflict upon them, but not without a distant prospect of future restoration and deliverance, are the principal subject matters of the prophecies of Jeremiah; excepting only the forty-fifth chapter, which relates personally to Baruch, and the six succeeding chapters, which respect the fortunes of some particular Heathen nations
Daniel, Book of - Generally, apocalyptic writings bear the name of ancient heroes such as Adam, Enoch, or Baruch, who demonstrated in their time the type of character needed in the current situation of the writer
Tradition - At that time, he employed Baruch the scribe to record his sermons as the prophet dictated them (Jeremiah 36:1-4 )
New Covenant - Baruch 2:30-35 says that God will make an everlasting covenant with his people at the restoration, so that he will be their God and they will be his people
Jeremiah - An earlier message for Jeremiah’s secretary, Baruch, is also recorded (45:1-5)
Demon - ’ In the Revised Version of the OT ‘demon’ is found in Deuteronomy 32:17, Psalms 106:37, Baruch 4:7 (Heb
Resurrection - -The chief sources are the Assumption of Moses, 2 Baruch , , 4 Ezra for the apocalyptic literature, and such portions of the Talmud as may reflect the Rabbinical tradition of this period. ... 2 Baruch is a composite work, containing, according to Charles’s analysis, three apocalypses written prior to a
Heaven - Baruch and 2 Esdras. He seems rather to have brought all the symbols of the previous apocalyptic, from Babylonia and Egypt in the remote past down to the almost contemporary visions or Ezra and Baruch, under the sway of the spiritual conception of the kingdom of God
Apocalyptic Literature - The Syriac Baruch. The Greek Baruch
Jerusalem - We read of a preexistent heavenly Jerusalem (Syriac Baruch 4:2 ) that will descend to earth at the end of the age (2 Esdras 10:27,2 Esdras 10:27,10:54 ; 2 Esdras 13:4-6 ), or, according to another conception, is the place in heaven where the righteous will eventually dwell (Slahyvonic Enoch 55:2)
World - 148); it occurs chiefly in the later parts of the Baruch Apocalypse, in 4 Ezra (e
Versions of the Scripture, English - He had proceeded as far as the middle of Baruch (following the order of the Vulgate) when he was in A
World - 148); it occurs chiefly in the later parts of the Baruch Apocalypse, in 4 Ezra (e
Star (2) - ... In the first part of the 3rd Messiah-Apocalypse embodied in The Apocalypse of Baruch (ch
Assur - The apocryphal book of Baruch describes the Assyrian deities exactly as the ancient monuments do
Eschatology - The Judaism in which they were living was the Judaism which produced apocalyptic writings such as the Book of Jubilees, the Assumption of Moses, the Apocalypse of Baruch , 4 Ezra, etc
Eschatology - ] of Baruch and 2 Esdras, though these writings undoubtedly show the influence of Christian thought)
Resurrection - The early second-century SyriActs (translated from Greek) text 2Baruch is an example. Baruch ask God the questions, "In which shape will the living live in your day? Or how will remain their splendor which will be after that? Will they, perhaps, take again this present form, and will they put on the chained members which are in evil and by which evils are accomplished?" (2Bar 49:2-3). The answer that is given in 2Baruch 50-51 is that initially the "earth will surely give back the dead not changing anything in their form" (2Bar 50:2)
Prayer - ... Baruch
Jeremiah, Theology of - Baruch, 45:3)
Alpha And Omega (2) - ... On the other hand, the apologetic and eschatological literature, which Rabbinic Judaism after the rise of Christian speculation more and more excluded from canonical use, shows a marked tendency to offset these heathen demiurgic ascriptions by similar ones applied not directly to God but to a hypostatized creative Wisdom (Proverbs 8:22-36, Wisdom of Solomon 7:21; Wisdom of Solomon 8:1; Wisdom of Solomon 9:4; Wisdom of Solomon 9:9, Sirach 24:9; Sirach 24:28, Baruch 3:9-37), or to an angelic Being endowed with the same demiurgic attributes (2 Esdras 5:56 to 2 Esdras 6:6)
Saviour (2) - God, however, here also is more frequently called Saviour (παντων σωτήρ, Ps-Sol 16:7; αἰωνιος σωτήρ, Baruch 4:22; ἄγιος σωτήρ, 3 Maccabees 6:29; 3 Maccabees 7:16)
Guilt (2) - Elsewhere death is spoken of as incurred by the personal guilt of each individual, and the statement of the Apocalypse of Baruch (54:15, 19), that ‘each of us is the Adam of his own soul,’ looks like an attempt to express a mystery which alone can reconcile these divergent views
Righteousness - " translation="">Baruch 4:1 f
Assumption of Moses - A Greek version of both, of the same century, is presupposed by the quotations and parallels in Acts 7:36, Judges 1:9; Judges 1:16; Judges 1:18; Judges 1:2 Baruch, Clement of Alexandria, and Origen
Corinthians, First And Second, Theology of - The concept was dear to Jewish apocalyptic writers, believing as they did that this age could be remedied only by the kingdom of God or the age to come (see Isaiah 40-66 ; Daniel 2:44 ; 1 Enoch 6-36,83-90 ; Sib Oracles 3:652-56; 2Baruch 39-40; 4Ezra 7; etc. " That disclosure of truth was itself a proleptic experience of the age to come (Daniel 9:20-12:13 ; 1 Enoch 63:2,32 ; 48:1,49 ; 4 ; Ezra 14:25,38-40 ; 2 Baruch 54:13 ; Revelation 4-22 )
Hell - To express the awfulness of the torture, it is said that the fire of the under world is nine times hotter than that of earthly furnaces; the fire of the great chaos nine times hotter than that of the under world; the fire of the ‘rulers’ nine times hotter than that of the great chaos; but the fire of the dragon is seventy times more intense in its heat than that of the ‘rulers’! In 3 Baruch, iv
Hell - To express the awfulness of the torture, it is said that the fire of the under world is nine times hotter than that of earthly furnaces; the fire of the great chaos nine times hotter than that of the under world; the fire of the ‘rulers’ nine times hotter than that of the great chaos; but the fire of the dragon is seventy times more intense in its heat than that of the ‘rulers’! In 3 Baruch, iv
Bible - The Apocrypha consists of 14 books (1 and 2 Esdras, Tobit, Judith, The Rest of Esther, The Wisdom of Solomon, Sirach, Baruch with the Epistle of Jeremy, The Song of the Three Holy Children, The History of Susanna, Bel and the Dragon, The Prayer of Manasses, 1 and 2 Maccabees)
Job - Calmet suggested Solomon , Bunsen Baruch , and Royer (in 1901) Jeremiah
John, Gospel of - The authority of an honoured name is sometimes claimed by an unknown author, as in the Ascension of Isaiah and the Apocalypse of Baruch , not fraudulently, but as a literary device to give character to his theme
Apocalypse - -(d) Apocalypse of Baruch (q
Book - With this view, Jeremiah ordered the writings, which he delivered to Baruch, to be put in an earthen vessel, Jeremiah 32
Papias, Bishop of Hierapolis - See the Apocalypse of Baruch, c
Bible - Protestants, while they agree with the Roman Catholics in rejecting all those as uncanonical, have also justly rejected the books of Tobit, Judith, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, Baruch 1:1-21 st and 2 nd Maccabees
Canon of the New Testament - This Canon contains the OT with Baruch and the Epistle of Jeremy, and all our NT except the Revelation
Messiah - ... In the Apocalypse of Baruch and in Second Esdras , however, transcendentalism reaches its final form under the influence of the tragedy of the fall of Jerusalem
Fall - Baruch) insist upon free-will and direct individual responsibility’ (op
Paul (2) - On both sides, along with much that was arid or fantastic, there was also not a little that was penetrating and beautiful: witness the Pirke Aboth on the one hand, and 4 Ezra and Apocalypse, Apocalyptic Baruch on the other