Character Study on Joel

Character Study on Joel

1 Samuel 8: Now the name of his firstborn was Joel; and the name of his second, Abiah: they were judges in Beersheba.
1 Chronicles 4: And Joel, and Jehu the son of Josibiah, the son of Seraiah, the son of Asiel,
1 Chronicles 5: The sons of Joel; Shemaiah his son, Gog his son, Shimei his son,
1 Chronicles 5: And Bela the son of Azaz, the son of Shema, the son of Joel, who dwelt in Aroer, even unto Nebo and Baalmeon:
1 Chronicles 5: Joel the chief, and Shapham the next, and Jaanai, and Shaphat in Bashan.
1 Chronicles 6: And these are they that waited with their children. Of the sons of the Kohathites: Heman a singer, the son of Joel, the son of Shemuel,
1 Chronicles 6: The son of Elkanah, the son of Joel, the son of Azariah, the son of Zephaniah,
1 Chronicles 7: And the sons of Uzzi; Izrahiah: and the sons of Izrahiah; Michael, and Obadiah, and Joel, Ishiah, five: all of them chief men.
1 Chronicles 11: Joel the brother of Nathan, Mibhar the son of Haggeri,
1 Chronicles 12: And Joelah, and Zebadiah, the sons of Jeroham of Gedor.
1 Chronicles 15: Of the sons of Gershom; Joel the chief, and his brethren an hundred and thirty:
1 Chronicles 15: And David called for Zadok and Abiathar the priests, and for the Levites, for Uriel, Asaiah, and Joel, Shemaiah, and Eliel, and Amminadab,
1 Chronicles 15: So the Levites appointed Heman the son of Joel; and of his brethren, Asaph the son of Berechiah; and of the sons of Merari their brethren, Ethan the son of Kushaiah;
1 Chronicles 23: The sons of Laadan; the chief was Jehiel, and Zetham, and Joel, three.
1 Chronicles 26: The sons of Jehieli; Zetham, and Joel his brother, which were over the treasures of the house of the LORD.
1 Chronicles 27: Of the children of Ephraim, Hoshea the son of Azaziah: of the half tribe of Manasseh, Joel the son of Pedaiah:
2 Chronicles 29: Then the Levites arose, Mahath the son of Amasai, and Joel the son of Azariah, of the sons of the Kohathites: and of the sons of Merari, Kish the son of Abdi, and Azariah the son of Jehalelel: and of the Gershonites; Joah the son of Zimmah, and Eden the son of Joah:
Ezra 10: Of the sons of Nebo; Jeiel, Mattithiah, Zabad, Zebina, Jadau, and Joel, Benaiah.
Nehemiah 11: And Joel the son of Zichri was their overseer: and Judah the son of Senuah was second over the city.
Joel 1: The word of the LORD that came to Joel the son of Pethuel.
Acts 2: But this is that which was spoken by the prophet Joel;

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1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Joel
(Hebrew: Jehovah is God)

Second in the list of the twelve Minor Prophets. No definite information about his life has been trans.mitted to us. We may conclude that he was a Judean by birth, because his ministry seems limited to Juda and Jerusalem. The time when he exercised his ministry is a matter of much dispute. The dates assigned range from 837 BC to 400 BC. The most probable theory attaches his work to the reign of King Azarias, 789-738 BC, relying on the place traditionally assigned to him in the list of the minor prophets, where he stands between Osee and Amos. The opening verses of both these books name Azarias as the king under whom they preached. Besides which some passages are so identical in Joel 3, and Amos 1, as to appear evident citations; after weighing the peculiarities of the context it seems that Amos borrows from Joel. Hence Joel was a contemporary of Osee and Amos, but a little in advance of them. The book of Joel consists of four chapters in the Hebrew; but only three in the English Bible. The Hebrew adds no material; it merely divides our second chapter into two. It opens with a magnificent description of the dreadful havoc wrought by a plague of locusts (1:1 to 2:11), then invites all to repent and implore God's mercy (2:12-17), whereupon the Lord promises fertility and victory (2:18-27); and for a later period, He adds the prospect of the abundant pouring out of the spirit of God on His people, while judgment will be visited upon the hostile nations in the Valley of Josaphat (2:28 to 3:21). All but a few admire the literary unity of the composition, and infer that the prophet committed his message to writing at the close of his life. His style is almost classic; his thoughts are gracefully woven together; his language is clear, fluent, elegant. The interpretation, however, is quite difficult; not in consequence of the language, but of the things expressed. For instance, whether the plague of the locusts is to be taken in an historical or a metaphoric sense. Joel is the prophet of repentance in view of the Lord's Day. The canonical authority of Joel is proclaimed in the New Testament by Saint Peter who quotes Joel 2:28,32 (Acts 2); and by Saint Paul who quotes Joel 2:32 (Romans 9). Portions of the Book of Joel are used in the Office, Tuesday and Wednesday of the fourth week of November, and in the Mass, Ash Wednesday; antiphon, 2:13; response, 2:17; lectio, 2:12-19; Friday in Ember Week of Pentecost, lesson, 2:23-24,26-27; Saturday in Ember Week of Pentecost, first lesson, 2:28-32.

1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Joel Harris
Born Eatonton, Georgia, 1848; died Atlanta, Georgia, 1908. Adopting journalism as his profession, he was long associated with the Atlanta "Constitution." He is best known by his "Uncle Remus" stories, which created an original department in American literature, and were translated into 27 languages. Although his wife was a Catholic and he had long admired the Catholic religion, he did not embrace it until a few weeks before his death.

Easton's Bible Dictionary - Joel
Jehovah is his God.
The oldest of Samuel's two sons appointed by him as judges in Beersheba (1 Samuel 8:2 ). (See VASHNI (n/a).)

A descendant of Reuben (1 Chronicles 5:4,8 ).

One of David's famous warriors (1 Chronicles 11:38 ).

A Levite of the family of Gershom (1 Chronicles 15:7,11 ).

1 Chronicles 7:3 .

1 Chronicles 27:20 .

The second of the twelve minor prophets. He was the son of Pethuel. His personal history is only known from his book.


Easton's Bible Dictionary - Joel, Book of
Joel was probably a resident in Judah, as his commission was to that people. He makes frequent mention of Judah and Jerusalem (1:14; 2:1,15,32; 3:1,12,17,20,21). He probably flourished in the reign of Uzziah (about B.C. 800), and was contemporary with Amos and Isaiah.

The contents of this book are,


A prophecy of a great public calamity then impending over the land, consisting of a want of water and an extraordinary plague of locusts ((1:1-2:11).).

The prophet then calls on his countrymen to repent and to turn to God, assuring them of his readiness to forgive (2:12-17), and foretelling the restoration of the land to its accustomed fruitfulness (18-26).

Then follows a Messianic prophecy, quoted by Peter (Acts 2:39 ).

Finally, the prophet foretells portents and judgments as destined to fall on the enemies of God (ch. 3, but in the Hebrew text 4).


Holman Bible Dictionary - Joel
(joh' ehl) Personal name meaning, “Yah is God.” 1. Son of Samuel who became an evil judge, leading Israel's leaders to ask Samuel to give them a king, thus introducing kingship as a form of government for Israel. Samuel argued strongly against this, but to no avail (1 Samuel 8:1 ; compare 1 Chronicles 6:33 ). 2 . A Levite (1 Chronicles 6:36 ). 3 . Member(s) of tribe of Reuben (1Chronicles 5:4,1 Chronicles 5:8 ). 4 . Leader among the Levites under David (1Chronicles 15:7,1Chronicles 15:11,1 Chronicles 15:18 ), who brought the ark of the covenant up to Jerusalem. Compare 1 Chronicles 23:8 ; 1 Chronicles 26:22 for Levites named Joel 5 . Member of tribe of Simeon (1 Chronicles 4:35 ). 6 . Leader of tribe of Gad (1 Chronicles 5:12 ). 7 . Leader of tribe of Issachar (1 Chronicles 7:3 ). 8 . Military hero under David (1 Chronicles 11:38 ; compare Igal in 2 Samuel 23:26 ). 9 . Leader of the western half of the tribe of Manasseh under David (1 Chronicles 27:20 ). 10 . Levite who helped King Hezekiah cleanse the Temple about 715 B.C. (2 Chronicles 29:12 ). 11 . Israelite Ezra condemned for having a foreign wife who might lead nation to worship other gods (Ezra 10:43 ). 12 . Leader of the people from tribe of Benjamin living in Jerusalem in time of Nehemiah (Nehemiah 11:9 ). 13 . Prophet whose preaching ministry produced the Book of Joel. Personal information concerning the prophet is minimal, only that he was the son of Pethuel, about whom we know nothing. That the prophet lived in Jerusalem is probable because of his avid interest in the city, his repeated references to Zion, his call to the people to assemble for worship, and his interest in the Temple rituals and sacrifices. His use of the popular formula, “The word of the Lord came,” demonstrates his devotion as God's prophet. Distinguishing himself from the priests, he respectfully urged them to lead the people in repentance. As many as twenty references to and quotations from other prophets attest to his position in the prophetic ministry.

Containing only 70 verses, the Book of Joel is one of the shortest in the Old Testament, comprising only three chapters in our English translations. The first of two natural divisions, the earlier section (Joel 1:1-2:17 ) describes a terrible locust plague concluding with a plea for confession of sins. The second section (Joel 2:18-3:21 ), written in the form of a first-person response from God, proclaims hope for the repentant people coupled with judgment upon their enemies.

An unprecedented locust plague was symbolic of the coming day of the Lord. The insects, depicted in their four stages of development, moved through the land in successive swarms, utterly destroying everything in their path. Farmers were denied a harvest. Animals desperately roamed the wasteland groaning and perishing for lack of food. Drunkards cried out for a little taste of wine. Because priests could not find enough offerings for sacrifice, altars were empty. Drought and famine followed the locust infiltration. Vegetation was stripped; the weather was hot; water was scarce. All God's creation suffered because of the sinfulness of His people.

Priests were urged to call for fasting and prayer (Joel 2:15-17 ). Only God's grace could avert annihilation. Then, on the basis of their repentance, God answered that He would show pity and remove their plague (Joel 2:18-27 ).

As a result of their return to God, His people were promised the presence of God's Spirit among them. Locusts were used to tell about a greater day of the Lord in the future. Judgment was pronounced against Phoenicia and Philistia (Joel 3:4 ) and eventually upon all nations as they were judged by God in the Valley of Jehoshaphat, which literally means “The Lord judges” (Joel 3:2 , 3:12 ). Judah faced unparalleled prosperity, but Egypt and Edom (traditional enemies) could look for terrible punishment (Joel 3:18-19 ). The Lord triumphed over his enemies in order that all shall “know that I am the Lord Your God” (Joel 3:17 ; compare Joel 2:27 ).

Opinions differ regarding the date of the book. Internal evidence makes it clear that the priests were in a position of strong authority; the Temple was standing; sacrifices were considered important; and certain foreign nations stood condemned. No mention was made of the world empires of Assyria or Babylonia. No reference was made to the Northern Kingdom of Israel; neither is the name of a king mentioned.

Two approximate dates generally are given as the possible times of the authorship of the book, either before the Exile around the time of the boy-king Joash (about 836-796 B.C.) or after the return from Exile (about 500-400 B.C.). The position of the book among the early prophets in the Hebrew canon is considered as evidence for an early date. Also, the omission of a king's name would be appropriate if a young boy such as Joash had not achieved maturity.

In favor of the late date, strong arguments are given. The returning exiles, comprising a small group in Jerusalem, centered their worship in the Temple. Sacrifices were important. Emphasis on ethical living, so characteristic of preexilic prophets such as Amos and Micah, was lacking. Idolatry and the high places were not mentioned, suggesting that they were no longer a serious problem. After the Exile, there would be no need for announcing the coming destruction of Assyria and Babylon. There would be no need to mention a king. Citation of the Grecian slave traffic (Joel 3:4-6 ) fits a late period. References to the scattering of the Israelites (Joel 3:2-6 ) would apply to an exilic period, and the use of the term “Israel” to refer to Judah (Joel 2:27 ; Joel 3:2 ) would have been appropriate in postexilic times. In addition, the style and language reflects the period after the Exile when the prophetic emphasis was beginning to give way to the apocalyptic.

Some early theologians viewed the entire book as an allegory with the locusts representing four heathen nations that opposed God's people. Few scholars hold to such an interpretation today. Other biblical students have seen in the book primarily a prediction of future events and have related it to certain apocalyptic literature of the New Testament (Revelation 9:3-11 ). Most scholars, however, accept the description of the locust plague as a literal invasion which the prophet used as a point of reference to speak to the people of his own day about the coming day of the Lord, at the same time incorporating predictive elements concerning the messianic age.

Primary teachings of the Book of Joel are numerous. (1) The Creator and Redeemer God of all the universe is in complete control of nature and can use calamities to bring His people to repentance. (2) All of God's creation is interdependent. People, animals, and vegetation all suffer when people sin. (3) Whereas the Jews considered the day of the Lord as a time of punishment upon their enemies, Joel make it clear that although God controls the destinies of other nations, His people, with a responsibility to live in accordance with their relationship with Him, are not exempt from His vengeance. (4) The God of judgment also is a God of mercy who stands ready to redeem and restore when His people come before Him in repentance. (5) Of special significance is the forward look to a time when the Spirit of God would be present upon all people. All could become prophets, with no exclusions, no go-betweens, and all could know His salvation. Peter, on the day of Pentecost, proclaimed that the new day of Spirit-filled people had arrived as it had been announced earlier by the prophet Joel (Acts 2:17-21 ).

Outline

I. The Day of the Lord Calls for God's People to Respond (Joel 1:1-2:17 ).

A. Witness to future generations (Joel 1:1-4 ).

B. Mourn and grieve over the destruction (Joel 1:5-20 ).

C. Sound the alarm because the day of the scLord is dreadful (Joel 2:1-11 ).

D. Repent inwardly because your gracious, patient God may have pity (Joel 2:12-14 ).

E. Assemble the congregation for mourning and repentance (Joel 2:15-17 ).

II. God Will Respond to His People's Mourning and Repentance (Joel 2:18-27 ).

A. God will have pity (Joel 2:18 ).

B. God will provide food needs and remove shame from His people (Joel 2:19 ).

C. God will defeat the enemy (Joel 2:20 ).

D. God will replace fear and shame with joy and praise (Joel 2:21-26 ).

E. God will cause His people to know and worship Him, and Him alone (Joel 2:27 ).

III. God Is Preparing a Great Day of Salvation (Joel 2:28-3:21 ).

A. God will pour out His Spirit to bring salvation to the remnant (Joel 2:28-32 ).

B God will judge all nations (Joel 3:1-17 ).

C. God will bless His people (Joel 3:18-21 ).

A. O. Collins



Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Joel, Theology of
The Book of Joel has been dated by conservative scholars from the ninth to the fifth centuries b.c.: more recent scholars tend to date the book to the latter end of the spectrum. Particularly important in supporting this later date are Joel's apparent quotations from earlier Old Testament literature. Because of the relative uncertainty regarding the date, this article discusses the book's theology without heavy dependence on the question of its date.

Nothing more is known concerning Joel than what is given in the book: that he was the son of Pethuel and that he lived in or near Jerusalem. There is not reason to connect him with any of the other Joels mentioned in the Old Testament.

Like that of other prophets, Joel's theology is not set forth systematically. Nevertheless, it will be convenient and appropriate to trace a selection of his themes, giving particular prominence to his most distinctive theological contribution: the expected outpouring of God's Spirit on all flesh.

God . God is both the Lord God of Israel and the Judge of all nations. As the Almighty, Shaddai (1:15), he controls the invading, destructive locusts, which are his army obeying his command (2:11). Likewise, he takes them away (2:20), doing great things (2:21) and wonders (2:26). He moves the powers of the heavens to do his will (2:31; 3:15) and brings the nations into judgment (3:2,12). There is no one like God (2:27).

The People of God . For Joel, as for the Old Testament generally, the Lord has a special relationship with the people of Jerusalem and Judah. They are his people (2:17-19,26-27; 3:2-3,16), and he is their God (1:16; 2:13-14; 3:17). They are his inheritance (2:17; 3:2), and their possessions are his (3:5). Their land is his land (1:6; 2:18; 3:2), and its crops belong to him (1:7).

It is true that Joel does not dwell on specific great Acts of God in the past associated with the patriarchs, the bondage in Egypt, the exodus, the theophany at Mount Sinai, and the conquest of Canaan. Nor does he mention the law, animal sacrifice, the king, the sages of the wisdom tradition, or other well-known aspects of Old Testament religion. This silence, however, should not be overly stressed, as if he did not hold to the realities involved, or as if such elements either did not yet exist or no longer existed in his day. Joel does draw on the teaching of his sacred literature, particularly the books of Deuteronomy and Obadiah, and he clearly embraces the traditions surrounding God's dwelling in Zion, his holy mountain (2:1; 3:16-17,21) and in its temple (1:9,13-16). Moreover, the Zion-Jerusalem tradition is seen in the context of the larger and older Israel tradition (2:27; 3:2,16).

Joel exhibits a striking understanding of solidarity within his community and between his people and the natural environment in which they live. The locust plague affects human beings (1:5), the ground (1:10), and the beasts (1:18-20). Correspondingly, the restoration comes to them all (2:21-22; 3:18). The call for repentance encompasses the whole population (2:16), just as the locusts had affected all (1:2).

The Day of the Lord . The fact that the first mention of this theme in the book calls it simply "the day" (1:15) probably indicates that it was an established concept, that Joel was drawing on earlier prophetic voices such as Amos (5:18-20), Obadiah (15), or Zephaniah (1:7,14) in his depiction of the crisis present to his people. Moreover, it is perhaps debatable whether Joel, in the final analysis, viewed the devastating locust plague as actually the day of the Lord or as merely its harbinger. At least the plague did not exhaust the day of the Lord concept. For beyond the present calamity, however terrible it was, would be yet another, more awesome manifestation of God's judgment, this time affecting not merely Judah, but all the nations (3:14), the Lord's people being spared (2:32; 3:16).

In spite of this difference in time, the present calamity and the future day of the Lord are described in strikingly similar terms, including irregular cosmic phenomena (2:10,30-31; 3:16) and temporal imminence (2:1; 3:14). The apparent nearness of the future day of the Lord is probably to be explained as a foreshortening of time from the prophet's perspective. The cosmic phenomena theme comes to expression again in the New Testament, as, for example, in the Lord's prediction of future events (Mark 13:24 ; Luke 21:26 ) and in the Apocalypse (Revelation 6:12 ).

Sin and Repentance . Joel does not appear to castigate his people for their sinfulness, as do other prophets. But this is only appearance. Joel clearly recognizes the sins of the nations (3:2-7,19). His failure to be explicit about the sins of Judah is probably due to his being thrust into the crisis situation of the plague, in which causal explanations were assumed rather than stated. Furthermore, some would argue that the three groups addressed in chapter 1 are selected because of sins they were committing: drunkards (1:5), farmers (1:11, perhaps involved in fertility rites), and priests (1:13, who fail to lead the nation faithfully). And, of course, the appeal to repentance makes no sense apart from presupposing national sin. Perhaps it is chiefly the sin of mere formality in religion, since Joel urges an inward repentance of the heart and not merely an outward rending of garments (2:13).

True repentance, then, must come from a sincere heart, must consist in a return to the Lord and presumably to his standards for living (2:13), and is based on the possibility that God will respond to such turning to him. That he would respond to repentance is consonant with his nature as a gracious and merciful God (2:13), but it is not a necessity that he do so ("Who knows? 2:14). Ultimately God is sovereign in his response to even sincere human repentance. Moreover, Joel's emphasis on repentance of the heart should not be understood to render the more formal aspects of religion unnecessary or wrong. The repentance he urges flows from the heart but is to be expressed in the religious forms of weeping (2:12), fasting (2:12,15), assembling at the temple (2:15), and communal prayers led by officiants (2:17).

Salvation . In this case God responded to the people's repentance and restored their material losses (2:23-26). It is noteworthy, however, that the prophet still holds to God himself as the ultimate good for his people, not their material possessions. It is in the Lord that they are to rejoice (2:23) and it is his name they are to praise (2:26).

Joel's further statement (2:32) that all who call on the Lord will be saved probably refers initially to a deliverance from the physical terrors of the day of the Lord. Yet in light of the foregoing appreciation of the need for a deep experience of repentance, one cannot exclude the possibility that a deliverance from the Lord's judgment on sin may also be involved. This certainly appears to be the way the passage is understood and applied in Acts 2:21 and Romans 10:13 .

God's Spirit . Joel's announcement of God pouring out his Spirit (2:28-29) can be analyzed under three aspects.

Its Degree . It is probable that the word "pour out" draws attention to God's generosity and graciousness. Throughout its usage in the Old Testament it tends to speak of a pouring out that is complete, or at least abundant or extravagant because it is unnecessary.

Its Recipients . These are indicated not only by the words "all flesh" but also by the word "your." It is, therefore, not possible that expressions like "your sons and daughters" could refer to all humankind indiscriminately. Rather, this refers initially to Judah, whether all Israelites, all kinds or classes or Israelites, or primarily Israelites but extending to some Gentiles as well. Of these three alternatives, the last depends on the assumption that the servants mentioned in verse 29 would be non-Israelite. But this may be assuming too much. Non-Israelite slaves would normally be assimilated into the nation and so become virtually Israelite. Moreover, at some points in history, Israelites may themselves have been enslaved to fellow Israelites. This may in fact have been the case in the postexilic period (Nehemiah 5:5,8 ), and this would be especially relevant if the commonly adopted postexilic date for the Book of Joel is correct. If the third alternative seems weak, the other two remain grammatically possible.

Its Results . The recipients of the Spirit are said to prophesy and have dreams or visions, words capable of a wide variety of interpretation, largely due to the fact that Joel's announcement comes rather abruptly, having no apparent conceptual connection with earlier material in the book. Therefore, the explanation of Joel is often sought in other passages, such as Numbers 11:29 , Jeremiah 31:31-34 , Ezekiel 36:26-27 , or Acts 2 . But since this method risks importing extraneous elements into Joel's thinking, the present approach will be to probe the actual statements before relating them to other passages.

On the assumption that dreams and visions represent merely poetic variation, there are two phenomena said to result from the Spirit's outpouring: prophecy and dreams/visions, the former referring to the proclamation of God's message, the latter to its reception. It is doubtful that the reception is to be emphasized, since prophesying would presumably not be listed first if it were a subordinate element. Moreover, in the Old Testament the exact mode of receiving the message was not as important as the fact that it was from the Lord and that it was faithfully proclaimed. Joel was announcing, then, that the people of God would faithfully proclaim God's Word.

This bare description is not elaborated in terms of who are addressed by the proclamation. Presumably it could be either the people of God or the nations or both. Some support for the idea of a proclamation to the nations may be found in the reference to those who find security through the Lord's call (2:32) and the fact that sometimes God is said to extend his call through the work of prophets (Jeremiah 35:15-17 ). On the other hand, it must be admitted that, since many interpreters do not see 2:32 as referring to the nations, such a reference is at best tentative, although supported by the application of the verse in the New Testament. Furthermore, any interpretation of 2:32 has to struggle with the roughness of its syntax. Still, a reference to proclaiming God's Word to the nations is possible.

The content of prophetic proclamation in the Old Testament varies according to context. Quite exceptionally, prophesying may be thanksgiving and praise to the Lord (1 Chronicles 25:3 ). Typically, however, it refers to delivering words of threat and warning (Jeremiah 26:9 ; 28:8 ; 32:3 ), or of encouragement and hope (Jeremiah 37:19 ; Ezekiel 13:16 ; 37:4 ). Its meaning in Joel should be sought along these lines. On the basis, therefore, of 2:28-32 alone, the Spirit's outpouring can be said to produce the faithful proclamation of God's word of warning and encouragement.

A great many interpreters, making a connection with Numbers 11:29 , see Joel as announcing the realization of a wish of Moses that all of the Lord's people be prophets having God's Spirit. The value of this appeal, however, may be questioned. First, the nature of the elders' prophesying may be atypical, there being nothing in Numbers to indicate that their prophecy was proclamation: furthermore, it is not clear that interpreters are correct in holding that this is in fact a real wish or hope on the part of Moses. It may be simply Moses' attempt to renounce any heavy-handed means of defending his authority, as Joshua appears to have asked him to do.

A connection with Ezekiel 36:26-27 is often affirmed. However, in Ezekiel the effect of the Spirit's presence is obedience to God's Word, whereas in Joel it is proclamation of God's Word. True, the two are not mutually exclusive; but neither are they identical.

The same difficulty exists in attempting to define Joel's prophecy in terms of Jeremiah 31:31-34 , in addition to the fact that Jeremiah's prophecy does not explicitly concern the Spirit. Nor do other Old Testament passages (Isaiah 44:3 ; Ezekiel 39:29 ; Zechariah 12:10 ) offer sufficient help in interpreting Joel, being themselves quite general and not specific in terms of the results of the Spirit's outpouring.

Joel and the New Testament . Joel's prophecy is quite widely quoted or alluded to in the New Testament, occasionally being transformed in its application. The primary passage, of course, is Acts 2:16-39 , where the words of Joel are seen to be at least partially fulfilled in the proclamation of the mighty works of God (v. 11) by the band of 120 (Acts 1:5 ; 2:1 ), which presumably included women (Acts 1:14 ), the young, and the humble poor. But now it is the risen and exalted Jesus who pours out the gift (2:33). The echo of Joel 2:32 in Acts 2:39 brings together the gift of the Spirit and the calling of God, although the call is not yet seen here as extended to Gentiles ( Acts 2:5 ). Things are different, however, in Acts 10:45 , where the Holy Spirit is "poured out" on Gentile converts. Their speaking in tongues and praising God (v. 46) may be a transmuted form of Joel's "they shall prophesy." The words of Joel are again applied to Gentiles in Romans 5:5 , which, though somewhat wordy, means that God, out of his love, has poured his Spirit into all believers' hearts. And the same general thought is present in Titus 3:6 . In Romans 10:13 a different aspect of Joel's passage has likewise been extended to Gentile believers; the promise that "every one who calls on the name of the Lord will be saved" applies equally to Jews and Greeks (v. 12). Finally, Galatians 3:28 generally echoes Joel's thought in saying that possession of God's Spirit is not restricted by considerations such as one's religious or ethnic background, social position, or sex.

David K. Huttar

See also Day ; Holy Spirit ; Israel ; Prophet, Prophetess, Prophecy

Bibliography . L. C. Allen, Joel, Obadiah, Jonah and Micah ; T. J. Finley, Joel, Amos, Obadiah ; D. A. Hubbard, Joel and Amos ; D. Stuart, Hosea-Jonah ; H. G. M. Williamson, ISBE, 2:1076-80.



Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Joel
(Ἰωήλ)

Joel is proved by internal evidence to have been one of the latest of the Hebrew prophets. The prominence in his writings of priests and ritual at home, and of a diaspora abroad, his reference to the distant sons of Greece, his use of Aramaic words, and the lurid apocalyptic colouring of his prophecies, clearly point to the Persian period. But Joel has not the wide outlook of some of the other prophets. He is not fascinated either by Isaiah’s visions of Israel as the light of the Gentiles, or Malachi’s of the heathen waiting upon Jahweh. He has not the humanitarian feeling of the author of Jonah, who may have been his contemporary. He is a rigid and exclusive Israelite. In his view the heathen, as being apparently beyond redemption, are to be destroyed, not to be won to the knowledge of God. But if he is narrow, he is intense; and while he cherishes the priestly ideals, his hope for Israel lies rather in such a diffusion of the prophetic spirit as shall create an inspired nation. Nothing less will satisfy him than the fulfilment of Moses’ wish: ‘Would to God that all Jahweh’s people were prophets.’ For him the goal of Hebrew history, the Divine event to which all things move, is that God shall, by the mighty working of His Spirit, so enlighten and control His people, so adapt them to share His confidence and receive His revelations, that the thrilling experiences which have hitherto been confined to the prophets shall then be shared by all Israel. ‘Your sons and your daughters shall prophesy, and your old men shall dream dreams, and your young men shall see visions: and also upon the servants and upon the handmaids in those days will I pour out my spirit’ (Joel 2:28-29).

This particular prophecy wins for Joel a prominent place in the NT. St. Peter at once recognized its fulfilment in that outpouring of the Spirit, that baptism of fire, that Divine intoxication, which was experienced on the day of Pentecost. He quoted the prophet’s words, and the question naturally arises how he interpreted ‘upon all flesh.’ Was he, like the prophet himself, still a particularist, extending the promised blessing to all the Jews of the Diaspora, but limiting it to them, and so making the old distinction of lsrael from the heathen more marked than ever? Or did he there and then change his standpoint so as to include the nations in his purview? Did he in that hour of inspiration read into Joel’s words the later universalism of St. Paul? Probably the issue did not become clear to his mind so soon. It was not a day for correct definitions but for overwhelming impressions. Enough that to the effusion of the Spirit there was meantime no limit of sex (‘your sons and your daughters’), of age (‘your young men, your old men’), or of condition (‘my bondmen and my bondwomen’). Time would also show that there was to be no limit of race (Jew or Gentile); for however men (even prophets) may limit ‘all flesh,’ to Christ and His Church it means ‘all humanity.’

James Strahan.

People's Dictionary of the Bible - Joel
Joel (jô'el). One of the minor prophets and son of Pethuel. Nothing is recorded of his personal history, but he belongs most likely to the reign of Uzziah, and resided in Judah. There are 14 persons of this name mentioned in the Bible.

People's Dictionary of the Bible - Joel (2)
Joel, Book of. It may be divided into two parts: I. 1-2:17 describes a sore judgment which is to come upon the land, and is used as a call to repentance. II. 2:18-3:21 contains the blessings which Jehovah will confer upon the chosen people, and announces when the Messiah has come, the outpouring of the Spirit and the complete conquest of Judah over her foes, resulting in absolute and unbreakable peace. The second chapter contains a prophecy of a terrible plague of locusts, but a symbolical use is made of the incursion to foretell the attack of Judah's foes. Joel's style is classical; "it is elegant and perspicuous, and at the same lime nervous, animated, and sublime."—Ayre. The fulfillment of his Messianic prophecies is noticed in the New Testament. Acts 2:16-21; Romans 10:13.

Hitchcock's Bible Names - Joel
He that wills or commands
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Joel, Book of
JOEL, BOOK OF

1. Analysis . The Book of Joel clearly falls into two parts: (1) a call to repentance in view of present judgment and the approaching Day of Jahweh, with a prayer for deliverance ( Joel 1:1 to Joel 2:17 ); (2) the Divine answer promising relief, and after that spiritual blessing, judgment on the Gentile world, and material prosperity for Judah and Jerusalem ( Joel 2:18-32 ; Joel 3:1-21 ).

(1) The immediate occasion of the call to repentance is a plague of locusts of exceptional severity (Joel 1:2 f.), extending, it would seem from the promise in the second part ( Joel 2:25 ), over several years, and followed by drought and famine an severe as to necessitate the discontinuance of the meal- and drink-offering, i.e. probably the daily sacrifice (cf. Exodus 29:41 , where the same Heb. words are used of the daily meal-offering and drink-offering). This fearful calamity, which is distinctly represented as present (‘before our eyes’ Joel 1:16 ), heralds ‘the great and very terrible day of Jahweh’ ( Joel 2:11 ), which will be ushered in by yet more fearful distress of the same kind ( Joel 2:1-11 ). The reason of all this suffering actual and prospective is national sin, which, however, is not specified. Jahweh’s people have turned away from Him (implied in Joel 2:12 ). Let them turn back, giving expression to their penitent sorrow in tears, mourning garb, general fasting, and prayer offered by priests in the Temple ( Joel 2:12-17 ).

(2) The second part opens with the declaration that the prayer for mercy was heard: ‘Then … the Lord … had pity on his people’ (Joel 2:18 RV [Note: Revised Version.] ). It seems to be implied that the people had repented and fasted, and that the priests had prayed in their behalf. The rendering of this passage in the AV [Note: Authorized Version.] , ‘Then will … the Lord pity his people,’ is generally rejected by modern scholars as inaccurate, being, according to Driver, ‘grammatically indefensible.’ What we have in the original is not prediction, but historical statement. This Divine pity, proceeds the prophet, speaking in Jahweh’s name, will express itself in the removal of the locusts ( Joel 2:20 ), and in the cessation of the drought, which will restore to the land its normal fertility, and so replace famine by plenty ( Joel 2:22-26 ). But higher blessings yet are in store for the people of Jahweh. His Spirit shall afterwards be poured but on all, inclusive even of slaves ( Joel 2:28 f.). And when the Day of Jahweh comes in all its terror, it will be terrible only to the Gentile world which has oppressed Israel The gathered hosts of the former, among whom Phœnicians and Philistines are singled out for special condemnation ( Joel 3:4-8 ), shall be destroyed by Jahweh and His angels in the Valley of Jehoshaphat ( Joel 3:11 b f.]), and then Jerusalem shall be a holy city, no longer haunted by unclean aliens ( Joel 3:17 ), and Judah, unlike Egypt and Edom, will be a happy nation dwelling in a happy because well-watered land, and Jahweh will ever abide in its midst ( Joel 3:18-21 ).

2. Integrity . The unity of the book was questioned by the French scholar Vernes (in 1881), who, however, admitted the weakness of his case, and by the German scholar Rothstein (in 1896), the latter finding a follower in Ryssel (in the JE [Note: Jewish Encyclopedia.] ). These critics assign the two parts to different writers in different ages. Baudissin ( Einleitung ) suggests extensive revision. These theories have found little acceptance. Recent criticism generally regards the book, with the exception of a gloss or two, as the work of one hand.

There are indeed two distinctly marked parts, as was shown in the analysis, but that is in no way incompatible with unity of authorship, for the following reasons: ( a ) The second part does not contradict but supplements the first. ( b ) The thought of ‘the day of Jahweh’ as a day of terror is common to both ( Joel 1:15 and Joel 2:31 ). ( c ) The alleged lack of originality in the second part, in so far as it exists, can bereasonably accounted for by its apocalyptic character. ( d ) The distinctive features of the first part, which is mainly historic, are largely due to the special theme the description of locusts and their ravages, which is unique in Heb. literature.

3. Date . There is no external evidence. The place of the book in the Canon is not conclusive, for the Book of Jonah, which was manifestly written after the fall of Nineveh, is also found in the former part of the collection of the Twelve, and comes before Micah, the earliest portions of which are beyond doubt much older. Hence the question can be answered, in so far as an answer is possible, only from the book itself.

The facts bearing upon it may be briefly stated as follows: (1) The people addressed are the inhabitants of Judah (Joel 3:1 ; Joel 3:6 ; Joel 3:8 ; Joel 3:18 ff.), and Jerusalem ( Joel 2:32 ; Joel 3:6 ; Joel 3:16 f., Joel 3:20 ). Zion is mentioned in Joel 2:1 ; Joel 2:15 ; Joel 2:23 ; Joel 2:32 ; Joel 3:16-17 ; Joel 3:21 . There is no trace of the kingdom of Samaria. The name ‘Israel’ is indeed used ( Joel 2:27 ; Joel 2:3 ), but, as the first and last of these passages clearly show, it is not the kingdom of Israel that is meant, but the people of God, dwelling mainly about Jerusalem. (2) There is no mention of royalty or aristocracy. (3) The Temple is repeatedly referred to ( Joel 1:9 ; Joel 1:13 f., Joel 1:15 , Joel 2:17 ; Joel 2:3 ), and by implication in the phrase ‘my holy mountain’ ( Joel 2:1 ; Joel 2:3 ): its ritual is regarded as of high importance ( Joel 1:9 ; Joel 1:18 , Joel 2:14 ), and its ministers stand between the people and their God, giving expression to their penitence and prayer ( Joel 1:9 ; Joel 1:13 , Joel 2:17 ). (4) The people are called on to repent of sin ( Joel 2:12 f.), but in general terms. No mention is made of idolatry or formalism, or sensuality, or oppression the sins so sternly denounced by Amos and Isaiah. (5) The foreign nations denounced as hostile to Israel are the Phœnicians ( Joel 3:4 ), the Philistines ( ib. ), Egypt and Edom ( Joel 3:19 ). Reference is also made to the Grecians (‘sons of the Ionians,’ 3 [ Hebrews 4:1-16 ]:6). and the Sahæans or S. Arabians ( Joel 3:8 ) as slave-dealers. Assyria, Babylonia, and Aram are neither named nor alluded to. (6) The history of Judah and Jerusalem includes a national catastrophe when the people of Jahweh were scattered among the nations and the land of Jahweh was divided amongst new settlers ( Joel 3:2 ). (7) This book of 73 verses contains 27 expressions or clauses to which parallels, more or less close, can be adduced from other OT writings, mainly prophetic. In 12 passages there is verbal or almost verbal correspondence: cf. Joel 1:15 b and Ezekiel 30:2 f.; Joel 1:15 c and Isaiah 13:6 ; Isaiah 2:2 and Zephaniah 1:15 ; Zephaniah 2:6 and Nahum 2:10 ; Joel 2:13 and Exodus 34:6 ; Exodus 2:14 and 2Sa 12:22 ; 2 Samuel 2:27 b and Ezekiel 36:11 etc.; Joel 2:27 c and Isaiah 45:5 f., Isaiah 45:18 ; Joel 2:31 b, and Malachi 4:5 ; Joel 2:32 and Obadiah 1:17 ; Obadiah 1:3 ; and Amos 1:2 ; Amos 3:1 and Jeremiah 33:15 etc. In two other places there is contrast as well as parallelism. Joel 2:28 answers to Ezekiel 39:29 , but the latter has ‘on the house of Israel,’ the former ‘on all flesh,’ and Joel 3:10 is the reverse of Isaiah 2:4 and Micah 4:3 . The last clause of Joel 2:13 is found also in Jonah 4:2 in the same connexion and nowhere else. (8) The Heb. exhibits some features which are more common in late than in the earlier literature. There are a few Aramaisms: ’âlâh ‘lament’ ( Joel 1:8 ); sôph ‘hinder part’ ( Joel 2:20 ) for qçts ; the Hiphil of nâchath Joel 3:11 ), and rômach ( Joel 3:10 ) a word of Aramaic affinities; and several expressions often met with in late writers. Still, it is not advisable to lay much stress on this point.

With these facts before them critics have concluded that the book must be either very early or late. Many, led by Credner, found evidence of pre-exilic date, and most of these, after him, selected the minority of Joash of Judah ( c [Note: circa, about.] . b.c. 737). König prefers the latter part of the reign of Josiah (b.c. 640 609). Recent critics with a few exceptions (Orelli, Kirkpatrick, Volck, and to some extent Baudissin) regard the book as post-exilic: c [Note: circa, about.] . b.c. 500 (Driver, but not without hesitation); after the reforms of Ezra and Nehemiah (E.Kautzsch, W. R. Smith, G. A. Smith on the whole, Martl, the school of Kuenen, Nowack, Cornill, and Horton). Positive decision between these widely divergent views is at present impossible. Much can be said, as Baudissin has recently shown, in favour of a pre-exilic date, which, if proved, would modify our conception of the growth of Israelitish religion; but several points seem to strongly favour post-exilic origin: the religions atmosphere, the political situation in so far as it can be discerned, reference to the Greeks, and the literary parallelisms, most of which are more intelligible on the assumption of borrowing by Joel than vice versa .

4. Interpretation . The ancient Jews, as represented by the Targum, and the Fathere, who have been followed by Pusey, Hengstenberg, and others, to some extent even by Merx, regarded the locusts of the Book of Joel as not literal but symbolic. That view, however, is now generally abandoned. The seemingly extravagant descriptions of the locust-swarms, and the havoc wrought by them, have been confirmed in almost every point by modern observers. What is said about their number ( Joel 1:6 ), the darkness they cause ( Joel 2:10 ), their resemblance to horses ( Joel 2:4 ), the noise they make in flight and when feeding ( Joel 2:5 ), their irresistible advance ( Joel 2:7 ff.), their amazing destructiveness ( Joel 1:7 ; Joel 1:10 ff., Joel 2:3 ), and the burnt appearance of a region which they have ravaged ( Joel 2:3 ab) can hardly be pronounced exaggerated in view of the evidence collected by Pusey, Driver, G. A. Smith, and other commentators. The colouring of the picture is no doubt Oriental and poetic, but when allowance is made for that, it is seen to be wonderfully true to life. The description of the locusts as ‘the northern army ’ ( Joel 2:20 ) is indeed still unexplained, but is insufficient of itself to overthrow the literal interpretation. On the apocalyptic character of the latter portion of the book there is general agreement.

5. Doctrine . As compared with some of the other prophetic writings, say with Deutero-Isaiah and Jonah, the Book of Joel as a whole is particularistic. The writer’s hopes of a glorious future seem limited to Judah and Jerusalem, and perhaps the Dispersion ( Joel 2:32 [ Hebrews 3:5 ]). On the other hand, it is remarkable that the outpouring of the Spirit is promised to ‘all flesh,’ not merely to ‘the house of Israel’ a general way of stating the promise which made the NT application possible ( Acts 2:16 ff.). So the book may be said to contain a germ of universalism. Its other most striking characteristic, from the doctrinal standpoint, is the importance attached to ritual and the priesthood, and the comparatively slight stress laid on conduct. Still, it is here that we find the caustic words: ‘Rend your heart and not your garments’ ( Joel 2:13 ).

6. Style . In style the Book of Joel takes a very high place in Hebrew literature. It is throughout clearly, elegantly, and forcefully written. Skilful use is made of parallelism note the five short clauses in Joel 1:10 ; of Oriental hyperbole ( Joel 2:30 f. [ Hebrews 3:3 f.]); and of word-play, e.g. shuddadh sadheh ‘the field is wasted’ ( Joel 1:10 ), yâbhçshu … hôbhîsh ‘are withered … is ashamed’ ( Joel 1:12 ), shôd mish-shaddai ‘destruction from the Almighty’ ( Joel 1:15 ), and the play on the verb shâphat and the name Jeho-shaphat in Joel 3:2 ; Joel 3:12 ).

W. Taylor Smith.

Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Joel
JOEL. 1. The prophet (see next article). Regarding his personal history we know nothing. 2. A son of Samuel ( 1 Samuel 8:2 , 1 Chronicles 6:28 [RV [Note: Revised Version.] ] 6:33). 3. An ancestor of Samuel ( 1 Chronicles 6:36 , called in v. 24 Shaul ). 4. A Simeonite prince ( 1 Chronicles 4:35 ). 5. A Reubenite ( 1 Chronicles 5:4 ; 1 Chronicles 5:8 ). 6. A Gadite chief ( 1 Chronicles 5:12 ). 7. A chief man of Issachar ( 1 Chronicles 7:3 ). 8. One of David’s heroes ( 1 Chronicles 11:38 ). 9, 10, 11. Levites ( 1 Chronicles 15:7 ; 1 Chronicles 15:11 ; 1 Chronicles 15:17 ; 1Ch 23:8 ; 1 Chronicles 26:22 , 2 Chronicles 29:12 ). 12. A Manassite chief ( 1 Chronicles 27:20 ). 13. One of those who married a foreign wife ( Ezra 10:43 [ 1Es 9:35 Juel ]). 14. A Benjamite overseer after the Exile ( Nehemiah 11:9 ).

Chabad Knowledge Base - Joel
(a) (6th century BCE) A student of Micah and a contemporary of Nahum and Habakkuk, he prophesied during the reign of King Manasseh. His famous prophecies include the foretelling of a devastating locust plague and his call for the people to repent. (b) A common Jewish first name

Joel, the book of: The book of Tanach containing Joel's prophecies, describing a terrible plague of locusts, calling for repentance, and foretelling the future redemption.

The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Joel
The prophet, whose writings form part of the sacred canon of Scripture, and are quoted by Peter in his sermon on the day of Pentecost. (See Joel 2:28-29; Acts 2:16, etc.) There were several Joels beside the prophet, whose names are recorded in Scripture.

·Joel, son of Samuel, 1 Samuel 8:1-2.

·Joel, son of Josebiah, 1 Chronicles 4:35.

·Joel, son of Jorabiah, 1 Chronicles 7:3.

·Joel, one of David's army, 1 Chronicles 11:38.

·Joel, a Levite, 1 Chronicles 15:7.

·Joel, son of Pedaiah, 1 Chronicles 27:20.

Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Joel
the second of the twelve lesser prophets. It is impossible to ascertain the age in which he lived, but it seems most probable that he was contemporary with Hosea. No particulars of his life or death are certainly known. His prophecies are confined to the kingdom of Judah. He inveighs against the sin's and impieties of the people, and threatens them with divine vengeance; he exhorts to repentance, fasting, and prayer; and promises the favour of God to those who should be obedient. The principal predictions contained in this book are the Chaldean invasion, under the figurative representation of locusts; the destruction of Jerusalem by Titus; the blessings of the Gospel dispensation; the conversion and restoration of the Jews to their own land; the overthrow of the enemies of God; and the glorious state of the Christian church in the end of the world. The style of Joel is perspicuous and elegant, and his descriptions are remarkably animated and poetical.

1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Harris, Joel Chandler
Born Eatonton, Georgia, 1848; died Atlanta, Georgia, 1908. Adopting journalism as his profession, he was long associated with the Atlanta "Constitution." He is best known by his "Uncle Remus" stories, which created an original department in American literature, and were translated into 27 languages. Although his wife was a Catholic and he had long admired the Catholic religion, he did not embrace it until a few weeks before his death.

American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Joel
One of the minor prophets, of whom nothing is known beyond the few hints furnished in his brief but valuable prophecy. He lived in the kingdom of Judah, and at a time when the temple and temple-worship still existed, Joel 1:14 2:1,15,32 3:1 . Different authors assign to his prophecy different dates, but the prevailing opinion is that he prophesied in the reign of Uzziah, nearly 800 B. C.

The BOOK of JOEL opens with a most graphic and powerful description of the devastation caused by swarms of divers kinds of locusts, accompanied by a terrible drought. The plague of locusts, one of the most dreadful scourges of the East, (see LOCUSTS,) is highly suggestive of an invasion of hostile legions such as have often ravaged Judea; and many have understood, by the locusts of Joel, the Chaldeans, Persians, Greeks, or Romans. The prophet, however, adheres to his figure, if it be one; depicts the land as stripped of its verdure and parched with drought, summons the stricken people to fasting and penitence, and encourages them by promising the removal of the divine judgments and the return of fertility. While describing this returning plenty and prosperity, the prophet casts his view forward on a future still more remote, and predicts the outpouring of the Holy Spirit, and the signs and wonders and spiritual prosperity of the Messiah's reign, Joel 2:28 . This passage is quoted by the apostle Peter in Acts 2:16 . The style of Joel is exceedingly poetical and elegant; his descriptions are vivid and sublime, and his prophecy ranks among the gems of Hebrew poetry. It is well fitted to cheer the church militant in all ages.

Morrish Bible Dictionary - Joel, Book of
Of the minor Prophets, Joel is judged to be the earliest in connection with Judah, though there are no dates given in the prophecy itself. The key-note of the prophecy is 'the day of Jehovah,' which is five times mentioned in connection with the future judgements, which will bring in the full blessing of Israel and the earth, when the Lord also will have His portion, a meat offering, and a drink offering for Himself.

Joel 1 . The Prophet takes occasion by the devastation wrought in his day by an army of insects to call the priests, the princes, and the people to a fast, and a solemn assembly in the house of the Lord, there to cry unto Jehovah. Then he adds, "Alas for the day! for the day of the Lord is at hand, and as a destruction from the Almighty shall it come." Here it is destruction, open judgement, as in the day when God will judge the world in righteousness. The army of insects was but a precursor, but as a present thing, instead of joy and gladness being in the house of God, God was judging. The prophet said 'is at hand ;' but God's long-suffering deferred its full execution, and defers it still.

Joel 2 . The day of Jehovah is nigh at hand, and the trumpet is to sound an alarm of war: cf. Numbers 10:9 . The army of insects is still alluded to, but it looks forward to the future, when God will bring His judgements upon the land. The army is His, and the camp is His: the day of Jehovah. is great and very terrible. The people are called to repentance, to rend their hearts and not their garments, for God is merciful and gracious. The trumpet was to be blown in Zion for a solemn assembly: cf. Numbers 10:7 . Priests and all are called to weep and pray. God will hear, and will destroy their enemies, especially the northern army (Joel 2:20 , elsewhere alluded to as Assyria) and He will bring His people into great blessing. When they repent, the Holy Spirit will be poured out upon them and upon all flesh. This was quoted by Peter in Acts 2:16-21 , but the nation did not then repent, it was only a remnant that turned to the Lord and entered into the blessing that God was bestowing — not outward and visible benefits as it will be in the future. There will also be signs in the heavens and in the earth before the great and terrible day of the Lord. There were some such omens, according to the historians, before the destruction of Jerusalem, so this passage, quoted in Acts 2 , may have had a partial fulfilment then, though it remains to be fully verified in a future day.

Joel 3 . This enters into the details of the last days as far as Judah and Jerusalem are concerned, the restoration of the ten tribes not being the subject here. The nations have oppressed God's people in many ways, and sold them as slaves. God will requite this on their own heads. They are called to arm themselves, to bring all their mighty men, and to come unto the valley of Jehoshaphat, which is the valley of judgement, and there God will deal with them. In the valley of decision (or threshing) they will be cut to pieces. The enemies of God and of Judah being destroyed, there will be great blessing for His people, whom He had chastened in His love; but, cleansed and restored, He will dwell among them.

Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Joel
("Jehovah is God".)

1. Samuel's oldest son (1 Samuel 8:2; 1 Chronicles 6:28 (read "the firstborn (Joel) and the second (Vashni) Abiah"), 1 Chronicles 6:33; 1 Chronicles 15:17). Father of Heman the singer. He and his brother Abiah were judges in Beersheba, when their father was too old to go on circuit. Their bribery and perversion of justice occasioned the cry for a monarchy.

2. Joel, a corruption of Shaul (1 Chronicles 6:24; 1 Chronicles 6:36).

3. Of the twelve minor prophets. Son of Pethuel. The many (Joel 1:14; Joel 2:1; Joel 2:15; Joel 2:22; Joel 3:1-2; Joel 3:6; Joel 3:16-21) references to Judah and Jerusalem and the temple imply that his ministry was in the southern kingdom. "Israel," when mentioned (Joel 3:2), represents the whole twelve tribes. Date. The position of his book in the Hebrew canon between Hosea and Amos implies that he was Hosea's contemporary, slightly preceding Amos who at Tekoa probably heard him, and so under the Spirit reproduces his words (Joel 3:16, compare Amos 1:2). The sentiment and language of the three prophets correspond. The freshness of style, the absence of allusion to the great empires Assyria and Babylon, and the mention of Tyre, Sidon, and the Philistines (Joel 3:4) as God's executioners of judgment on Israel, accord with an early date, probably Uzziah's reign or even Joash's reign.

No mention is made of the Syrians who invaded Judah in the close of the reign of Joash of Judah (2 Kings 12:17-18; 2 Chronicles 24:23-25), but that was an isolated event and Syria was too far N. to trouble Judah permanently. The mention of "the valley of Jehoshaphat" (Joel 3:12) alludes to Jehoshaphat's victory (2 Chronicles 20), the earnest of Israel's future triumph over the pagan; though occurring long before, it was so great an event as to be ever after a pledge of God's favor to His people. Chap. 1 describes the ravages caused by locusts, a scourge foretold by Moses (Deuteronomy 28:38-39) and by Solomon (1 Kings 8:37; 1 Kings 8:46).

The second chapter makes them symbols of foreign foes who would destroy all before them. So Revelation 9:1-12; Amos 7:1-4. Their teeth like those "of lions" (Joel 1:6), their assailing cities (Joel 2:6-9), and a flame of fire being their image (Joel 1:19-20; Joel 2:3; Joel 2:5), and their finally being driven eastward, westward ("the utmost sea," the Mediterranean), and southward ("a land barren," etc.), whereas locusts are carried away by wind in one direction only, all favor the symbolical meaning. They are plainly called "the pagan" (Joel 2:17), "the northern (a quarter from whence locusts do not come) army" (Joel 2:20), "all the nations" (Joel 3:2), "strangers" (Joel 3:17). Their fourfold invasion is to be the last before Jehovah's glorious deliverance (Joel 2:18-20, etc.) in answer to His people's penitent prayer (Joel 2:12-17).

ARRANGEMENT.

I. Joel 1-2:17 the fourfold invasion answering to the four successive world empires, Babylon, Medo-Persia, Greece, Rome. Each of the four species of locusts in Hebrew letters represents the exact number of years that each empire oppressed, until they had deprived the Jews of all their glory (J. C. Reichardt). Gazare, the first, "the palmerworm," represents the 50 years of Babylon's oppression, from the temple's destruction by Nebuchadnezzar (588 B.C.) to Babylon's overthrow by Cyrus (538 B.C.). Arbeh, the second, "the locust," represents Persia's 208 years' sway over the Jews, from 538 to 330 B.C., when Persia fell before Alexander the Great.

Yelequ, the third, "the cankerworm," represents 140 years of the Graeco-Macedonian oppression, from 330 to 190 B.C., when Antiochus the Jews' great enemy was defeated by the Roman, Lucius Scipio. Chasil, "the caterpillar," the fourth, represents the 108 years of the Romans' oppression, beginning with their minion Herod the Great, an Idumean stranger, 38 B.C., and ending A.D. 70 with the destruction of Jerusalem and the temple. The whole period thus comprises that between the destruction of the first and the second temple; and the calamities which befell the Jews by the four world empires in that period are those precisely which produced the ruin under which they are still groaning, and form the theme of their Kinoth or songs of lamentation. This first portion ends in a call to thorough and universal repentance.

II. Joel 2:18-29. Salvation announced to the repentant people, and restoration of all they lost, and greater blessings added.

III. Joel 2:30-3:21. Destruction of the apostate nations confederate against Israel on the one hand; and Jehovah's dwelling as Israel's God in Zion, and Judah abiding for ever, on the other, so that fountains of blessing from His house shall flow, symbolized by waters, milk, and new wine. References to the law, on which all the prophets lean, occur: Joel 2:13, compare Exodus 34:6; Exodus 32:14; Exodus 2:28, compare Numbers 11:29, fulfilled in the pentecostal outpouring of the Spirit in part (Acts 2:16; Acts 2:21; Acts 21:9; John 7:39), but awaiting a further fulfillment just before Israel's restoration, when "the Spirit shall be poured upon all flesh" (of which the outpouring on all classes without distinction of race is the earnest: Acts 2:28; Acts 2:38; Romans 10:12-13; Zechariah 12:10; Joel 2:23). Also Joel 3:19-21, compare Deuteronomy 32:42-43, the locusts, of which it is written "there hath not been ever the like, neither shall be" (Joel 2:2, compare Exodus 10:14).

Pusey translates Joel 2:23 ("the former rain moderately") "He hath given you (in His purpose) the Teacher unto righteousness," namely, who" shall bring in everlasting righteousness" (Daniel 9). This translation is favored by the emphasis on et hamoreh , not found in the latter part of the verse where rain is meant; the promise of Christ's coming thus stands first, as the source of "rain" and all other blessings which follow; He is God's gift, "given" as in Isaiah 55:4. Joel's style is pure, smooth, rhythmical, periodic, and regular in its parallelisms; strong as Micah, tender as Jeremiah, vivid as Nathan, and sublime as Isaiah. Take as a specimen (Joel 2) his graphic picture of the terrible aspect of the locusts, their rapidity, irresistible progress, noisy din, and instinct-taught power of marshaling their forces for devastation.

4. 1 Chronicles 4:35; 1 Chronicles 4:41-43.

5. 1 Chronicles 5:4.

6. 1 Chronicles 5:11-12.

7. 1 Chronicles 7:3-4.

8. 1 Chronicles 11:38; in 2 Samuel 23:36 IGAL.

9. 1 Chronicles 15:7; 1 Chronicles 15:11-12; 1 Chronicles 23:8; 1 Chronicles 26:22.

10. 1 Chronicles 27:20.

11. 2 Chronicles 29:12; 2 Chronicles 29:15.

12. Ezra 10:19; Ezra 10:43.

13. Nehemiah 11:3-4; Nehemiah 11:9.

Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Joel, the Book of
(See JOEL.)

Morrish Bible Dictionary - Joel
1. Eldest son of Samuel: he and his brother Abiah acted as judges; their corrupt practices were the plea upon which Israel demanded a king. 1 Samuel 8:2 ; 1 Chronicles 6:33 ; 1 Chronicles 15:17 . Apparently Joel is called VASHNIin 1 Chronicles 6:28 ; but it is possible that the word Joel has dropped out: the passage would then read "the firstborn Joel, and 'the second' Abiah," as in the R.V.

2. Prince in the tribe of Simeon. 1 Chronicles 4:35 .

3. A Reubenite, father of Shemaiah, or Shema. 1 Chronicles 5:4,8 .

4. A chief man among the Gadites. 1 Chronicles 5:12 .

5. Son of Azariah, a Kohathite. 1 Chronicles 6:36 .

6. Son of Izrahiah, a descendant of Issachar. 1 Chronicles 7:3 .

7. One of David's mighty men. 1 Chronicles 11:38 .

8. A chief of the sons of Gershom. 1 Chronicles 15:7,11 .

9. Son of Jehieli, and descendant of Laadan, a Gershonite. 1 Chronicles 23:8 ; 1 Chronicles 26:22 .

10. Son of Pedaiah, of the tribe of Manasseh. 1 Chronicles 27:20 .

11. Son of Azariah, a Kohathite of Hezekiah's time. 2 Chronicles 29:12 .

12. One who had married a strange wife. Ezra 10:43 .

13. Son of Zichri, and overseer of the Benjamites in Jerusalem. Nehemiah 11:9 .

14. Son of Pethuel: the prophet. Joel 1:1 .

Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Joel
Unlike most of the other prophets, Joel does not state the period during which he preached. This is no great hindrance to the reader, for the book is largely concerned with just one incident, a severe locust plague. The setting appears to be Jerusalem and the surrounding countryside.

Background and meaning

One possible date for the book is about 835-830 BC, during the reign of the boy-king Joash. This would explain why there is no mention of oppressive enemy nations such as Syria, Assyria and Babylon, which are constantly mentioned in the other prophets, for at that time those nations had not begun to interfere in Judean affairs. It would also explain why Joel makes no mention of the reigning Judean king, for the government was largely in the hands of the priest Jehoiada (2 Kings 11; 2 Kings 12:1). The prominence of Jehoiada could partly account for Joel’s interest in the temple and its services (Joel 1:9; Joel 1:13; Joel 2:12; Joel 2:15-17).

An alternative suggestion is that the book belongs to the period after Judah’s return from captivity. On this theory the most likely time of writing is either 520-510 BC, after the ministry of Haggai and Zechariah and the rebuilding of the Jerusalem temple (Ezra 5:1-2; Ezra 5:15), or about 400 BC, a generation or so after the reforms of Ezra and Nehemiah (Nehemiah 8:1-3; Nehemiah 8:9; Nehemiah 13:30).

Joel interpreted the locust plague as God’s judgment on Judah for its sin. He urged the people to repent, confident that God would renew his blessing upon them. God would not only renew their crops but also give them a greater knowledge of himself (Joel 2:12-14; Joel 2:23-27).

According to Joel’s view, these events were symbolic of God’s future blessing upon all his people and his judgment upon all his enemies. In New Testament times Peter saw a fulfilment of Joel’s prophecy in the events that resulted from Jesus’ death and resurrection. A new age had dawned, the Spirit had come upon all God’s people, and judgment had become certain for all God’s enemies (Joel 2:28-32; Acts 2:14-21).

Summary of contents

In very lively fashion, Joel describes the devastating effects of the locust plague, firstly upon the farmers and other country people (1:1-20), then upon the citizens of Jerusalem (2:1-11). He calls the people to gather at the temple and repent (2:12-17), and offers hope for renewed productivity in their fields and vineyards (2:18-27).

A far greater blessing, however, will be the gift of God’s Spirit, enabling the people to know and obey him better (2:28-32). The locust plague and its removal picture the greater judgment and greater blessing yet to come (3:1-21).

Sentence search

Pethuel - Father of the prophet Joel. Joel 1:1
Pethuel - The father of the prophet Joel ( Joel 1:1 )
Joel, Book of - Joel, BOOK OF... 1. The Book of Joel clearly falls into two parts: (1) a call to repentance in view of present judgment and the approaching Day of Jahweh, with a prayer for deliverance ( Joel 1:1 to Joel 2:17 ); (2) the Divine answer promising relief, and after that spiritual blessing, judgment on the Gentile world, and material prosperity for Judah and Jerusalem ( Joel 2:18-32 ; Joel 3:1-21 ). ... (1) The immediate occasion of the call to repentance is a plague of locusts of exceptional severity (Joel 1:2 f. ), extending, it would seem from the promise in the second part ( Joel 2:25 ), over several years, and followed by drought and famine an severe as to necessitate the discontinuance of the meal- and drink-offering, i. This fearful calamity, which is distinctly represented as present (‘before our eyes’ Joel 1:16 ), heralds ‘the great and very terrible day of Jahweh’ ( Joel 2:11 ), which will be ushered in by yet more fearful distress of the same kind ( Joel 2:1-11 ). Jahweh’s people have turned away from Him (implied in Joel 2:12 ). Let them turn back, giving expression to their penitent sorrow in tears, mourning garb, general fasting, and prayer offered by priests in the Temple ( Joel 2:12-17 ). ... (2) The second part opens with the declaration that the prayer for mercy was heard: ‘Then … the Lord … had pity on his people’ (Joel 2:18 RV [Note: Revised Version. This Divine pity, proceeds the prophet, speaking in Jahweh’s name, will express itself in the removal of the locusts ( Joel 2:20 ), and in the cessation of the drought, which will restore to the land its normal fertility, and so replace famine by plenty ( Joel 2:22-26 ). His Spirit shall afterwards be poured but on all, inclusive even of slaves ( Joel 2:28 f. And when the Day of Jahweh comes in all its terror, it will be terrible only to the Gentile world which has oppressed Israel The gathered hosts of the former, among whom Phœnicians and Philistines are singled out for special condemnation ( Joel 3:4-8 ), shall be destroyed by Jahweh and His angels in the Valley of Jehoshaphat ( Joel 3:11 b f. ]), and then Jerusalem shall be a holy city, no longer haunted by unclean aliens ( Joel 3:17 ), and Judah, unlike Egypt and Edom, will be a happy nation dwelling in a happy because well-watered land, and Jahweh will ever abide in its midst ( Joel 3:18-21 ). ( b ) The thought of ‘the day of Jahweh’ as a day of terror is common to both ( Joel 1:15 and Joel 2:31 ). ... The facts bearing upon it may be briefly stated as follows: (1) The people addressed are the inhabitants of Judah (Joel 3:1 ; Joel 3:6 ; Joel 3:8 ; Joel 3:18 ff. ), and Jerusalem ( Joel 2:32 ; Joel 3:6 ; Joel 3:16 f. , Joel 3:20 ). Zion is mentioned in Joel 2:1 ; Joel 2:15 ; Joel 2:23 ; Joel 2:32 ; Joel 3:16-17 ; Joel 3:21 . The name ‘Israel’ is indeed used ( Joel 2:27 ; Joel 2:3 ), but, as the first and last of these passages clearly show, it is not the kingdom of Israel that is meant, but the people of God, dwelling mainly about Jerusalem. (3) The Temple is repeatedly referred to ( Joel 1:9 ; Joel 1:13 f. , Joel 1:15 , Joel 2:17 ; Joel 2:3 ), and by implication in the phrase ‘my holy mountain’ ( Joel 2:1 ; Joel 2:3 ): its ritual is regarded as of high importance ( Joel 1:9 ; Joel 1:18 , Joel 2:14 ), and its ministers stand between the people and their God, giving expression to their penitence and prayer ( Joel 1:9 ; Joel 1:13 , Joel 2:17 ). (4) The people are called on to repent of sin ( Joel 2:12 f. (5) The foreign nations denounced as hostile to Israel are the Phœnicians ( Joel 3:4 ), the Philistines ( ib. ), Egypt and Edom ( Joel 3:19 ). Arabians ( Joel 3:8 ) as slave-dealers. (6) The history of Judah and Jerusalem includes a national catastrophe when the people of Jahweh were scattered among the nations and the land of Jahweh was divided amongst new settlers ( Joel 3:2 ). Joel 1:15 b and Ezekiel 30:2 f. ; Joel 1:15 c and Isaiah 13:6 ; Isaiah 2:2 and Zephaniah 1:15 ; Zephaniah 2:6 and Nahum 2:10 ; Joel 2:13 and Exodus 34:6 ; Exodus 2:14 and 2Sa 12:22 ; 2 Samuel 2:27 b and Ezekiel 36:11 etc. ; Joel 2:27 c and Isaiah 45:5 f. , Isaiah 45:18 ; Joel 2:31 b, and Malachi 4:5 ; Joel 2:32 and Obadiah 1:17 ; Obadiah 1:3 ; and Amos 1:2 ; Amos 3:1 and Jeremiah 33:15 etc. Joel 2:28 answers to Ezekiel 39:29 , but the latter has ‘on the house of Israel,’ the former ‘on all flesh,’ and Joel 3:10 is the reverse of Isaiah 2:4 and Micah 4:3 . The last clause of Joel 2:13 is found also in Jonah 4:2 in the same connexion and nowhere else. There are a few Aramaisms: ’âlâh ‘lament’ ( Joel 1:8 ); sôph ‘hinder part’ ( Joel 2:20 ) for qçts ; the Hiphil of nâchath Joel 3:11 ), and rômach ( Joel 3:10 ) a word of Aramaic affinities; and several expressions often met with in late writers. Much can be said, as Baudissin has recently shown, in favour of a pre-exilic date, which, if proved, would modify our conception of the growth of Israelitish religion; but several points seem to strongly favour post-exilic origin: the religions atmosphere, the political situation in so far as it can be discerned, reference to the Greeks, and the literary parallelisms, most of which are more intelligible on the assumption of borrowing by Joel than vice versa . The ancient Jews, as represented by the Targum, and the Fathere, who have been followed by Pusey, Hengstenberg, and others, to some extent even by Merx, regarded the locusts of the Book of Joel as not literal but symbolic. What is said about their number ( Joel 1:6 ), the darkness they cause ( Joel 2:10 ), their resemblance to horses ( Joel 2:4 ), the noise they make in flight and when feeding ( Joel 2:5 ), their irresistible advance ( Joel 2:7 ff. ), their amazing destructiveness ( Joel 1:7 ; Joel 1:10 ff. , Joel 2:3 ), and the burnt appearance of a region which they have ravaged ( Joel 2:3 ab) can hardly be pronounced exaggerated in view of the evidence collected by Pusey, Driver, G. The description of the locusts as ‘the northern army ’ ( Joel 2:20 ) is indeed still unexplained, but is insufficient of itself to overthrow the literal interpretation. As compared with some of the other prophetic writings, say with Deutero-Isaiah and Jonah, the Book of Joel as a whole is particularistic. The writer’s hopes of a glorious future seem limited to Judah and Jerusalem, and perhaps the Dispersion ( Joel 2:32 [ Hebrews 3:5 ]). Still, it is here that we find the caustic words: ‘Rend your heart and not your garments’ ( Joel 2:13 ). In style the Book of Joel takes a very high place in Hebrew literature. Skilful use is made of parallelism note the five short clauses in Joel 1:10 ; of Oriental hyperbole ( Joel 2:30 f. shuddadh sadheh ‘the field is wasted’ ( Joel 1:10 ), yâbhçshu … hôbhîsh ‘are withered … is ashamed’ ( Joel 1:12 ), shôd mish-shaddai ‘destruction from the Almighty’ ( Joel 1:15 ), and the play on the verb shâphat and the name Jeho-shaphat in Joel 3:2 ; Joel 3:12 )
Pethuel - Vision of God, the father of Joel the prophet (Joel 1:1 )
Palmerworm - ) Joel 1:4; Joel 2:25; Amos 4:9
Jehoshaphat, Valley of - ” Place to which the Lord summons the nations for judgment (Joel 3:2 ). No evidence exists that any valley actually bore this name in Joel's time. the Kidron Valley has been known as the Valley of Jehoshaphat; but there is no reason for believing Joel was referring to the Kidron Valley. The reference in Joel probably is meant to be symbolic. Through Joel, God promised all nations will ultimately be called to God's place of judgment. See Joel
Pethu'el - (vision of God ), the father of the prophet Joel. ( Joel 1:1 ) (B
Palmerworm - The caterpillar stage of a species of locust (Joel 1:4 ; Joel 2:25 ; Amos 4:9 )
Palmer-Worm - Joel 1:4; Joel 2:25) Amos 4:9
Cankerworm - KJV translation in Joel 1:4 ; Joel 2:25 ; Nahum 3:15-16
Yoel - Joel; The Book of Joel. ... Yoel The book of Tanach containing Joel's prophecies, describing a terrible plague of locusts, calling for repentance, and foretelling the future redemption
Palmer Worm - Joel 1:4 (a) This is a symbol of the sorrow and suffering sent by the Lord on His disobedient children. (See also Joel 2:25; Amos 4:9)
Vashni - Joel in 1 Chronicles 6:33 and 1 Samuel 8:2. "Joel" may have dropped out from 1 Chronicles 6:28, and wesheeni will mean "and the second
Garner - KJV term for a barn, storehouse, or granary (Psalm 144:13 ; Joel 1:17 ; Matt, Joel 3:12 ; Luke 3:17 )
Joel - Samuel's oldest son (1 Samuel 8:2; 1 Chronicles 6:28 (read "the firstborn (Joel) and the second (Vashni) Abiah"), 1 Chronicles 6:33; 1 Chronicles 15:17). Joel, a corruption of Shaul (1 Chronicles 6:24; 1 Chronicles 6:36). The many (Joel 1:14; Joel 2:1; Joel 2:15; Joel 2:22; Joel 3:1-2; Joel 3:6; Joel 3:16-21) references to Judah and Jerusalem and the temple imply that his ministry was in the southern kingdom. "Israel," when mentioned (Joel 3:2), represents the whole twelve tribes. The position of his book in the Hebrew canon between Hosea and Amos implies that he was Hosea's contemporary, slightly preceding Amos who at Tekoa probably heard him, and so under the Spirit reproduces his words (Joel 3:16, compare Amos 1:2). The freshness of style, the absence of allusion to the great empires Assyria and Babylon, and the mention of Tyre, Sidon, and the Philistines (Joel 3:4) as God's executioners of judgment on Israel, accord with an early date, probably Uzziah's reign or even Joash's reign. The mention of "the valley of Jehoshaphat" (Joel 3:12) alludes to Jehoshaphat's victory (2 Chronicles 20), the earnest of Israel's future triumph over the pagan; though occurring long before, it was so great an event as to be ever after a pledge of God's favor to His people. Their teeth like those "of lions" (Joel 1:6), their assailing cities (Joel 2:6-9), and a flame of fire being their image (Joel 1:19-20; Joel 2:3; Joel 2:5), and their finally being driven eastward, westward ("the utmost sea," the Mediterranean), and southward ("a land barren," etc. They are plainly called "the pagan" (Joel 2:17), "the northern (a quarter from whence locusts do not come) army" (Joel 2:20), "all the nations" (Joel 3:2), "strangers" (Joel 3:17). Their fourfold invasion is to be the last before Jehovah's glorious deliverance (Joel 2:18-20, etc. ) in answer to His people's penitent prayer (Joel 2:12-17). Joel 1-2:17 the fourfold invasion answering to the four successive world empires, Babylon, Medo-Persia, Greece, Rome. Joel 2:18-29. Joel 2:30-3:21. References to the law, on which all the prophets lean, occur: Joel 2:13, compare Exodus 34:6; Exodus 32:14; Exodus 2:28, compare Numbers 11:29, fulfilled in the pentecostal outpouring of the Spirit in part (Acts 2:16; Acts 2:21; Acts 21:9; John 7:39), but awaiting a further fulfillment just before Israel's restoration, when "the Spirit shall be poured upon all flesh" (of which the outpouring on all classes without distinction of race is the earnest: Acts 2:28; Acts 2:38; Romans 10:12-13; Zechariah 12:10; Joel 2:23). Also Joel 3:19-21, compare Deuteronomy 32:42-43, the locusts, of which it is written "there hath not been ever the like, neither shall be" (Joel 2:2, compare Exodus 10:14). ... Pusey translates Joel 2:23 ("the former rain moderately") "He hath given you (in His purpose) the Teacher unto righteousness," namely, who" shall bring in everlasting righteousness" (Daniel 9). Joel's style is pure, smooth, rhythmical, periodic, and regular in its parallelisms; strong as Micah, tender as Jeremiah, vivid as Nathan, and sublime as Isaiah. Take as a specimen (Joel 2) his graphic picture of the terrible aspect of the locusts, their rapidity, irresistible progress, noisy din, and instinct-taught power of marshaling their forces for devastation
Joel, the Book of - (See Joel
Palmer-Worm - The devastations it causes are mentioned in Joel 1:4 ; Joel 2:25 ; Amos 4:9
Vashni - See Joel No
Rivers of Judah - (Joel 3:18 ), the watercourses of Judea
Joel - Compare 1 Chronicles 23:8 ; 1 Chronicles 26:22 for Levites named Joel 5 . Prophet whose preaching ministry produced the Book of Joel. ... Containing only 70 verses, the Book of Joel is one of the shortest in the Old Testament, comprising only three chapters in our English translations. The first of two natural divisions, the earlier section (Joel 1:1-2:17 ) describes a terrible locust plague concluding with a plea for confession of sins. The second section (Joel 2:18-3:21 ), written in the form of a first-person response from God, proclaims hope for the repentant people coupled with judgment upon their enemies. ... Priests were urged to call for fasting and prayer (Joel 2:15-17 ). Then, on the basis of their repentance, God answered that He would show pity and remove their plague (Joel 2:18-27 ). Judgment was pronounced against Phoenicia and Philistia (Joel 3:4 ) and eventually upon all nations as they were judged by God in the Valley of Jehoshaphat, which literally means “The Lord judges” (Joel 3:2 , 3:12 ). Judah faced unparalleled prosperity, but Egypt and Edom (traditional enemies) could look for terrible punishment (Joel 3:18-19 ). The Lord triumphed over his enemies in order that all shall “know that I am the Lord Your God” (Joel 3:17 ; compare Joel 2:27 ). Citation of the Grecian slave traffic (Joel 3:4-6 ) fits a late period. References to the scattering of the Israelites (Joel 3:2-6 ) would apply to an exilic period, and the use of the term “Israel” to refer to Judah (Joel 2:27 ; Joel 3:2 ) would have been appropriate in postexilic times. ... Primary teachings of the Book of Joel are numerous. (3) Whereas the Jews considered the day of the Lord as a time of punishment upon their enemies, Joel make it clear that although God controls the destinies of other nations, His people, with a responsibility to live in accordance with their relationship with Him, are not exempt from His vengeance. Peter, on the day of Pentecost, proclaimed that the new day of Spirit-filled people had arrived as it had been announced earlier by the prophet Joel (Acts 2:17-21 ). The Day of the Lord Calls for God's People to Respond (Joel 1:1-2:17 ). Witness to future generations (Joel 1:1-4 ). Mourn and grieve over the destruction (Joel 1:5-20 ). Sound the alarm because the day of the scLord is dreadful (Joel 2:1-11 ). Repent inwardly because your gracious, patient God may have pity (Joel 2:12-14 ). Assemble the congregation for mourning and repentance (Joel 2:15-17 ). God Will Respond to His People's Mourning and Repentance (Joel 2:18-27 ). God will have pity (Joel 2:18 ). God will provide food needs and remove shame from His people (Joel 2:19 ). God will defeat the enemy (Joel 2:20 ). God will replace fear and shame with joy and praise (Joel 2:21-26 ). God will cause His people to know and worship Him, and Him alone (Joel 2:27 ). God Is Preparing a Great Day of Salvation (Joel 2:28-3:21 ). God will pour out His Spirit to bring salvation to the remnant (Joel 2:28-32 ). ... B God will judge all nations (Joel 3:1-17 ). God will bless His people (Joel 3:18-21 )
Caterpiller - 1 Kings 8:37 ; 2 Chronicles 6:28 ; Psalm 78:46 ; Isaiah 33:4 ; Joel 1:4 ; Joel 2:25
Vash'ni - ( 1 Chronicles 6:28 ) (13); but in (1 Samuel 8:2 ) the name of his first-born is Joel. Most probably in the Chronicles the name of Joel has dropped out: and Vashni is a corruption of vesheni , and (the) second
Cankerworm - Joel 1:4; Joel 2:25; Nahum 3:15-16
Joel - Unlike most of the other prophets, Joel does not state the period during which he preached. It would also explain why Joel makes no mention of the reigning Judean king, for the government was largely in the hands of the priest Jehoiada (2 Kings 11; 2 Kings 12:1). The prominence of Jehoiada could partly account for Joel’s interest in the temple and its services (Joel 1:9; Joel 1:13; Joel 2:12; Joel 2:15-17). ... Joel interpreted the locust plague as God’s judgment on Judah for its sin. God would not only renew their crops but also give them a greater knowledge of himself (Joel 2:12-14; Joel 2:23-27). ... According to Joel’s view, these events were symbolic of God’s future blessing upon all his people and his judgment upon all his enemies. In New Testament times Peter saw a fulfilment of Joel’s prophecy in the events that resulted from Jesus’ death and resurrection. A new age had dawned, the Spirit had come upon all God’s people, and judgment had become certain for all God’s enemies (Joel 2:28-32; Acts 2:14-21). ... Summary of contents... In very lively fashion, Joel describes the devastating effects of the locust plague, firstly upon the farmers and other country people (1:1-20), then upon the citizens of Jerusalem (2:1-11)
Jehoshaphat (2) - A place named only in Joel 3:2; Joel 3:12. This event took place 100 years before Joel, and may have given rise to this expression of the prophet. This identification of Jehoshaphat with the Kedron is now generally regarded as based upon a misinterpretation of Joel 3:1-21
Former Rain - KJV term at Joel 2:23 for the early rain
Josaphat, Valley of - A place which the prophet Joel tells us is to be the scene of the Last Judgment (Joel 3)
Cankerworm, - Nahum 3:15,16 ; Joel 1:4 ; Joel 2:25
Valley of Josaphat - A place which the prophet Joel tells us is to be the scene of the Last Judgment (Joel 3)
Joel - Besides which some passages are so identical in Joel 3, and Amos 1, as to appear evident citations; after weighing the peculiarities of the context it seems that Amos borrows from Joel. Hence Joel was a contemporary of Osee and Amos, but a little in advance of them. The book of Joel consists of four chapters in the Hebrew; but only three in the English Bible. Joel is the prophet of repentance in view of the Lord's Day. The canonical authority of Joel is proclaimed in the New Testament by Saint Peter who quotes Joel 2:28,32 (Acts 2); and by Saint Paul who quotes Joel 2:32 (Romans 9). Portions of the Book of Joel are used in the Office, Tuesday and Wednesday of the fourth week of November, and in the Mass, Ash Wednesday; antiphon, 2:13; response, 2:17; lectio, 2:12-19; Friday in Ember Week of Pentecost, lesson, 2:23-24,26-27; Saturday in Ember Week of Pentecost, first lesson, 2:28-32
Juel - 1Es 9:35 = Joel , Ezra 10:43
Canker-Worm - In our English Bible, put where the Hebrew means a species of locust, Joel 1:4 Nahum 3:15,16
Decision, Valley of - The phrase is found only in Joel 3:14 ‘Multitudes, multitudes in the valley of decision; for the day of Jehovah is near in the valley of decision. ’ This valley is evidently the valley of Jehoshaphat mentioned in the preceding context ( Joel 3:2 ; Joel 3:12 )
Pethuel - ” Father of the prophet Joel (Deuteronomy 1:1 )
Closet - For Joel 2:16 see Driver, Joel and Amos, in loc
Igal - Son of Nathan of Zobah (2 Samuel 23:36); in 1 Chronicles 11:38 "Joel, the brother of Nathan
Caterpillar - The word occurs Deuteronomy 28:38 ; Psalm 68:46; Isaiah 33:4 ; 1 Kings 8:37 ; 2 Chronicles 6:28 ; Joel 1:4 ; Joel 2:25 . In the four last cited texts, it is distinguished from the locust, properly so called; and in Joel 1:4 , is mentioned as "eating up" what the other species had left, and therefore might be called the consumer, by way of eminence
Jehoshaphat, Valley of - Mentioned in Scripture only in Joel 3:2,12 . (Joel 3:4,19 ), with an utter overthrow. This has been fulfilled; but Joel speaks of the final conflict, when God would destroy all Jerusalem's enemies, of whom Tyre and Zidon, etc
Army - Joel 2:25 (b) This word is used to describe the great hordes of locusts, caterpillars and palmer warms which GOD sent as a punishment on Israel
Joel - Apparently Joel is called VASHNIin 1 Chronicles 6:28 ; but it is possible that the word Joel has dropped out: the passage would then read "the firstborn Joel, and 'the second' Abiah," as in the R. Joel 1:1
Joel - He lived in the kingdom of Judah, and at a time when the temple and temple-worship still existed, Joel 1:14 2:1,15,32 3:1 . ... The BOOK of Joel opens with a most graphic and powerful description of the devastation caused by swarms of divers kinds of locusts, accompanied by a terrible drought. The plague of locusts, one of the most dreadful scourges of the East, (see LOCUSTS,) is highly suggestive of an invasion of hostile legions such as have often ravaged Judea; and many have understood, by the locusts of Joel, the Chaldeans, Persians, Greeks, or Romans. While describing this returning plenty and prosperity, the prophet casts his view forward on a future still more remote, and predicts the outpouring of the Holy Spirit, and the signs and wonders and spiritual prosperity of the Messiah's reign, Joel 2:28 . The style of Joel is exceedingly poetical and elegant; his descriptions are vivid and sublime, and his prophecy ranks among the gems of Hebrew poetry
Locust - Their voracity is alluded to in Exodus 10:12; Exodus 10:15; Joel 1:4; Joel 1:7. Joel 2:5; Revelation 9:9. Their irresistible progress is referred to in Joel 2:8-9. Exodus 10:6; Joel 2:9-10. Exodus 10:19; Joel 2:20
Locust - (See Joel. Their devastations are vividly depicted (Exodus 10:15; Joel 2:3; Joel 2:5; Joel 2:10). The "palmerworm" (gazam ) is probably the larva state of the locust (Gesenius): Amos 4:9; Joel 1:4; Joel 2:25. "... Locusts appear in swarms extending many miles and darkening the sunlight (Joel 2:10); like horses, so that the Italians call them "cavaletta ", "little horse" (Joel 2:4-5; Revelation 9:7; Revelation 9:9); with a fearful noise; having no king (Proverbs 30:27); impossible to withstand in their progress; entering dwellings (Exodus 10:6; Joel 2:8-10); not flying by night (Nahum 3:17; Exodus 10:13 "morning". Their decaying bodies taint the air (Joel 2:20). Joel's phrase "the northern army" implies that he means human invaders from the N. Thus, the four successive world empires and the calamities which they inflicted on Israel are the truths shadowed forth by the four kinds of locusts in Joel
Pethuel - The father of the prophet Joel
Palmer-Worm - gazam ) occurs ( Joel 1:4 ; 2:25 ; Amos 4:9 ) It is maintained by many that gazam denotes some species of locust
Great Sea - " Joel 2:20; Zechariah 14:8
Coulter - (1 Samuel 13:20,21 ), an agricultural instrument, elsewhere called "ploughshare" (Isaiah 2:4 ; Micah 4:3 ; Joel 3:10 )
Locust - ... The locust plague is used in the Bible as a symbol for what God's judgment will be like (Joel 2:1 ,Joel 2:1,2:11 ; Revelation 9:3 ,Revelation 9:3,9:7 ; compare Exodus 10:3-20 ; Deuteronomy 28:38 ). The image of the locust plague was also used to symbolize being overwhelmed by a large and powerful army (Judges 6:5 ; Isaiah 33:4 ; Jeremiah 46:23 ; Jeremiah 51:27 ; Joel 2:20 ; Nahum 3:15 )
Decision, Valley of - The scene of Jehovah's signal inflictions on Zion's enemies (Joel 3:14 ; marg
East Sea - Joel 2:20; Ezekiel 47:18
Jehoshaphat, Valley of - Joel 3:2; Joel 3:12, parallel to Zechariah 14:2-4, where the mount of Olives answers to the "valley of Jehoshaphat" in Joel. The enemies Tyre, Sidon, the Philistines, Edom, and Egypt (Joel 3:4; Joel 3:19), are types of the last confederacy under antichrist (Revelation 16; Revelation 17; Revelation 19), which shall assail restored Israel and shall be judged by Jehovah. The word in Joel is emeq , which means a "spacious valley", not a narrow ravine (for which the term is nachal ) such as the valley of the Kedron. In Joel 3:14 "the valley of Jehoshaphat" is called "the valley of decision" or "excision," where the foes shall meet their determined doom. Its connection with Jerusalem appears in the context; so "come up," the regular phrase for going to the theocratic capital, is used, but "down into the valley of Jehoshaphat" also (Joel 3:2; Joel 3:12)
Garner - Psalm 144:13 ; Joel 1:17 ; Matthew 3:12 ; Luke 3:17
Eclipse - Of the sun alluded to in Amos 8:9 ; Micah 3:6 ; Zechariah 14:6 ; Joel 2:10 . Eclipses were regarded as tokens of God's anger (Joel 3:15 ; Job 9:7 )
East Sea - (Joel 2:20 ; Ezekiel 47:18 ), the Dead Sea, which lay on the east side of the Holy Land
Chabakkuk - (6th century BCE) A contemporary of Joel and Nahum, he began prophesying during the reign of King Manasseh
Grecians - Joel 3:6 =Greeks
Nahum - (a) (6th century BCE) A contemporary of Joel and Habakkuk, he prophesied during the reign of King Manasseh
Joel - Joel (jô'el)
Jehoshaphat, Valley of - This is mentioned only in Joel 3:2,12 , as a place where the nations will be judged for their treatment of God's people, when Judah is being brought into blessing. In Joel 3:14 occurs 'the valley of decision,' which is also connected with God's judgements
Palmer-Worm - ), which wanders like a palmer or pilgrim, or which travels like pilgrims in bands (Joel 1:4 ; 2:25 ), the wingless locusts, or the migratory locust in its larva state
Habakkuk - (6th century BCE) A contemporary of Joel and Nahum, he began prophesying during the reign of King Manasseh
Habakkuk (2) - (6th century BCE) A contemporary of Joel and Nahum, he began prophesying during the reign of King Manasseh
Shittim - ' Numbers 25:1 ; Joshua 2:1 ; Joshua 3:1 ; Joel 3:18 ; Micah 6:5
Obadiah - He stands fourth of the minor prophets in the Hebrew canon, fifth in the Septuagint Jerome makes him contemporary with Hosea, Joel, and Amos. Amos 1:6; Amos 1:11, and Joel 4:19, refer to the same capture by Philistines and Arabs. He evidently belongs to the same prophetic cycle as Joel and Amos, and so is connected with them in the canon. ... Joel drew the outline which succeeding prophets fill in (compare Obadiah 1:10 with Joel 3:19; Amos 1:11; Obadiah 1:11 with Joel 3:3; Joel 3:5; Joel 3:17, where the language is the same, "strangers," "cast lots," "the day of the Lord," Obadiah 1:15; Joel 3:14. The same retribution in kind, Obadiah 1:15; Joel 3:4; Joel 3:7; Obadiah 1:17 also with Joel 3:17; Obadiah 1:18 with Joel 2:3; Joel 2:5; Obadiah 1:21 with Amos 9:12). Joel probably was in Joash's reign, Obadiah in Amaziah's, Amos in Uzziah's
Date - This was a common tree in Palestine (Joel 1:12 ; Nehemiah 8:15 )
Abiah - the second son of the prophet Samuel, and brother of Joel
ty'Rus - This form is employed in the Authorized Version of the books of Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Hosea (Joel has "Tyre"), Amos and Zechariah, as follows: (Jeremiah 25:22 ; 27:3 ; 47:4 ; Ezekiel 26:2,3,4,7,15 ; 27:2,3,8,32 ; 28:2,12 ; 29:18 ; Hosea 9:13 ; Amos 1:9,10 ; Zechariah 9:2,3 )
Flow - Joel 3:18 (a) This is a picture of the abundance of GOD's blessings poured out on the people from the living GOD when the Holy Spirit is loved, honored and trusted
Jehoshaphat - (See Joel 3:2; Joe 3:12)...
Caterpillar -
Chasil occurs in ( 1 Kings 8:37 ; 2 Chronicles 6:28 ; Psalm 78:46 ; Isaiah 33:4 ; Joel 1:4 ) and seems to be applied to a locust, perhaps in its larva state
Garner - 'otsar, a treasure; a store of goods laid up, and hence also the place where they are deposited (Joel 1:17 ; 2 Chronicles 32:27 , rendered "treasury")
Canker Worm - Joel 1:4 (c) This is the third in a series of punishments sent by GOD upon the nations as a reward for their wickedness
Sickle - , "scythe;" Joel 3:13 ; Mark 4:29 )
Jehosh'Aphat, Valley of - (valley of the judgment of Jehovah ), a valley mentioned by Joel only, as the spot in which, after the return of Judah and Jerusalem from captivity, Jehovah would gather all the heathen, ( Joel 3:2 ) and would there sit to judge them for their misdeeds to Israel. (Joel 3:12 ) The scene of "Jehovah's judgment" as been localized, and the name has come down to us attached to that deep ravine which separates Jerusalem from the Mount of Olives, through which at one time the Kedron forced its stream
Greece, Greeks, Gre'Cians - , is in Javan ( Daniel 8:21 ; Joel 3:6 ) the Hebrew, however, is sometimes regained. 800 Joel speaks of the Tyrians as, selling the children of Judah tot he Grecians, (Joel 3:6 ) and in Ezekiel 27:13 The Greeks are mentioned as bartering their brazen vessels for slaves
Igal - In the parallel list ( 1 Chronicles 11:38 ) the name is given as ‘ Joel , the brother of Nathan
Barn - A full barn is a sign of prosperity (Deuteronomy 28:8 ; Proverbs 3:10 ; Luke 12:18 ) while empty barns are signs of calamity of some kind (either drought, war, etc; Joel 1:17 )
Wine-Press - lenos) into which the grapes were thrown and where they were trodden upon and bruised (Isaiah 16:10 ; Lamentations 1:15 ; Joel 3:13 ); and (2) a trough or vat (Heb. hypolenion) into which the juice ran from the trough above, the gath (Nehemiah 13:15 ; Job 24:11 ; Isaiah 63:2,3 ; Haggai 2:16 ; Joel 2:24 )
Joel, Theology of - The Book of Joel has been dated by conservative scholars from the ninth to the fifth centuries b. Particularly important in supporting this later date are Joel's apparent quotations from earlier Old Testament literature. ... Nothing more is known concerning Joel than what is given in the book: that he was the son of Pethuel and that he lived in or near Jerusalem. There is not reason to connect him with any of the other Joels mentioned in the Old Testament. ... Like that of other prophets, Joel's theology is not set forth systematically. For Joel, as for the Old Testament generally, the Lord has a special relationship with the people of Jerusalem and Judah. ... It is true that Joel does not dwell on specific great Acts of God in the past associated with the patriarchs, the bondage in Egypt, the exodus, the theophany at Mount Sinai, and the conquest of Canaan. Joel does draw on the teaching of his sacred literature, particularly the books of Deuteronomy and Obadiah, and he clearly embraces the traditions surrounding God's dwelling in Zion, his holy mountain (2:1; 3:16-17,21) and in its temple (1:9,13-16). ... Joel exhibits a striking understanding of solidarity within his community and between his people and the natural environment in which they live. The fact that the first mention of this theme in the book calls it simply "the day" (1:15) probably indicates that it was an established concept, that Joel was drawing on earlier prophetic voices such as Amos (5:18-20), Obadiah (15), or Zephaniah (1:7,14) in his depiction of the crisis present to his people. Moreover, it is perhaps debatable whether Joel, in the final analysis, viewed the devastating locust plague as actually the day of the Lord or as merely its harbinger. Joel does not appear to castigate his people for their sinfulness, as do other prophets. Joel clearly recognizes the sins of the nations (3:2-7,19). Perhaps it is chiefly the sin of mere formality in religion, since Joel urges an inward repentance of the heart and not merely an outward rending of garments (2:13). Moreover, Joel's emphasis on repentance of the heart should not be understood to render the more formal aspects of religion unnecessary or wrong. ... Joel's further statement (2:32) that all who call on the Lord will be saved probably refers initially to a deliverance from the physical terrors of the day of the Lord. Joel's announcement of God pouring out his Spirit (2:28-29) can be analyzed under three aspects. This may in fact have been the case in the postexilic period (Nehemiah 5:5,8 ), and this would be especially relevant if the commonly adopted postexilic date for the Book of Joel is correct. The recipients of the Spirit are said to prophesy and have dreams or visions, words capable of a wide variety of interpretation, largely due to the fact that Joel's announcement comes rather abruptly, having no apparent conceptual connection with earlier material in the book. Therefore, the explanation of Joel is often sought in other passages, such as Numbers 11:29 , Jeremiah 31:31-34 , Ezekiel 36:26-27 , or Acts 2 . But since this method risks importing extraneous elements into Joel's thinking, the present approach will be to probe the actual statements before relating them to other passages. Joel was announcing, then, that the people of God would faithfully proclaim God's Word. Its meaning in Joel should be sought along these lines. ... A great many interpreters, making a connection with Numbers 11:29 , see Joel as announcing the realization of a wish of Moses that all of the Lord's people be prophets having God's Spirit. However, in Ezekiel the effect of the Spirit's presence is obedience to God's Word, whereas in Joel it is proclamation of God's Word. ... The same difficulty exists in attempting to define Joel's prophecy in terms of Jeremiah 31:31-34 , in addition to the fact that Jeremiah's prophecy does not explicitly concern the Spirit. Nor do other Old Testament passages (Isaiah 44:3 ; Ezekiel 39:29 ; Zechariah 12:10 ) offer sufficient help in interpreting Joel, being themselves quite general and not specific in terms of the results of the Spirit's outpouring. ... Joel and the New Testament . Joel's prophecy is quite widely quoted or alluded to in the New Testament, occasionally being transformed in its application. The primary passage, of course, is Acts 2:16-39 , where the words of Joel are seen to be at least partially fulfilled in the proclamation of the mighty works of God (v. The echo of Joel 2:32 in Acts 2:39 brings together the gift of the Spirit and the calling of God, although the call is not yet seen here as extended to Gentiles ( Acts 2:5 ). 46) may be a transmuted form of Joel's "they shall prophesy. " The words of Joel are again applied to Gentiles in Romans 5:5 , which, though somewhat wordy, means that God, out of his love, has poured his Spirit into all believers' hearts. In Romans 10:13 a different aspect of Joel's passage has likewise been extended to Gentile believers; the promise that "every one who calls on the name of the Lord will be saved" applies equally to Jews and Greeks (v. Finally, Galatians 3:28 generally echoes Joel's thought in saying that possession of God's Spirit is not restricted by considerations such as one's religious or ethnic background, social position, or sex. Allen, Joel, Obadiah, Jonah and Micah ; T. Finley, Joel, Amos, Obadiah ; D. Hubbard, Joel and Amos ; D
Pedaiah - The father of Joel, ruler of the half-tribe of Manasseh (1 Chronicles 27:20 )
Vashni - ” Modern translations and commentators follow 1 Samuel 8:2 and manuscripts of early versions, taking Vashni as a copyist's change from the similar Hebrew word for “the second” and inserting Joel
Stubble - Figuratively it is used of God's judgment (Joel 2:5 ; Isaiah 5:24 )
Sackcloth - 1 Kings 21:27 ; 2 Kings 6:30 ; Job 16:15 ; Joel 1:13 ; Revelation 6:12 ; etc
Sackcloth - (See also1Ki 20:31; 2 Kings 6:30; Job 16:15; Psalm 35:13; Psalm 69:11; Psalm 32:11; Jeremiah 4:8; Daniel 9:3; Joel 1:13; Revelation 11:3)
Over-Ripe - 1: ξηραίνω (Strong's #3583 — Verb — xeraino — xay-rah'ee-no ) denotes "to dry up, wither," translated in Revelation 14:15 , "over-ripe," RV (AV, "ripe"), said figuratively of the harvest of the earth, symbolizing the condition of the world, political, especially connected with Israel (Joel 3:9,14 ), and religious, comprehensive of the whole scene of Christendom (Matthew 13:38 )
Pruning Hook - Joel 3:10 (b) This represents a time when the instruments of peace will be changed into instruments of war because GOD will take peace away from the earth
Sabeans - In Joel 3:8 the descendants of Sheba, son of Joktan, are meant
Press - See also Proverbs 3:10 Joel 3:13 Haggai 2:16
Locust, - ( Exodus 10:15 ; Judges 6:5 ; Jeremiah 46:23 ) Their voracity is alluded to in (Exodus 10:12,15 ; Joel 1:4,7 ) They make a fearful noise in their flight. (Joel 2:5 ; Revelation 9:9 ) Their irresistible progress is referred to in (Joel 2:8,9 ) They enter dwellings, and devour even the woodwork of houses. (Exodus 10:6 ; Joel 2:9,10 ) They do not fly in the night. (Exodus 10:19 ; Joel 2:20 ) The flight of locusts is thus described by M
Rain - There are three Hebrew words used to denote the rains of different seasons,
Yoreh (Hosea 6:3 ), or moreh (Joel 2:23 ), denoting the former or the early rain. The "early" or "former" rains commence in autumn in the latter part of October or beginning of November (Deuteronomy 11:14 ; Joel 2:23 ; Compare Jeremiah 3:3 ), and continue to fall heavily for two months
Vashni - ), and on the strength of 1 Chronicles 6:18 (33) and the || 1 Samuel 8:2 , supplies Joel as the name of Samuel’s oldest son, and substitutes ‘and the second Abiah’ for ‘Vashni and Abiah
Rending of Garments - Tearing or pulling garments apart, often as a sign of mourning (Genesis 37:34 ; Leviticus 10:6 ; Leviticus 21:10 ; 1 Samuel 4:12 ; 2 Samuel 3:31 ), repentance (Genesis 37:29 ; Joshua 7:6 ; 2 Chronicles 34:27 ; Joel 2:13 ), or as a response to the rejection of God's plan (Numbers 14:6 ) or (perceived) blasphemy (Matthew 26:65 ; Mark 14:63 ; Acts 14:14 )
Locusts - Joel, the prophet, speaks of the same destructive creature, as the Lord's army. What a solemn lesson this taught, when a creature so contemptible had power from the Lord to humble the haughtiness of man! If the reader will compare what Joel hath said Joel 1:6-7 and Joel 2:3-11 with Revelation 9:1-12, he will find large scope for meditation. Whether the latter is figurative of some great and awful events yet remaining to be fulfilled in the earth; or whether the locusts, described by the beloved apostle John in this chapter, be altogether different from the locusts of Egypt, or those mentioned by the prophet Joel, I stay not to enquire. Who knoweth, if he will return and repent, and leave a blessing behind him, even a meat offering, and a drink offering, unto the Lord your God!" (Joel 2:12-14)... I cannot dismiss this article, without making a farther observation on the different relations of the sacred writers on the subject of locusts; that they should seem to justify the opinion, that they differed very widely from each other. (See Exodus 10:14-15) Such, in like manner, were the locusts which Joel describes, in their destruction of food; but from certain peculiarities with which he describes them also, it should seem that they very probably were a species of much larger kind than the locusts of Egypt. " (Exodus 10:14) The locusts, described by Joel, are said to be as "the appearance of horses, and as horsemen, shall they run
Jehoshaphat, Valley of - JEHOSHAPHAT, VALLEY OF ( Joel 3:2 ; Joel 3:12 ). It has been suggested that the valley ( ‘çmeq ) of Beracah, where Jehoshaphat returned thanks after his great victory ( 2 Chronicles 20:26 ), may be the place referred to by Joel
Army - Joel 2:25
Grecians - Joel 3:6
Joel - (b) A common Jewish first name ... Joel, the book of: The book of Tanach containing Joel's prophecies, describing a terrible plague of locusts, calling for repentance, and foretelling the future redemption
he'Man - (1 Chronicles 2:6 ; 1 Kings 4:31 ) ... Son of Joel and grandson of Samuel the prophet, a Kohathite
Earthquake - The Bible writers often refer to earthquakes as evidence of God’s mighty power (Judges 5:4; Psalms 18:7; Isaiah 29:6; Joel 2:10; Joel 3:16; Nahum 1:5; Habakkuk 3:6; Matthew 24:7; Revelation 6:12; Revelation 8:5; Revelation 11:13; Revelation 16:18)
Caterpillar - They could cause famine in a land, eating all the crops ( 1 Kings 8:37 ; Joel 1:14 ). They swarmed over a land as an army in formation marched into a country (Jeremiah 51:27 ; Joel 2:25 ). Compare Amos 4:9 ; Joel 1:4 ; Joel 2:25
Husbandman - The substitutions of the RSV are typical; plowman (Isaiah 61:5 ); farmer (2 Chronicles 26:10 ; Jeremiah 14:4 ; Jeremiah 31:24 ; Jeremiah 51:23 ; Amos 5:16 ); tiller of the soil (Genesis 9:20 ; Joel 1:11 )
Apple-Trees - Mentioned in Song of Song of Solomon 2:3 8:5 Joel 1:12
Pedaiah - Father of Joel a prince of Manasseh
Cankerworm - yelek), "the licking locust," which licks up the grass of the field; probably the locust at a certain stage of its growth, just as it emerges from the caterpillar state (Joel 1:4 ; 2:25 )
Shema - Son of Joel, a Reubenite
Sickle - Joel 3:13 (b) The sickle is used as a type of GOD's judging and avenging wrath
Javan - In Joel 3:3; Joel 3:6, God reproves the nations because "they have given a boy for (as price for prostitution of) an harlot, and sold a girl for wine," especially Tyre and Sidon; "the children of Judah and Jerusalem have ye sold unto the Grecians (sons of Javan), that ye might remove them far from their border. " Others from the mention of "Sabeans" (Joel 3:8) think Javan in Arabia is meant
Canker-Worm - ילק , Psalms 105:34 ; Jeremiah 51:27 , where it is rendered caterpillar; Joel 1:4 ; Joel 2:25 ; Nahum 3:15 , canker-worm
Famine - 2 Samuel 21:1; 1 Kings 17:1; 1 Kings 17:7; 1 Kings 18:2; 2 Kings 4:38; 2 Kings 8:1-2; Lamentations 5:10; Joel 1:10-12; Joel 1:17-18
Caterpillar - ... Joel 2:25 (a) This wonderful promise from GOD is given to encourage those who have wasted their lives and then come back to serve GOD in fellowship with Him
Caterpillar - The real foe meant in Joel 1:4 is the Assyrian Babylonian power, the Medo-Persian, the Graeco-Macedonian and Antiochus Epiphanes, Rome the fourth and most consuming foe of the four which successively ravaged Judaea
Footman - Swift running was much valued in a warrior (Psalms 19:5; Joel 2:7; Job 16:14)
Apple, Apple Tree - Song of Solomon 2:3,5 ; Song of Solomon 7:8 ; Song of Solomon 8:5 ; Joel 1:12
Tongues - Joel 2:28; Acts 2:16; Mark 16:17; comp
Litany Desk - The significance of this position may be seen byreference to the words of the prophet Joel read on Ash Wednesdayas the Epistle, "Let the Priests, the Ministers of the Lord, weepbetween the porch and the Altar, and let them say, Spare Thypeople, O Lord
Shaul - An ancestor of Samuel ( 1 Chronicles 6:24 (9), called in 1 Chronicles 6:36 (21) Joel )
Fountains - The atonement is a precious fountain of cleansing, healing, life-giving power, Joel 3:18 Zechariah 13:1
Prophetess - ... The prophet Joel anticipated a time when all God's people, “male servants and female servants,” would be filled with God's Spirit and prophesy (Joel 2:28-29 )
Day of the Lord - Joel 1:15 could describe a present disaster as the “day of the Lord. ”... The Old Testament prophets used a term familiar to their audience, a term by which the audience expected light and salvation (Amos 5:18 ), but the prophets painted it as a day of darkness and judgment (Isaiah 2:10-22 ; Isaiah 13:6 ,Isaiah 13:6,13:9 ; Joel 1:15 ; Joel 2:1-11 ,Joel 2:1-11,2:31 ; Joel 3:14-15 ; Amos 5:20 ; Zephaniah 1:7-8 ,Zephaniah 1:7-8,1:14-18 ; Malachi 4:5 )
Joel, Book of - Of the minor Prophets, Joel is judged to be the earliest in connection with Judah, though there are no dates given in the prophecy itself. ... Joel 1 . ... Joel 2 . God will hear, and will destroy their enemies, especially the northern army (Joel 2:20 , elsewhere alluded to as Assyria) and He will bring His people into great blessing. ... Joel 3
Dead Sea - In the Old Testament it is called "sea of the wilderness" (Joshua 1:3); "east sea" (Joel 2; Zachariah 14); "salt sea" (Genesis 14); and "sea of the desert" (Deuteronomy 3)
Zion - In the later books of the Old Testament this name was sometimes used (Psalm 87:2 ; 149:2 ; Isaiah 33:14 ; Joel 2:1 ) to denote Jerusalem in general, and sometimes God's chosen Israel (Psalm 51:18 ; 87:5 )
Visions - Joel 2:28 ; Acts 2:17
Joel - (See Joel 2:28-29; Acts 2:16, etc. ) There were several Joels beside the prophet, whose names are recorded in Scripture. ... ·Joel, son of Samuel, 1 Samuel 8:1-2. ... ·Joel, son of Josebiah, 1 Chronicles 4:35. ... ·Joel, son of Jorabiah, 1 Chronicles 7:3. ... ·Joel, one of David's army, 1 Chronicles 11:38. ... ·Joel, a Levite, 1 Chronicles 15:7. ... ·Joel, son of Pedaiah, 1 Chronicles 27:20
Jehoshaphat, Valley of - Or valley of the judgment of God, a metaphorical name of some place where God would judge the foes of his people, Joel 3:2,12
Baptism of the Holy Spirit - Ever since the days of Joel, God's people have looked for the pouring out of God's Spirit (Joel 2:28-32 )
Joel - (Ἰωήλ)... Joel is proved by internal evidence to have been one of the latest of the Hebrew prophets. But Joel has not the wide outlook of some of the other prophets. ‘Your sons and your daughters shall prophesy, and your old men shall dream dreams, and your young men shall see visions: and also upon the servants and upon the handmaids in those days will I pour out my spirit’ (Joel 2:28-29). ... This particular prophecy wins for Joel a prominent place in the NT. ’ Was he, like the prophet himself, still a particularist, extending the promised blessing to all the Jews of the Diaspora, but limiting it to them, and so making the old distinction of lsrael from the heathen more marked than ever? Or did he there and then change his standpoint so as to include the nations in his purview? Did he in that hour of inspiration read into Joel’s words the later universalism of St
Apple Tree - תפוח , Proverbs 25:11 ; Song of Solomon 2:3 ; Song of Solomon 2:5 ; Song of Solomon 7:8 ; Song of Solomon 8:5 ; Joel 1:12 . Can it be imagined, then, that the apple trees of which the Prophet Joel speaks, Joel 1:12 , and which he mentions among the things that gave joy to the inhabitants of Judea, were those that we call by that name? Our translators must surely have been mistaken here, since the apples which the inhabitants of Judea eat at this day are of foreign growth, and at the same time but very indifferent. ... There are five places, beside this in Joel, in which the word occurs; and from them we learn that it was thought the noblest of the trees of the wood, and that its fruit was very sweet or pleasant, Song of Solomon 2:3 ; of the colour of gold, Proverbs 25:11 ; extremely fragrant, Song of Solomon 7:8 ; and proper for those to smell that were ready to faint, Song of Solomon 2:5
Igal - One of David's heroic warriors, apparently a foreigner from Zobah (2 Samuel 23:36 ), though his name is spelled Joel, and he is the brother, not son, of Nathan in 1 Chronicles 11:38
Granary - Empty granaries was a sign of God's displeasure (Jeremiah 50:26 ; Joel 1:17 )
Heritage - Israel is called God's heritage (Psalm 94:5 ; Jeremiah 12:7 ; Joel 3:2 )
Caterpillar - ), Joel 1:4 ; 2:25
Wine-Press - The two vats are mentioned together only in (Joel 3:13 ) "The press is full: the fats overflow" --the upper vat being full of fruit, the lower one overflowing with the must
Salmon - Joel 1:7, "He hath barked my figtree
Latter - , Deuteronomy 11:14 ; Proverbs 16:15 ; Jeremiah 5:24 ; Hosea 6:3 ; Joel 2:23 ; Zechariah 10:1
Drought - A drought therefore is threatened as one of God's sorest judgments, Job 24:19 Jeremiah 50:38 Joel 1:10-20 Haggai 1:11 ; and there are many allusions to its horrors in Scripture, Deuteronomy 28:23 Psalm 32:4 102:4
Fig - On the other hand ‘to lay waste one’s vines and fig trees’ indicated devastation and ruin (1 Kings 4:25; 2 Kings 18:31; Hosea 2:12; Joel 1:7; Joel 1:12; Micah 4:4)
Day of the Lord, God, Christ, the - ... In the Old Testament the expression "day of the Lord" occurs eighteen times in prophetic literature, most often in the books of Joel and Zephaniah. More likely, however, is the proposal that the wars of the Lord in Israel's history serve as the background, since battle images abound (Joel 3:9-10 ; Revelation 16:14 ) and issues of jurisdiction and authority are central to the day of the Lord. From the first mention of the expression by Amos (although some date Obadiah 15 and Joel earlier), the notion of divine intervention, of a "God who comes" is evident. Joel, preoccupied with the subject, cites wonders in heaven and on earth, including the moon turning to blood (Joel 2:30-31 ). ... As depicted by Joel, the day of the Lord means decision: "Multitudes, multitudes in the valley of decision! For the day of the Lord is near in the valley of decision" (3:14). His decision for some nations, such as Tyre, Sidon, Moab, Philistia, and Assyria, will be punishment (Joel 3:4-13 ; cf. God Acts with dispatch as he judges nations in the Valley of Jehoshaphat (Joel 3:2,12-13 ). The decision for others will have a saving dimension, for God's promise of blessing will be activated and realized (Joel 3:18-21 ). Joel, in turn, describes a grasshopper plague that for him represents the day of the Lord as imminent, even immediate. 13) or Joel's prophecy about the Spirit (2:28-32), or it may be in the far distant future. Joel depicts it as a day of clouds and thick darkness (2:2). Joel describes the Lord's army: "They charge like warriors; they scale walls like soldiers. ... The elaborate description of the day of the Lord in Joel is about calamity for Israel. Joel graphically depicts a roll call of Tyre, Sidon, and Philistia. One striking consequence of the day of the Lord for nations will be a recognition of Yahweh (Joel 3:17 ), but not without desolation (Zephaniah 2:13-14 ) and death (Zephaniah 2:12 ). The plague of locusts in Joelwhether a pointer to the day of the Lord or itself a "day of the Lord"brings unproductive conditions for trees and vines and jeopardizes the survival of animals (1:12,18). The mountains will drip with new wine and the hills will flow with milk (Joel 3:18 ). The setting is as a day of abundant harvest (Joel 2:24 ). They cry for God's mercy (Joel 2:17 ), and he answers. To God's saving activity will belong his pouring forth of his Spirit on all people (Joel 2:29 ). It will mean that "everyone who calls on the name of the Lord will be saved" (Joel 2:32 ). Joel addresses an oracle to the earth, calling on it not to fear, and promises that it will be fertile and productive (2:22) so that threshing floors will be filled with grain and vats will overflow with new wine (2:24). God's summons of the nations for an accounting in Joel 3 and Zephaniah and the description of the cosmos being annihilated through fire ( 2 Peter 3:10-13 ) are two impressive ways of insisting on the truth that God is fully in charge
Winepress - The two vats are mentioned together only in Joel 3:13 : "The press is full: the fats overflow"—the upper vat being full of fruit, the lower one overflowing with the must
Heman - In 1 Chronicles 6:33 , the son of Joel, a Kohathite
Fat - ... In Joel 2:24 the word is equivalent to "vat," a vessel
Cornet - The words of Joel, "Blow the trumpet," literally, "Sound the cornet," refer to the festival which was the preparation for the day of Atonement
Greece - Moses makes mention of Greece under the name of Javan ( Genesis 10:2-5 ); and this name does not again occur in the Old Testament till the time of (Joel 3:6 )
Pomegranate - The withering of the pomegranate tree is mentioned among the judgments of God (Joel 1:12 )
Sea - ... Some portion of this, as the Mediterranean Sea, called the "hinder," the "western" and the "utmost" sea, (11:24; 34:2; Joel 2:20 ) "sea of the Philistines," (Exodus 23:31 ) "the great sea," (Numbers 36:6,7 ; Joshua 15:47 ) "the sea
Ordinances of the Gospel - Joel 2:12
Heman - Son of Joel, a Kohathite: he was both a seer and chief of the musicians in the sanctuary under David
Palestina, Palestine - ' In Joel 3:4 , Tyre and Sidon are not included in the term
Geliloth - in Joshua 13:2 ; Joshua 22:10-11 and Joel 3:4 , and is tr
Manger - The word φάτνη occurs in the LXX in 2 Chronicles 32:28 ; Job 6:5 ; Job 39:9 ; Proverbs 14:4 ; Isaiah 1:3 ; Joel 1:17 : Habakkuk 3:17
Sackcloth - Genesis 37:34; 1 Kings 21:27; 2 Kings 6:30; Isaiah 58:5; Joel 1:8; Jonah 3:5-6; Jonah 3:8
Day of the Lord - They failed to realize, however, that in that day God would punish all sinners, Israelites included, and save all the faithful, regardless of national or social status (Joel 2:30-32; Amos 5:18; Malachi 3:1-4; Malachi 4:1-3). ... Any catastrophic judgment, such as a flood, earthquake, locust plague, famine or war, could be called a day of the Lord (Joel 1:15-16; Joel 2:1-2; Joel 2:11). But such a catastrophe was only a forerunner (and at the same time a guarantee) of the great and final day of the Lord (Joel 2:30-32; Joel 3:14-18)
Zion - Song of Solomon 1:1-17, Isaiah 47:1-15, Jeremiah 17:1-27, Lamentations 15, Joel 7, Amos 2:1-16, Obadiah 1:2, Micah 9, Zephaniah 2:1-15, Zechariah 8:1-23. It was in the later books no longer confined to the southwestern hill, but denoted sometimes Jerusalem in general, Psalms 149:2; Psalms 87:2; Isaiah 33:14; Joel 2:1, etc
Chamber - Included are sleeping quarters (2 Kings 6:12 ); bathroom (Judges 3:24 ); private inner room reserved for a bride (Judges 15:1 ; Joel 2:16 ); private, personal cubicle in the Temple furnished with benches (1 Samuel 9:22 ; 2 Kings 23:11 ); storage rooms (Nehemiah 12:44 ); a cool upper room built on the roof (Judges 3:20 ) or over the city gate (2 Samuel 18:33 ); and the ribs or beams forming side rooms in the Temple (1 Kings 7:3 )
Darkness - Joel 2 Is
Captive - When a city was taken by assault, all the men were slain, and the women and children carried away captive and sold as slaves (Isaiah 20 ; 47:3 ; 2 Chronicles 28:9-15 ; Psalm 44:12 ; Joel 3:3 ), and exposed to the most cruel treatment (Nahum 3:10 ; Zechariah 14:2 ; Esther 3:13 ; 2 Kings 8:12 ; Isaiah 13:16,18 )
Rain - Twice in the year there generally fell plenty of rain in Judea; in the beginning of the civil year, about September or October; and half a year after, in the month of Abib, or March, which was the first month in the ecclesiastical or sacred year, whence it is called the latter rain in the first month, Joel 2:23
Pedaiah - Manassite father of Joel (1 Chronicles 27:20 )
Darkness - This is particularly the case if the intervention is one of judgment (Joel 2:2; Joel 2:31; cf
Drink-Offering - Joined with meat-offerings (Numbers 6:15,17 ; 2 Kings 16:13 ; Joel 1:9,13 ; 2:14 ), presented daily (Exodus 29:40 ), on the Sabbath (Numbers 28:9 ), and on feast-days (28:14)
Barley - The failure of the barley crop was a disaster (Joel 1:11 )
Eschatology - But some that are more prominently eschatological are Daniel, Ezekiel, Isaiah, Joel, Zechariah, Matthew, Mark, Luke, 2Thessalonians, and of course Revelation
Obadiah - Some think that he was contemporary with Hosea, Amos, and Joel; while others are of opinion that he lived in the time of Jeremiah and Ezekiel, and that he delivered his prophecy about B
Palmer Worm - גזם , Joel 1:4 ; Amos 4:9
Press, Pressfat - ] , and Joel 3:13 RV [Note: Revised Version
Pedaiah - Father of Joel, ruler of Manasseh, west of the Jordan, in the time of David ( 1 Chronicles 27:20 )
Locust - Innumerable as the drops of water or the sands of the seashore, their flight obscures the sun and casts a thick shadow on the earth (Exodus 10:15 ; Judges 6:5 ; 7:12 ; Jeremiah 46:23 ; Joel 2:10 ). At their approach the people are in anguish; all faces lose their colour' (Joel 2:6 ). No walls can stop them; no ditches arrest them; fires kindled in their path are forthwith extinguished by the myriads of their dead, and the countless armies march on (Joel 2:8,9 )
Joel (2) - Joel, Book of. Joel's style is classical; "it is elegant and perspicuous, and at the same lime nervous, animated, and sublime
Sabeans - In Joel 3:8 they are represented as a people 'far off,' to whom Judah will sell their enemies
Zichri - Father of Joel who returned from exile
Minister - Joshua 1:1 ; Psalm 103:21 ; Psalm 104:4 ; Joel 2:17
Wheat - The word בר , translated corn, Genesis 41:35 , and wheat in Jeremiah 23:28 ; Joel 2:24 ; Amos 5:11 , &c, is undoubtedly the burr, or wild corn of the Arabs, mentioned by Forskal
Sabaoth - JEHOVAH SABAOTH is the Lord of Hosts; and we are to understand the word hosts in the most comprehensive sense, as including the host of heaven, the angels and minister of the Lord; the stars and planets, which, as an army ranged in battle array, perform the will of God; the armies of earth, whose conflicts his providence overrules to the accomplishment of his own wise designs; the hordes of inferior creatures, as the locusts that plagued Egypt, the quails that fed Israel, and "the canker-worm and the palmer-worm, his great army," Joel 2:15 ; and lastly, the people of the Lord, both of the old and new covenants, a truly great army, of which God is the general and commander, 2 Samuel 6:2 Psalm 24:10 Romans 9:29 James 5:4
Palestine - Denotes, in the Old Testament, the country of the Philistines, which was that part of the land of promise extending along the Mediterranean Sea on the varying western border of Simeon, Judah, and Dan, Exodus 15:14 Isaiah 14:29,31 Joel 3:4
Levitical Priesthood - The essential notion of the Levitical priesthood was that of mediator between God and man (Joel 2)
Shittim - In Joel 3:18 the symbolic meaning of acacias (note NAS) comes to the fore in the messianic picture of fertility for the Kidron Valley with a stream flowing from the Temple
Pomegranates, Rimmon - Song of Solomon 8:2 ; Exodus 39:24-26 ; Numbers 20:5 ; Deuteronomy 8:8 ; 1 Kings 7:18,42 ; Jeremiah 52:22,23 ; Joel 1:12 ; Haggai 2:19
Zichri - Father of Joel (Nehemiah 11:9)
Eclipse of the Sun - (Joel 2:10,31 ; 3:15 ; Amos 8:9 ; Micah 3:6 ; Zechariah 14:6 ) Some of these notices probably refer to eclipses that occurred about the time of the respective compositions: thus the date of Amos coincides with a total eclipse which occurred Feb
Winepress, Wine-Vat - , Isaiah 16:10 ; Joel 3:13 ; Haggai 2:16 ; Zechariah 14:10
Micah - ... ... A descendant of Joel the Reubenite (1 Chronicles 5:5 )
Joel, Book of - Joel was probably a resident in Judah, as his commission was to that people
Tongues, Gift of - But the words of Luke (Acts 2:9 ) clearly show that the various peoples in Jerusalem at the time of Pentecost did really hear themselves addressed in their own special language with which they were naturally acquainted (Compare Joel 2:28,29 )
Rend - ... Joel 2:13 (a) By this word we are called upon to feel a deep grief over sin and evil
Overflow - ... Joel 2:24 (a) Here we see a beautiful picture of the great blessings that GOD would bring to His people Israel in the time of their restoration
Sepharad - As Ζarephath , a Phoenician city, was mentioned in the previous clause, Sepharad is probably some Phoenician colony in Spain or some other place in the far West (compare Joel 3:6, to which Obadiah refers)
Joel - Joel
Stink - (See also Isaiah 34:3; Joel 2:20; Amos 4:10)
Grecians - Joel 3:6
Greeks - Joel 3:6
Joel - The style of Joel is perspicuous and elegant, and his descriptions are remarkably animated and poetical
Sea - " Deuteronomy 11:24; Deuteronomy 34:2; Joel 2:20; Exodus 23:31; Numbers 34:6-7; Joshua 15:47; Genesis 49:13; Psalms 80:11; Psalms 107:23; 1 Kings 4:20
Rend - Joel 2
Reproach - Joel 2
Saba - The Sabeans are mentioned in the Bible as a distant people (Joel 3); famous traders (Ezechiel 27), who exported gold and frankincense (Isaiah 60), precious stones (Ezechiel 27), and perfumes (Jeremiah 6)
Sabeans - The Sabeans are mentioned in the Bible as a distant people (Joel 3); famous traders (Ezechiel 27), who exported gold and frankincense (Isaiah 60), precious stones (Ezechiel 27), and perfumes (Jeremiah 6)
Hook, Hooks - (Isaiah 2:4 ; 18:5 ; Micah 4:3 ; Joel 3:10 ) ... A flesh-hook for getting up the joints of meat out of the boiling-pot
Rain - Geshem , "violent rain" or generically "the early and latter rain" (Jeremiah 5:24; Joel 2:23). "The latter rain in the first (month)" in Joel 2:23 means in the month when first it is needed; or else, as Vulgate and Septuagint, "as at the first" (compare Isaiah 1:26; Hosea 2:15; Malachi 3:4); or in Νisan or Αbib , the Passover month, the first, namely, the end of March and beginning of April
Fasts - Joel 1:14; Joel 2:15
Earthquake - Many times an earthquake is a sign of God's presence or of God's revelation of Himself (1 Kings 19:11-12 ; Psalm 29:8 ; Ezekiel 38:19-20 ; Joel 2:10 ; Joel 3:16 ; Acts 4:31 ; Revelation 11:19 ). At times the whole universe is described as being shaken by God (Isaiah 13:13 ; Isaiah 24:17-20 ; Joel 3:16 ; Haggai 2:6-7 ; Matthew 24:29 ; Hebrews 12:26-27 ; Revelation 6:12 ; Revelation 8:5 )
Locust - ’ ( Joel 1:4 ; Joel 2:25 etc. The poetical description in Joel 2:1-11 is full of faithful touches; particularly the extraordinary noise they make (v
Oil - The olives were sometimes "trodden" (Micah 6:15), or "pressed" in a "press," making the fats overflow (Joel 2:24; Joel 3:13; Haggai 2:16). The oil indicated" gladness"; its absence sorrow and humiliation (Isaiah 61:3; Joel 2:19; Psalms 45:7)
Jehoshaphat - The Prophet Joel 3:2 ; Joel 3:12 , says, "The Lord will gather all nations in the valley of Jehoshaphat, and will plead with them there. Cyril, of Alexandria, on Joel 3, says that this valley is but a few furlongs distant from Jerusalem. Lastly, some maintain that the ancient Hebrews had named no particular place the valley of Jehoshaphat; but that Joel intended generally the place where God would judge the nations, and will appear at the last judgment in the brightness of his majesty
Locust - These are (1) אַרְבֶּה ’arbch, Exodus 10:4; Exodus 10:12-14; Exodus 10:19, Leviticus 11:22, Deuteronomy 28:38, Judges 6:5; Judges 7:12, 1 Kings 8:37, 2 Chronicles 6:28, Job 39:20, Psalms 78:46; Psalms 105:34; Psalms 109:23, Proverbs 30:27, Jeremiah 46:23, Joel 1:4; Joel 2:25, Nahum 3:15; Nahum 3:17. (5) יָלָק yelek, Psalms 105:34, Jeremiah 51:14; Jeremiah 51:27, Joel 1:4; Joel 2:25, Nahum 3:15 f. (6) חָסִיל hâsîl, 1 Kings 8:37, 2 Chronicles 6:28, Psalms 78:46, Isaiah 33:4, Joel 1:4; Joel 2:25. (7) נָּוָם gûzâm, Joel 1:4; Joel 2:25, Amos 4:9. ... We must also avoid the error of thinking that the various terms employed, for example, by Joel and Nahum refer to locusts at various stages in their development. The fact that the order of the four terms gâzâm, ’arbeh, yelek, hâsîl in Joel 1:4 is followed in Joel 2:25 by the order ’arbch, yelek, hâsîl, gâzâm, in itself disproves this theory. Particularly forcible, vivid, and picturesque descriptions of the destructive power of the locust are given in the passages quoted above from Exodus, Joel, Amos, and Nahum. Psalms 109:23), and sometimes carries them into the sea (Exodus 10:19, Joel 2:20). One who has read, for example, Joel 1-2, or has seen with his own eyes the ravages of the locusts, is not surprised to find in Revelation 9:3-11 this insect playing an apocalyptical part and accomplishing a mission of destruction. ; Driver, Joel and Amos (Cambr
Locust - These are (1) אַרְבֶּה ’arbch, Exodus 10:4; Exodus 10:12-14; Exodus 10:19, Leviticus 11:22, Deuteronomy 28:38, Judges 6:5; Judges 7:12, 1 Kings 8:37, 2 Chronicles 6:28, Job 39:20, Psalms 78:46; Psalms 105:34; Psalms 109:23, Proverbs 30:27, Jeremiah 46:23, Joel 1:4; Joel 2:25, Nahum 3:15; Nahum 3:17. (5) יָלָק yelek, Psalms 105:34, Jeremiah 51:14; Jeremiah 51:27, Joel 1:4; Joel 2:25, Nahum 3:15 f. (6) חָסִיל hâsîl, 1 Kings 8:37, 2 Chronicles 6:28, Psalms 78:46, Isaiah 33:4, Joel 1:4; Joel 2:25. (7) נָּוָם gûzâm, Joel 1:4; Joel 2:25, Amos 4:9. ... We must also avoid the error of thinking that the various terms employed, for example, by Joel and Nahum refer to locusts at various stages in their development. The fact that the order of the four terms gâzâm, ’arbeh, yelek, hâsîl in Joel 1:4 is followed in Joel 2:25 by the order ’arbch, yelek, hâsîl, gâzâm, in itself disproves this theory. Particularly forcible, vivid, and picturesque descriptions of the destructive power of the locust are given in the passages quoted above from Exodus, Joel, Amos, and Nahum. Psalms 109:23), and sometimes carries them into the sea (Exodus 10:19, Joel 2:20). One who has read, for example, Joel 1-2, or has seen with his own eyes the ravages of the locusts, is not surprised to find in Revelation 9:3-11 this insect playing an apocalyptical part and accomplishing a mission of destruction. ; Driver, Joel and Amos (Cambr
Amos - 787, and was thus a contemporary of Hosea, Joel, and Isaiah
Corn - In Genesis 41:35,49 , Proverbs 11:26 , Joel 2:24 ("wheat"), the word thus translated (bar; i
Ripe - ... Joel 3:13 (b) This type describes the full growth of iniquity and sin in the earth until the righteous GOD will endure it no longer, and will bring the earth to judgment
Barn - "... Joel 1:17 (c) We believe that this word indicates that GOD's curse will be upon His people for their disobedience, and no blessings will accumulate to their credit
Heart - Proverbs 4:4; Joel 2:13
Milk - ' Genesis 18:8 ; Exodus 3:8,17 ; Exodus 23:19 ; Joel 3:18
Zich'ri - ) ... Father or ancestor of Joel , 14
je-i'el -
A Reubenite of the house of Joel
Moon - (Isaiah 13:10 ; Joel 2:31 ; Matthew 24:29 ; Mark 13:24 )
Darkness - " What still more marked its judicial character was (compare Isaiah 13:9-10; Joel 2:31; Joel 3:15; Matthew 24:29) "the children of Israel had light in their dwellings
Day of the Lord - ), however, reverted to the same national thought of a ‘day of battle,’ in which Jehovah would conquer all Israel’s foes; and to some extent this same national idea is represented by Joel ( Joel 2:18-27 )
Dreams - The Prophet Joel promises from God, that in the reign of the Messiah, the effusion of the Holy Spirit should be so copious, that the old men should have prophetic dreams, and the young men should receive visions, Joel 2:28
jo'el - ) ... In (1 Chronicles 6:36 ) Authorized Version, Joel seems to be merely a corruption of Shaul in ver. The book of Joel contains a grand outline of the whole terrible scene, which was to be depicted more and more in detail by subsequent prophets
Hook - ... ... Mazmeroth, pruning-hooks (Isaiah 2:4 ; Joel 3:10 )
Milk - Milk is used figuratively as a sign of abundance (Genesis 49:12 ; Ezekiel 25:4 ; Joel 3:18 )
Apple Tree - A tree known in the Old Testament for its fruit, shade, beauty, and fragrance (Joel 1:12 ; Proverbs 25:11 ; Song of Song of Solomon 2:3 ,Song of Song of Solomon 2:5 ; Song of Song of Solomon 7:8 ; Song of Song of Solomon 8:5 )
Floor - ] except in three passages ( Genesis 50:11 , Isaiah 21:10 , Joel 2:24 )
Apple - It is enumerated among the most valuable trees of Palestine (Joel 1:12 ), and frequently referred to in Canticles, and noted for its beauty (2:3,5; 8:5)
Lot (2) - Early used to decide an issue; so in choosing each of the two goats on the day of atonement (two inscribed tablets of boxwood were the lots used according to Joma 3:9 (?)), Leviticus 16:8, and in assigning the inheritances in Canaan (Numbers 26:55; Numbers 34:13), in selecting men for an expedition (Judges 1:1; Judges 20:10), in electing a king (1 Samuel 10:20), in detecting the guilty (1 Samuel 14:41-42), in selecting an apostle (Acts 1:26), as formerly priests' offices among the 16 of Eleazar's family and the eight of Ithamar (1 Chronicles 24:3; 1 Chronicles 24:5; 1 Chronicles 24:19; Luke 1:9), in apportioning spoil (Obadiah 1:11; Joel 3:3), in dividing Jesus' garments (Matthew 27:35; Psalms 22:18)
Sheba - They even engaged in slave trade (Joel 3:8) and, like other Arab nomads, they raided farms and villages (Job 1:15)
Sorrow - To remove sorrow, the prophets urged repentance that led to obedience (Joel 2:12-13 ; Hosea 6:6 )
Sea - THE SALT SEA,Numbers 34:3,12 ; also called 'the east sea,' Ezekiel 47 :18; Joel 2:20 ; 'the former sea,' Zechariah 14:8 ; 'the sea of the plain,' Deuteronomy 3:17 ; Joshua 3:16 ; Joshua 12:3 ; 2 Kings 14:25
Mourning - " Joel 2:13
Apple - Apple tree is named in the English Versions in Song of Solomon 2:3; Song of Solomon 8:5, and Joel 1:12, The fruit of this tree is alluded to in Proverbs 25:11 and Song of Solomon 2:5; Song of Solomon 7:8
Darkness - Darkness is frequently associated with supernatural events involving the judgment of God, such as the plagues of Egypt (Exodus 10:21 ), the coming of the Lord (Isaiah 13:9-10 ; Joel 2:31 ; Matthew 24:29 ), and Christ's crucifixion (Matthew 27:45 ). The day of God's judgment is often described as a day of darkness (Joel 2:2 ; Amos 5:18-20 )
Arms - Job 33:18 ; Job 36:12 ; Joel 2:8 . Joel 3:10
Elder - Sus 5), and after the Return they continue active ( Ezra 10:8 ; Ezra 10:14 , Psalms 107:32 , Proverbs 31:23 , Joel 1:14 ; Joel 2:16 )
Bible, Books of the - According to the Council of Trent, there are three groups in the Old Testament, embracing 46 books: ...
21 historical books:

Genesis

Exodus

Leviticus

Numbers

Deuteronomy

Josue

Judges

Ruth

1,2Kings (1,2Samuel)

3,4Kings (1,2Kings)

1,2Paralipomenon (1,2Chronicles)

Esdras

Nehemiah

Tobias

Judith

Esther

1,2Machabees

7 didactical books:

Job

Psalms

Proverbs

Ecclesiastes

Canticle of Canticles (Song of Solomon)

Wisdom and

Ecclesiasticus (Sirach)

18 prophetical books:

Isaias

Jeremias (with Lamentations)

the major prophets

Baruch

Ezechiel

Daniel

the minor prophets

Osee

Joel

Amos

Abdias or Obadiah

Jonas

Micah

Nahum

Habacuc

Sophonias or Zephaniah

Aggeus or Haggai

Zacharias

Malachias
The difference between the Jewish and Catholic counting is due to the fact that the Catholics accept also the so-called deuterocanonical books
Facets - The eschatological spring or stream is well known in visions of the Temple (Joel 3:18 ; Ezekiel 47:1 ; Zechariah 13:1 ; Zechariah 14:8 )
Azariah - He was contemporary with the prophets Isaiah, Amos, and Joel
Heman - A Korahite singer of the time of David, said to be the son of Joel the son of Samuel ( 1 Chronicles 6:33 ; cf
Minister - A person who ministers to others is one who serves others; a minister of God is a servant of God (Deuteronomy 10:8; Psalms 103:21; Joel 2:17; Matthew 8:15; Matthew 25:44; Matthew 27:55; 2 Corinthians 3:6; 2 Corinthians 6:4; 2 Corinthians 11:15; 2 Corinthians 11:23; for details see SERVANT)
Palm, Palm Tree, - Exodus 15:27 ; Numbers 33:9 ; Judges 4:5 ; Song of Solomon 7:7,8 ; Jeremiah 10:5 ; Joel 1:12
Alarm - The greatest fear should come, however, when God sounds the alarm for His day (Joel 2:1 )
Gentiles - ' Deuteronomy 18:9 ; Deuteronomy 32:43 ; Isaiah 60:3 ; Isaiah 62:2 ; Joel 2:19 ; Acts 11:1,18 ; Acts:13:19; Acts 28:28 ; etc
Plough - The ploughshare is sometimes defended by a strip of iron, Isaiah 2:4 Joel 3:10
Pomegranate - The value of the fruit and the beauty of the flower made the pomegranate welcome in gardens, Song of Song of Solomon 4:13 6:7,11 8:2 Joel 1:12
Locust - But the most particular description of this insect, and of its destructive career, in the sacred writings, is in Joel 2:3-10 . It should also be mentioned, that the four insects specified in Joel 1:4 , the palmer-worm, the locust, the canker-worm, and the caterpillar, are strictly, according to the Hebrew, only different forms of locusts, some perhaps without wings, as mentioned below. In the middle of April, their numbers were so vastly increased, that in the heat of the day they formed themselves into large and numerous swarms, flew in the air like a succession of clouds, and as the prophet Joel expresses it, they darkened the sun. These were no sooner hatched, in June, than each of the broods collected itself into a compact body of a furlong or more square, and marching afterwards in a direct line towards the sea, they let nothing escape them; eating up every thing that was green and juicy, not only the lesser kinds of vegetables, but the vine likewise, the fig-tree, the pomegranate, the palm, and the apple-tree, even all the trees of the field, Joel 1:12 ; in doing which, kept their ranks like men of war, climbing over, as they advanced, every tree or wall that was in their way; nay, they entered into our very houses and bedchambers like thieves. They seemed to be impelled by one common instinct, and moved in one body, which had the appearance of being organized by a leader, Joel 2:7
Shittim - Joel’s reference to the ‘Valley of Shittim’ ( Joel 3:18 ) must refer to some valley leading from Jerusalem to the Dead Sea (cf
Pain (And Forms) - (See Psalm 73:16; Isaiah 23:5; Jeremiah 4:19; Joel 2:6)
Harvest - Joel 3
Ancient of Days - ”... Several biblical passages are related in terms and ideas with Daniel 7:1 ( Genesis 24:1 ; Job 36:26 ; Psalm 50:1-6 ; Psalm 55:19 ; 1 Kings 22:19-20 ; Isaiah 26:1-27:1 ; Isaiah 44:6 ; Ezekiel 1:1 ; Joel 3:2 )
Table of Kings And Prophets in Israel And Judah - ... 698... Manasseh,... Joel
Pomegranate - , Joel 1:12 , Haggai 2:19 )
Apple Tree, Apple - Mention of the apple tree occurs in the Authorized Version in ( Song of Solomon 2:3 ; 8:5 ) and Joel 1:12 The fruit of this tree is alluded to in ( Proverbs 25:11 ) and Song of Solomon 2:5 ; 7:8 It is a difficult matter to say what is the specific tree denoted by the Hebrew word tappuach
Minister - (Ezra 8:17 ; Nehemiah 10:36 ; Isaiah 61:6 ; Ezekiel 44:11 ; Joel 1:9,13 ) One term in the New Testament betokens a subordinate public administrator, (Romans 13:6 ; 15:16 ; Hebrews 8:2 ) one who performs certain gratuitous public services
Plough - In allusion to the first operation, the Prophet Joel summons the nations to leave their peaceful employments in the cultivated field, and buckle on their armour: "Beat your ploughshares into swords, and your pruning hooks into spears," Joel 3:10
Call, Calling - ” For example, God called to Adam (Genesis 3:9 ); Moses called the elders together (Exodus 19:7 ); and Joel gave a command to call a solemn assembly (Joel 1:14 ). Calling on the name of the Lord is found in a quotation from Joel in both Acts 2:21 and Romans 10:13
Oil - "... The term yitshar [ 2 Chronicles 32:28 ; Jeremiah 31:12 ; Hosea 2:8,22 ; Joel 2:19,24 ) while the loss or lack of it was a sign of his judgment (Deuteronomy 28:51 ; Joel 1:10 ; Haggai 1:11 ). , Deuteronomy 8:8 ; 33:24 ; 2 Kings 20:13 ; Psalm 92:10 ; Proverbs 21:20 ; Isaiah 39:2 ; Joel 2:19,24 ). , Deuteronomy 28:40 ; Joel 1:10 )
Sickle - The same word is rendered ‘sickle’ in Joel 3:18 ‘put ye in the sickle, for the vintage is ripe’ (RVm [Note: Revised Version margin
Heman - " Heman the Kohathite probably, or his father, married an heiress of the house of Zerah (See ZERAH, 1), and so, though by birth son of Joel, he is legally called the Ezrahite or son of Zerah in the title of Psalm 88, as Ethan is named the author in the title of Psalm 89, and other psalms have Asaph in the title
Abide - Joel 2:11
Color, Symbolic Meaning of - The terms "darkness" and "night" parallel this usage (Job 3:3-7 ; Joel 2:2 ; Zephaniah 1:15 ). The images of red, blood-soaked garments of God as an avenging warrior (Isaiah 63:1-6 ) and the fiery red horse bringing slaughter through warfare (Zechariah 6:2 ; Revelation 6:4 ) describe divine retribution against evildoers (see also Joel 2:31 ; Revelation 6:12 )
Fountain - Joel predicted the salvation which was to come out of Zion, under the beautiful figure of "a fountain which should come forth out of the house of the Lord, and water the plain of Shittim," Joel 3:18
Nahum (2) - Nahum 2:18, "the faces gather blackness," corresponds to Isaiah 13:8; Joel 2:6; Joel is probably the original. Nahum 1:6 with Joel 2:7; Amos 2:14; Nahum 1:3 with Joel 2:13; the mourning dove, Nahum 2:7, with Isaiah 38:14; the first ripe figs, Nahum 3:12, with Isaiah 28:4; Nahum 3:13 with Isaiah 19:16; Nahum 3:4 with Isaiah 23:15; Nahum 2:4-5; Nahum 2:14 with Isaiah 22:7; Isaiah 36:9; Micah 1:13; Micah 5:10
Nathan - Brother of Joel, one of David's mighty men
Sabean - They were known as “travelling merchants” (Job 6:19 REB; compare Psalm 72:10 ,Psalms 72:10,72:15 ; Isaiah 60:6 ; Jeremiah 6:20 ; Ezekiel 27:22 ; Ezekiel 38:13 ; Joel 3:8 )
Javan, - In Isaiah 66:19 Javan is included among the distant countries that will hear of Jahweh’s glory; in Joel 3:6 the sons of the Javanites are referred to as trading in Jewish captives with the Phœnicians and Philistines; in Ezekiel 27:13 Javan, with Tubal and Meshech, is described as trading with Tyre in slaves and vessels of brass
Paradise - Compare the Holy Land turned from a garden of Eden into a wilderness, with Israel's wilderness made like Eden the garden of Jehovah (Numbers 24:6; Joel 2:3; Isaiah 51:3; Ezekiel 36:35; contrast Ezekiel 28:13)
Fountain - Genesis 7:11 ; Genesis 8:2 ; 2 Chronicles 32:4 ; Psalm 74:15 ; Psalm 114:8 ; Song of Solomon 4:12,15 ; Joel 3:18
Dreams - Joel 2:28 ; Acts 2:17
Moon - The moon is to be darkened or turned into blood ( Joel 2:10 ; Joel 2:31 ) before ‘the day of the Lord’; and similar language is used by our Lord ( e
Vengeance - He takes vengeance against the murderers of the helpless (Psalm 94:1-6 ) and enemies of his people (Joel 3:19-21 ). Divine vengeance in the Old Testament is not to be understood as God's desire for self-gratification in exacting punishment, but as an expression of displeasure over all unrighteousness to restore the original balance (Joel 3:19-21 )
zi'Don, - (Genesis 10:15,19 ; Joshua 11:8 ; 19:28 ; Judges 1:31 ; 18:28 ; Isaiah 23:2,4,12 ; Jeremiah 25:22 ; 27:3 ; Ezekiel 28:21,22 ; Joel 3:4 ) ( Joel 4:4 ); Zechariah 9:2 ; Matthew 11:21,22 ; 15:21 ; Mark 3:8 ; 1:24,31 ; Luke 6:17 ; 10:13,14 An ancient and wealthy city of Phoenicia, on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea, less than twenty English miles to the north of Tyre
Wine - ... The "new wine," or "must," is mentioned, Isaiah 49:26 ; Joel 1:5 ; Joel 3:18 ; and Amos 9:13 , under the name עסיס
Engedi - ... Joel F
Drunkenness - They vomited (Jeremiah 25:27 ) and were in a daze, unaware of events around them (Joel 1:5 )
Congregation - These assemblies were convened for the purpose of engaging in solemn religious services (Exodus 12:27 ; Numbers 25:6 ; Joel 2:15 ), or of receiving new commandments (Exodus 19:7,8 )
Moon - Joel 2:10,31 ; Luke 21:25 ; Revelation 6:12
Eden - Isaiah 51:3 ; Ezekiel 36:35 ; Joel 2:3
Fasting - Especially in times of public calamity, they appointed extraordinary fasts, and made even the children at the breast fast, Joel 2:16 Daniel 10:2-3
Eden - Isaiah 51:3 ; Ezekiel 36:35 ; Joel 2:3
Valley - ... ... 'Emek, "deep;" "a long, low plain" (Job 39:10,21 ; Psalm 65:13 ; Song of Solomon 2:1 ), such as the plain of Esdraelon; the "valley of giants" (Joshua 15:8 ), usually translated "valley of Rephaim" (2 Samuel 5:18 ); of Elah (1 Samuel 17:2 ), of Berachah (2 Chronicles 20:26 ); the king's "dale" (Genesis 14:17 ); of Jehoshaphat (Joel 3:2,12 ), of Achor (Joshua 7:24 ; Isaiah 65:10 ), Succoth (Psalm 60:6 ), Ajalon (Joshua 10:12 ), Jezreel (Hosea 1:5 )
Virgin - In Joel 1:8 it is used of a young widow
Sound - , Joel 3:14
Kidron - The greatest desire of the Jews is to be buried there, from the idea that the Kidron is the "valley of Jehoshaphat" mentioned in Joel 3:2
Praise - They offer this praise both individually and collectively (Ezra 3:10-11; Psalms 34:1-3; Psalms 35:18; Psalms 117; Psalms 135:1-2; Psalms 150:6; Joel 2:26; Acts 16:25; Hebrews 13:15; 1 Peter 2:9)
Fasting - Fasting can be a time of seeking a deeper prayer experience and drawing near to God in prevailing prayer (Ezra 8:23 ; Joel 2:12 )
Darkness - The "day of darkness" in Joel 2:2 , caused by clouds of locusts, is a symbol of the obscurity which overhangs all divine proceedings
Fortified Cities - ... Joel F
Eden - ... Joel 2:3 compares Judah's condition before its destruction with Eden
Ekron - ... Joel F
Taanach - ... Joel F
Fountain - The blessedness of the endtime includes pictures of fountains flowing from the Temple (Ezekiel 47:1-12 ; Joel 3:18 ), Jerusalem (Zechariah 14:8 ), or the throne of God (Revelation 22:1-2 ) with amazing life-giving powers
Nathan - The text of 1 Chronicles 11:38 reads, ‘Joel brother of Nathan
Repentance of God - The repentance of God became Israel's creed alongside other attributes of God like “gracious,” “merciful,” “slow to anger,” and “great in covenant-love” (Joel 2:13 ; Jonah 4:2 )
Dream - ... The dream form of revelation is placed below that of prophecy and even divination (Numbers 12:6; Joel 2:28; 1 Samuel 28:6)
Vision - In 2 Samuel 7:17 ; Isaiah 22:1 ,Isaiah 22:1,22:5 ; Joel 3:1 ; and Zechariah 13:4 , the Hebrew word refers to the prophetic function of receiving and delivering the word of God by the prophet
Lion - , and it is compared to the voice of God ( Jeremiah 25:30 , Joel 3:16 , Amos 3:8 )
Yale, Valley - emeq, 'valley or plain,' more resembles an English 'valley': it is applied to Achor, Ajalon, Baca, Berachah, Beth-aram, 'of decision' ( Joel 3:14 ); Elah; 'of the giants' (Joshua 15:8 ; Joshua 18:16 ); Gibeon, Hebron, Jehoshaphat, Jezreel, Keziz, 'of the King,' or 'the King's Dale' (Genesis 14:17 ; 2 Samuel 18:18 ); Rephaim, Shaveh, Siddim, and Succoth
Cloud - ... Joel 2:2 (b) This is typical of the shades and shadows of sorrow which often come quickly into human life and hide the sunshine
Jealousy, - Psalm 79:5 ; Ezekiel 39:25 ; Joel 2:18 ; Zechariah 1:14 ; Zechariah 8:2
Locusts - Joel 2:3
Day of the Lord - " Joel 2:2,11,31 ; Malachi 4:1
Thrust - Joel 2
Wake - Joel 3
mi'Cah - ... A descendant of Joel the Reubenite
Awake - , Genesis 9:24 ; metaphorically, in Joel 1:5 ; Habakkuk 2:7 ; lit
Azari'ah - ) Azariah was contemporary with Isaiah the prophet and with Amos and Joel. (2 Chronicles 28:12 ) ... A Kohathite, father of Joel, in the reign of Hezekiah
How the Prophetic Gift Was Received - --Of the sixteen prophets, four are usually called the great prophets, namely, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel and Daniel, and twelve the Minor prophets, namely, Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakuk,Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah and Malachi. They may be divided into four groups: the prophets of the northern kingdom --Hosea, Amos, Joel, Jonah; the prophets of the southern kingdom --Isaiah, Jeremiah, Obadiah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah; the prophets of the captivity --Ezekiel and Daniel; the prophets of the return --Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi. They may be arranged in the following chronological order, namely, Joel, Jonah, Hoses, Amos, Isaiah, Micah, Nahum, Zephaniah, Habakkuk, Obadiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi
Blood - ... Blood is a symbol and indicator of apocalyptic judgment In Acts 2:17-21 , the apostle Peter quotes Joel 2:28-32 . Although Peter also quoted Joel 2:30-31 ( Acts 2:19-20 ), he did not develop the apocalyptic theme of judgment when the age to come breaks forth into this age. The text of Joel that Peter quoted in Acts speaks of “wonders in heaven above, and signs in the earth beneath—blood, and fire, and vapour of smoke” (Acts 2:19 ; compare Joel 2:30 ). In the next verse (Joel 2:31 ; Acts 2:20 ), the sun is pictured turning into darkness and the moon into blood before the great day of the Lord comes
Zidon - It is frequently referred to by the prophets (Isaiah 23:2,4,12 ; Jeremiah 25:22 ; 27:3 ; 47:4 ; Ezekiel 27:8 ; 28:21,22 ; 32:30 ; Joel 3:4 )
Harvest - The “time of harvest” sometimes represented the day of destruction (Jeremiah 51:33 ; Joel 3:13 )
Apple - It is true that the tree in size and foliage would answer to the reference in Song of Solomon 8:5 , Joel 1:12 ; the fruit too in its sweetness ( Song of Solomon 2:3 ) and its smell ( Song of Solomon 7:8 ) is very appropriate
Hope - Joel 3
Fasts - (Joel 2:1-15 ) (See (1 Samuel 7:6 ; 2 Chronicles 20:3 ; Jeremiah 36:6-10 ) ) Three days after the feast of tabernacles, when the second temple was completed, "the children of Israel assembled with fasting, and with sackclothes and earth upon them," to hear the law read and to confess their sins
Sanctify - In the similar sense, men, "sanctified themselves" who made special preparation for the presence and worship of God, Exodus 19:10,11 Numbers 11:18 ; a day was sanctified when set apart for fasting and prayer, Joel 1:14 ; and the Sabbath was sanctified when regarded and treated as holy unto the Lord, Deuteronomy 5:12
Fasting - It may have been to express sorrow (1 Samuel 31:13; 1 Kings 21:27; Nehemiah 1:4), repentance (1 Samuel 7:6; Joel 2:12; Daniel 9:3-4) or sincerity in prayer (2 Chronicles 20:3-4; Ezra 8:23)
Amos, Book of - In the heading we have the words, "The Lord will roar from Zion, and utter his voice from Jerusalem;" which are also in Joel 3:16 ; thus, as it were, taking up the theme where Joel leaves off
Insects - The destructive nature of this locust is highlighted again in Deuteronomy 28:38 ; 1 Kings 8:37 ; 2 Chronicles 6:28 ; Psalm 78:46 ; Psalm 105:34 ; Joel 1:4 ; Joel 2:25 . ... The gazam is known as the palmerworm, certainly the caterpillar stage of one of the locust species ( Joel 1:4 ; Joel 2:25 ; Amos 4:9 ). Its voracious appetite is the subject of its biblical occurrences ( 1 Kings 8:37 ; 2 Chronicles 6:28 ; Psalm 78:46 ; Isaiah 33:4 ; Joel 1:4 ; Joel 2:25 ). ... The yeleq is called the cankerworm in Joel 1:4 ; Joel 2:25 ; Nahum 3:15 ,Nahum 3:15,3:16
Desert, Wilderness - Joel, for instance, speaks of the fire having devoured the pastures of the wilderness (Joel 1:20), and of the locusts leaving a desolate wilderness behind them (Joel 2:3)
Horse - In prophecy horses also play an important role as in Joel 2:4-5 and Revelation 6:1-8 where four horses of different colors are associated with different tragedies
Shemai'ah - (1 Chronicles 4:27 ) ... Son of Joel, Reubenite
Weather - The rain came in the cooler season, beginning with early rains about October and concluding with later rains about March (Deuteronomy 11:14; Jeremiah 3:3; Jeremiah 5:24; Joel 2:23; see FARMING)
Kadesh-Barnea - ... Joel F
Census - ... Joel Parkman... ...
Winepress - ... The harvesting and treading of the grapes was a time of joy and celebration (Isaiah 16:10 ; Jeremiah 48:33 ; Deuteronomy 16:13-15 ); and the image of the abundance of wine is used in the Bible to speak of God's salvation and blessing (Proverbs 3:10 ; Joel 3:18 ; Amos 9:13 )
Pillar - ... Joel 2:30 (b) The chronology of this passage is uncertain
Sickle - Joel 3:13, Jeremiah 51:33
Smoke - The prophet Joes’s omens of blood and fire and vapour of smoke (Acts 2:19 || Joel 2:30) may refer either to carnage and destruction in war or to lurid appearances in Nature
Aging - ... Old Testament References to aging persons in the Old Testament stress the physiological changes of aging (1 Kings 14:4 ; 2 Samuel 19:35 ; Ecclesiastes 12:1-5 ; Zechariah 8:4 ), the wisdom of the aging (Deuteronomy 32:7 ; Job 12:12 ), the honor due the aging (Exodus 20:12 ; Leviticus 19:32 ), and the continuing service of the aging (Genesis 12-50 , the patriarchs; Joshua 13:1 ; Joshua 14:10 ; Psalm 92:14 ; Joel 2:28 )
Flow - Joel 3
Vision - ” This noun, which occurs 9 times, refers to a prophetic “vision” in Joel 2:28: “And it shall come to pass afterward, that I will pour out my spirit upon all flesh; and your sons and your daughters shall prophesy, your old men shall dream dreams, your young men shall see visions
Sabeans - Probably it is of these Ezekiel speaks, Ezekiel 27:22 , who came with their merchandise to the fairs of Tyre: and Joel 3:8 : "I will deliver up your children to the tribe of Judah, who shall sell them to the Sabeans, a very distant nation
Sabeans - ... The queen of Sheba, who visited Solomon, 1 Kings 10:1-29 2 Chronicles 9:1-31 Matthew 12:42 , and made him presents of gold, ivory, and costly spices, was probably the mistress of this region; indeed, the Sabeans were celebrated, on account of their important commerce in these very products, among the Greeks also, Job 6:19 Isaiah 60:6 Jeremiah 6:20 Ezekiel 27:22 38:13 Psalm 72:10,15 Joel 3:8
Joash or Jehoash - The prophet Joel was contemporary with him
Trump Trumpet - , and he sees possible allusions to Joshua 6:13 and to Joel 2:1 (cf. Driver, Joel and Amos, Cambridge, 1897, p
Mourning - the mourning for Israel [Joel 1:8; Joel 1:13])
Water - But if they were disobedient, he would send them droughts and famine (Deuteronomy 28:12-24; Joel 2:23; Amos 4:7-8)
Desert - The transition from "pasture land" to "desert" appears Psalms 65:12, "the pastures of the wilderness" (Joel 2:22
Shemaiah - Son of Joel, a Reubenite
Eli Eli Lama Sabachthani - " (Joel 3:16) And hence we find that prophecy fulfilled
Famine - (2 Kings 8:1) And who will put down to natural causes what the Lord accomplished lay instruments, in themselves so feeble, when in the days of Joel the Lord's great army ate up the whole produce of the land? (Joel 1:1-20; Joe 2:1-32, etc
Wine - Together with corn and oil it denoted all temporal supplies, Psalm 4:7 Hosea 2:8 Joel 2:19 . ... The use of it is in some cases expressly forbidden, Leviticus 10:9 Numbers 6:3 ; and in other cases is alluded to as characteristic of the wicked, Joel 3:3 Amos 6:6
Wilderness - midhbar, denoting not a barren desert but a district or region suitable for pasturing sheep and cattle (Psalm 65:12 ; Isaiah 42:11 ; Jeremiah 23:10 ; Joel 1:19 ; 2:22 ); an uncultivated place
ox, Oxen, Herd, Cattle - ’çdher herd; in Joel 1:18 conjoined with bâqâr = herds of oxen; and in same versa with tsôn = herds (EV [Note: English Version
Trumpets, Feast of - ... This feast of trumpets prepared for the day of atonement on the tenth day; compare Joel 2:15, "blow the trumpet
Kohathites - Mahath and Joel of the Kohathites helped in the purification of Israel's worship during the time of Hezekiah (2 Chronicles 29:12 )
Mountain - ” Jerusalem (elevation 2,670 feet) often was called Mount Zion, the hill of the Lord (Psalm 2:6 ; Psalm 135:21 : Isaiah 8:18 ; Joel 3:21 ; Micah 4:2 )
Dead Sea - ), the ‘sea of the Arabah’ ( Deuteronomy 3:17 ; Deuteronomy 4:49 ), the ‘east or eastern sea’ ( Ezekiel 47:18 , Joel 2:20 )
Azariah - Father of Joel, a Kohathite
Zidon, Sidon - Joel 3:4-8
Almighty - See also Psalm 68:14 ; Psalm 91:1 ; Isaiah 13:6 ; Ezekiel 1:24 ; Ezekiel 10:5 ; Joel 1:15
Sun - 10:12-13) or darken as an indication of His judgment upon His enemies and salvation for His people (Joel 2:31-32)
Ancestors - They will know the God of their fathers (Deuteronomy 6:3-7; Deuteronomy 27:3; Psalms 78:2-4; Joel 1:2-3; Luke 1:55; Acts 3:13)
Grecians - Joel (Joel 3:6) mentions the Grecians as the purchasers to whom the Tyrian slave merchants sold the children of Judah (800 B
Tools - It is probably incorrectly translated as “plowshares” in the famous prophetic passages about the tools of war and peace (Isaiah 2:4 ; Micah 4:3 ; Joel 3:10 ). The sickle is used as a symbol of God's judgment (Joel 3:13 ) and the ingathering of the saints (Mark 4:29 ; Revelation 14:14-19 ). A tool which resembled the sickle, but with a broader and shorter blade, was the “pruning hook” (Isaiah 2:4 ; Micah 4:3 ; Joel 3:10 )
Feasts And Festivals of Israel - Why was the Spirit given to the church on an agricultural thanksgiving holiday? The solution is to be found in Joel 2:28-32 ( Hebrews 3:1-5 ), the text that Peter proclaimed to have been fulfilled by the events witnessed by the Jerusalem crowd that dramatic Sunday (Acts 2:16-21 ). ... The catalyst for the Book of Joel was a terrible locust plague that left Israel destitute. Every type of crop, including grapes, olives, wheat, barley, figs, pomegranates, and apples had been ravaged (Joel 1:7-12 ). Even so, Joel held out the prospect of healing if the people would come together in a sacred assembly and repent (2:12-17), and promised an agricultural restoration (2:21-27). ... Then, having promised an agricultural healing, Joel abruptly proclaims that the Spirit will be poured out on all people regardless of gender, age, or social status (2:28-32). Joel links the concept of agricultural and economic abundance to spiritual restoration. ... While the "sacred assembly" to which Joel called the people (2:15-16) may have been simply an ad hoc ceremony of mourning, it is in some ways reminiscent (albeit ironically) of the day of Pentecost. Just as Leviticus 23:21 commanded that all Israel should gather together and there should be no regular business conducted on Pentecost, Joel demanded that all the people, even the bride and bridegroom, assemble before Yahweh for the sacred assembly. It is appropriate, therefore, that the giving of the Spirit in fulfillment of Joel 2:28-32 should have come about on the harvest celebration day of Pentecost
Salvation Save Saviour - The link between the two meanings may be seen in the quotation from Joel 3:5 (Heb. ; Joel 2:32 Eng. In Acts 2:21-36 ‘the Lord’ of whom Joel (Joel 3:5 Heb. ; Joel 2:32 Eng
Vision - Joel 2:28 )
Infant Baptism - Those favoring infant baptism raise the following arguments: (1) household baptisms likely included some infants (Acts 16:5 ,Acts 16:5,16:33 ; Acts 18:8 ; 1 Corinthians 1:16 ); (2) Jesus' welcome and blessing of children is a mandate to baptize infants (Mark 10:13-16 ); “hinder” is a technical term associated with baptism (Acts 8:36 ); (3) circumcision which prefigured baptism (Colossians 2:11 ) included children (Genesis 17:12 ); (4) in the Old Testament children participated in ceremonies of covenant renewal (Deuteronomy 29:10-13 ; Joshua 8:35 ; Joel 2:16 )
Dead Sea - The name given by Greek writers of the second century to that inland sea called in Scripture the "salt sea" (Genesis 14:3 ; Numbers 34:12 ), the "sea of the plain" (Deuteronomy 3:17 ), the "east sea" (Ezekiel 47:18 ; Joel 2:20 ), and simply "the sea" (Ezekiel 47:8 )
Rending of Garments - to the skin, but in supposed obedience to Joel 2:13 it was to be ‘no farther than the navel
Wheat - On the other hand, σῖτος is used also to render בָּר (Jeremiah 23:28, Joel 2:24), רָּגָן (Numbers 18:12, Jeremiah 31:12), עבוּר (Joshua 5:11), and שֶׁבֶר (Genesis 42:2-3)
Nathan - He may be the same as Nathan the brother of Joel (1 Chronicles 11:38 ), within another list of David's mighty men
Boy - —In the Authorized Version this word does not occur in the Gospels, nor indeed in NT, and only three times in OT (Genesis 25:27, Joel 3:3, Zechariah 8:5)
Salt Sea - ), in Deuteronomy 4:49 ; 2 Kings 14:25 ; 'the East Sea' in Ezekiel 47:18 ; Joel 2:20 ; and simply, 'the Sea' in Ezekiel 47:8
Remainder; Remnant - A good illustration is found in Joel’s teaching on the locusts: “That which the palmerworm hath left hath the locust eaten; and that which the locust hath left hath the cankerworm eaten; and that which the cankerworm hath left hath the caterpillar eaten” (Joel 1:4)
Zidon - Isaiah 23:2; Isaiah 23:4; Isaiah 23:12; Jeremiah 25:22; Jeremiah 27:3; Jeremiah 47:4; Ezekiel 27:8; Ezekiel 28:21-22; Ezekiel 32:30; Joel 3:4; Zechariah 9:2
Wheat - On the other hand, σῖτος is used also to render בָּר (Jeremiah 23:28, Joel 2:24), רָּגָן (Numbers 18:12, Jeremiah 31:12), עבוּר (Joshua 5:11), and שֶׁבֶר (Genesis 42:2-3)
Fig (Tree) - ... Joel 1:7 (b) The Lord uses this type to describe the action of the enemy in their damage to Israel so that she could not, and would not, bring forth fruit unto GOD. However, in Joel 2:22 GOD promises a restoration
Fasting - ... National fasts are alluded to in 1 Samuel 7:6 (wherein the drawing of water and pouring it out before Jehovah expressed their confession of powerlessness and utter prostration: Psalms 22:14; Psalms 58:7; 2 Samuel 14:14); 2 Chronicles 20:3; Jeremiah 36:6-10; Nehemiah 9:1; Joel 1:14; Joel 2:15
Edom - ... There are many prophecies concerning Edom (Isaiah 34:5,6 ; Jeremiah 49:7-18 ; Ezekiel 25:13 ; 35:1-15 ; Joel 3:19 ; Amos 1:11 ; Obad
Oil - As a result oil, like wine, became a symbol of rejoicing (Psalms 45:7; Psalms 104:15; Isaiah 61:3; Joel 1:10)
Samuel, Books of, - In prose it holds the same place which Joel and the undisputed prophecies of Isaiah hold in poetical or prophetical language
Kindness - Slow to anger and abounding in love became a characteristic description of Israel's Lord, distinguishing His kindness from His wrath (Exodus 34:6 ; Numbers 14:18 ; Nehemiah 9:17 ; Psalm 103:8 ; Psalm 145:8 ; Jonah 4:2 ; Joel 2:13 )
Fountain - ... Joel 3:18 (a) By this we see the abundant blessings that GOD will pour out on His people in a coming day
Sheba (2) - SHEBA was a wealthy region of Arabia Felix or Yemen (1 Kings 10:1; Psalms 72:10; Psalms 72:15, where "Sheba" is Joktanite, "SEBA" Cushite ; Job 1:15, the Keturahite Sheba, Job 6:19; Isaiah 60:6; Jeremiah 6:20; Ezekiel 27:22, it was the Sheba son of Raamah and grandson of Cush that carried on the Indian traffic with Palestine in conjunction with the Keturahite Sheba (Joel 3:8)
Salt (2) - "of the Arabah," Deuteronomy 4:49; 2 Kings 14:25; the "salt sea," Deuteronomy 3:17; Joshua 3:16; Joshua 12:3; the "east sea," Joel 2:20; Ezekiel 47:18; Zechariah 14:8; and "the sea," Ezekiel 47:8
Marriage - The last act in the ceremonial was the conducting of the bride to the bridal chamber, Judges 15:1; Joel 2:16, where a canopy was prepared. Psalms 19:5; Joel 2:16
Wine - burst out with tirowsh "; and Joel 2:24, "fats shall overflow with tirowsh (vintage fruit) and yitshar . 'asis , from a root to "tread," the grape juice newly expressed (Song of Solomon 8:2); "sweet wine" (Isaiah 49:26; Amos 9:13); "new wine" (Joel 1:5; Joel 3:18)
Desert - midbar, "pasture-ground;" an open tract for pasturage; a common (Joel 2:22 )
Prophecy - ... Jonah... 856-784... Amos... 810-785... Hosea... 810-725... Isaiah... 810-698... Joel... 810-660... Micah... 758-699... Nahum... 720-698... Zephaniah... 640-609... Jeremiah... 628-586... Habakkuk... 612-598... Daniel... 606-534... Obadiah... 588-583... Ezekiel... 595-536... Haggai... 520-518... Zechariah... 520-518... Malachi... 436-420...
Tent - ... In early times a special tent was pitched for a newly wedded pair (Psalms 19:6 , Joel 2:15 ; cf
Famine - (Exodus 9:31 , 1 Samuel 12:17 ); locusts and similar pests ( Exodus 10:15 , Joel 1:4 , Amos 4:9 )
Zephaniah - His position among the prophets, and his quotations from Joel, Amos, and Isaiah, indicate the correctness of the date assigned to him in Zephaniah 1:1
Gentiles - Joel depicted the judgment of the nations who had abused Israel in the valley of Jehoshaphat (Joel 3:12-16 )
Fast, Fasting - ... Joel speaks twice of setting apart a fast and calling a sacred assembly (1:14; 2:15). ... As an expression of lamentation and/or penitence, fasting nearly always is associated with weeping (Judges 20:26 ; Esther 4:3 ; Psalm 69:10 ; Joel 2:12 ), confession (1 Samuel 7:6 ; Daniel 9:3 ), and the wearing of sackcloth (1 Kings 21:27 ; Nehemiah 9:1 ; Esther 4:3 ; Psalm 69:10 ; Daniel 9:3 )
Long-Suffering - phrase ’erek ’aph (אָדָךְ אַף) is found frequently in the books that follow, and Joel (Joel 2:13), Jonah (Jonah 4:2), and Nahum (Nahum 1:3) specially dwell upon this element in God’s character
Oil - The abundance of oil was a demonstration of blessing and prosperity (Job 29:6 ); Joel 2:24 )
Darkness - The time of God's ultimate judgment, the day of the Lord, is portrayed in both the Old Testament and New Testament as a day of darkness (Joel 2:2 ; Amos 5:18,20 ; Zephaniah 1:15 ; Matthew 24:29 ; Revelation 6:12-17 )
Sun - (Genesis 3:8 ) The sun also served to fix the quarters of the hemisphere, east, west north and south, which were represented respectively by the rising sun, the setting sun, (Isaiah 45:6 ; Psalm 50:1 ) the dark quarter, (Genesis 13:14 ; Joel 2:20 ) and the brilliant quarter, (33:23; Job 37:17 ; Ezekiel 40:24 ) or otherwise by their position relative to a person facing the rising sun--before, behind, on the left hand and on the right hand
Famine And Drought - Other natural forces also caused famines: locusts, wind, hail, and mildew (Joel 1:4 ; Amos 4:9 ; Haggai 2:17 )
Garden - Following their sin, Adam and Eve were banished from the garden; but “Eden the garden of God” (Ezekiel 28:13 ) continued as a symbol of blessing and bounty (Ezekiel 36:35 ; Joel 2:3 )
Eden - The traditions of almost all nations have preserved the truth, in some form, that there was an original abode of man's innocence; the Greek and Latin garden of the Hesperides; the Hindu golden Mount Meru; the Chinese enchanted gardens; the Medo-Persian Ormuzd's mountain Albordj (compare Ezekiel 28:13; Joel 2:3)
White - ... Joel 1:7 (b) The prophet is expressing his great sorrow because his people have been spoiled and robbed by the invading enemy
Between - In still other instances, this idea is represented by placing bêyn before the first object plus the phrase meaning “with reference to” before the second (Joel 2:17), or by bêyn before the first object and the phrase “with reference to the interval of” before the second (Isa
Brook - ’ As early as Eusebius and Jerome it was known as the Valley of Jehoshaphat, Joel 3:2 [Hebrews 4:2]
Sun - "Let them be for signs," as eclipses, portents of extraordinary events (Matthew 2:2; Luke 21:25) and divine judgments (Joel 2:30; Jeremiah 10:2; Matthew 24:29), and indicating the four quarters of the heavens (Psalms 50:1) and also the changes in the weather; "and for seasons, days, and years
Mount Zion - (Joel 2:32; Obadiah 1:1:21; Zechariah 8:3
Armor - Job 33:18; Job 36:12; Joel 2:8
Arms - Job 33:18; Job 36:12; Joel 2:8
Winds - Such a tempest may have suggested some features in the prophetic descriptions of the day of God's power: "wonders in the heavens and in the earth, blood and fire and pillars of smoke: the sun shall be turned into darkness, and the moon into blood," Joel 2:30,31 Acts 2:19,20
Zion or Sion - " ... "Zion," and "the daughter of Zion," are sometimes used to denote the whole city, including especially Moriah and the temple, Psalm 2:6 9:11 74:2 Isaiah 1:8 Joel 2:23 , and sometimes figuratively for the seat of the true church on earth and in heaven, Jeremiah 8:19 Hebrews 12:22 Revelation 14:1
Jeroboam - The prophets (Hosea 1:1 ), (Joel 3:16 ; Amos 1:1,2 ), (Amos 1:1 ), and Jonah (2 Kings 14:25 ) lived during his reign
Arms, Armor - " see ( 2 Chronicles 23:10 ; 32:5 ) ("darts"); (Nehemiah 4:17,23 ) (see margin); (Job 33:18 ; 36:12 ; Joel 2:8 ) e
Earth, Land - ... Theological Questions Regarding Erets To whom did the land of Canaan belong? Who was to own and use the land?... According to Joel 2:18-19 , the land of Canaan belonged to Yahweh. ” He would judge the nations because they had “parted my land” (Joel 3:2 )
Abstain, Abstinence - The primary Hebrew terms are yayin [ Proverbs 23:31 ; Hosea 4:11 ; Isaiah 49:26 ) and all three refer to the expected positive use of fermented wine (yayin [ Leviticus 23:13 ; Numbers 6:20 ; 28:14 ; Deuteronomy 14:26 ; Psalm 104:15 ; Isaiah 55:1 ; Itiros [ Deuteronomy 14:23 ; asim = Joel 3:18 ). The messianic era is depicted as a time of great blessing via this imagery (Joel 3:18 ; Amos 9:13 ; Zechariah 9:17 )
Prophets - Compare Numbers 24:2-16 Joel 2:28 Acts 10:11,12 Revelation 1:10-20 . Joel, under Uzziah king of Judah, nearly 800 B
Compassion - Beyond this the Bible points to God's plans to again have compassion for His people (Joel 2:18 ; compare Malachi 3:17 ; Genesis 19:16 ; 2 Chronicles 36:15 ; Isaiah 63:9 ). God's people should pray for Him to “spare” them (Joel 2:17 )
Jerusalem - In the rainy season a swiftly flowing stream ran from the hills north of Jerusalem through this valley, ending in the Dead Sea (2 Samuel 15:23; 1 Kings 2:37; 1 Kings 15:13; 2 Chronicles 30:14; Joel 3:2; Joel 3:12; John 18:1)
Farming - ... The rains that marked the arrival of the rainy season were known as the early, or autumn, rains (Deuteronomy 11:14; Jeremiah 5:24; Joel 2:23) and were necessary for the sowing of the fields that followed (Genesis 26:12; Matthew 13:3). These were necessary to bring the cereal crops to full growth before the dry season arrived (Deuteronomy 11:14; Proverbs 16:15; Jeremiah 3:3; Jeremiah 5:24; Joel 2:23; Zechariah 10:1)
Palestine - Joel 3:4; comp
Nathan - Father of Igal, one of David's heroes, of Zobah, 2 Samuel 23:36, but in 1 Chronicles 11:38 "Joel, brother of Nathan" Kennicott prefers "brother
Red Sea (Reed Sea) - ” Suph often means “reeds” ( Exodus 2:3 ,Exodus 2:3,2:5 ; Isaiah 19:6 ) or “end,” “hinder part” (Joel 2:20 ; 2 Chronicles 20:16 ; Ecclesiastes 3:11 )
Word - )... Prophets, for example, were God’s spokesmen, and their announcements were the authoritative Word of God for his people (Isaiah 1:2-4; Isaiah 1:18; Jeremiah 23:22; Ezekiel 1:3; Hosea 4:1; Joel 1:1; Amos 1:3; Hebrews 1:1-2; see PROPHECY)
Beer-Sheba - Samuel's sons Joel and Abiah were unfair judges in Beer-sheba right before the monarchy began with Saul (1 Samuel 8:1-3 )
Sidon - ... Joel reproves Sidon and Tyre for selling children of Judah and Jerusalem to the Grecians, and threatens them with a like fate, Judah selling their sons and daughters to the Sabeans
Greece - It is not often mentioned in the Old Testament, Daniel 8:21 10:20 11:2 Joel 3:6 Zechariah 9:13
Eden, Garden of - ... Eden, or the garden of Eden, became the symbol of a very fertile land (Genesis 13:10 , Isaiah 51:3 , Ezekiel 31:9 ; Ezekiel 31:16 ; Ezekiel 31:18 , Joel 2:3 )
Slave - Vast numbers of Hebrews were reduced to slavery as war-captives at different periods by the Phoenicians, (Joel 3:6 ) the Philistines, (Joel 3:6 ; Amos 1:6 ), the Syrians, 1 Maccabees 3:42 ; 2 Maccabees 8:11 , the Egyptians, Joseph Ant
Cloud, Cloud of the Lord - ... In a negative sense, clouds are used to symbolize prideful self-exaltation (of the wicked, Job 20:6 ; of Satan, Isaiah 14:14 ); misery or gloom (at the day of Job's birth, Job 3:5 ; at the day of the Lord, Isaiah 60:2 ; Jeremiah 13:16 ; Ezekiel 30:3 ; 34:12 ; Joel 2:2 ; Zephaniah 1:15 ); pervasiveness (of enemy invasion, Ezekiel 38:9,16 ); transitoriness (of Job's prosperity and life, Job 7:9 ; 30:15 ; of Israel's love and life, Hosea 6:4 ; 13:3 ); futile, idle activity (Ecclesiastes 11:4 ); dimness (of eyesight in old age, Ecclesiastes 12:2 ; of a nation's splendor following divine judgment, Lamentations 2:1 ; Ezekiel 30:18 ); swiftness (of divine judgment, Jeremiah 4:13 ); and covering or concealing (of divine mercy in judgment, Lamentations 3:44 ). The eschatological day of the Lord is several times described as a day of cloud-mass and dark storm cloud for the nation(s) being judged (Ezekiel 34:12 ; Joel 2:2 ; Zephaniah 1:15 ; cf
Gather - Joel 2:16). ... A special use of the verb qâbats appears in Joel 2:6, namely “to glow” or “glow with excitement” or “become pale [white]”: “Before their face the people shall be much pained: all faces shall gather blackness
Food - People ate grapes fresh or dried (raisins) and crushed them to make various types of wine (Numbers 6:3; Deuteronomy 32:14; Ruth 2:14; 1 Samuel 25:18; Joel 1:5; Joel 3:18)
Beersheba - Samuel's sons, Joel and Abiah, were judges there (1 Samuel 8:2), its distance preventing his going in circuit to it, as he did to others yearly (1 Samuel 7:16-17)
Shame - , Jeremiah 17:13 , Joel 2:25 f
Prophet - , Hosea, Amos, Joel, Jonah
Vision - ... In the OT it is evident that visions, though often associated with dreams (Joel 2:28), are to be distinguished from them
Azariah - A Levite whose son Joel helped cleanse the Temple under Hezekiah, king of Judah (715-686) (2 Chronicles 29:12-19 )
Burial - The procession carried out the mourning ritual, which could include (1) baldness and cutting of beard, (2) rending garments and wearing sackcloth, (3) loud and agonized weeping, and (4) putting dust on the head and sitting in ashes (2 Samuel 1:11-12 ; 2 Samuel 13:31 ; 2 Samuel 14:2 ; Isaiah 3:24 , Isaiah 22:12 ; Jeremiah 7:29 ; Ezekiel 7:18 ; Joel 1:8 )
Ear - (See also Isaiah 1:2; Joel 1:2)
Anger (Wrath) of God - God is ‘slow to anger’ ( Psalms 103:8 ; Psalms 145:8 , Joel 2:13 , Jonah 4:2 , Nahum 1:3 ), and His anger passes away ( Psalms 30:6 , Isaiah 12:1 , Jeremiah 3:12 , Micah 7:18 )
Dream - ... The only references to dreams or dreaming in the apostolic writings are Acts 2:17 ‘your old men shall dream dreams’ (quoted from Joel 2:28), and Judges 1:8 ‘these also (the false teachers of v
Fasting - The Jews, in times of public calamity, appointed extraordinary fasts, and made even the children at the breast fast, Joel 2:16
Micah, Theology of - Peter's primary text is Joel 2:28-32 . The inspired apostle, however, curiously and interpretively transforms Joel's text. Joel's prophecy begins, "and afterward "' (Joel 2:28 ), but instead of this introduction Peter substitutes the words of Micah 4:1 and the parallel passage in Isaiah 2:2 . Since that wording is found in no text or version of Joel, Peter seems deliberately to link Pentecost and the ensuing age until the return of Jesus Christ with Isaiah's and Michah's prophecies about Israel's golden age "in the last days
Agriculture - The grain was cut with a sickle (Joel 3:13, Deuteronomy 16:9, Mark 4:29; see art. The drag (מורָנ, הָררן) was a heavy wooden board,† [Note: See illustration in Driver’s Joel and Amos (Camb. Driver, Joel and Amos, p. In the OT quite a variety of names occurs (מִסבּנוֹה Exodus 1:11; אֲסָמֽים Deuteronomy 28:8; מִאַב֖מים Jeremiah 50:26; מִוָוִים Psalms 144:13; אֹצרוֹת and מַמֻּנ֖רוֹת Joel 1:17)
Marriage - The last act in the ceremonial was the conducting of the bride to the bridal chamber, (Judges 15:1 ; Joel 2:16 ) where a canopy was prepared. (Psalm 19:5 ; Joel 2:16 ) The bride was still completely veiled, so that the deception practiced on Jacob, (Genesis 29:23 ) was not difficult
Jonah - There appear to be deliberate echoes of Jeremiah 18:7-8 ,Jeremiah 18:7-8,18:11 ( Jonah 3:8,10 ) and of the postexilic Joel 2:13-14 ( Jonah 3:9 ; 4:2 )
Month - Abib the first month of the year was that of "ears of grain"; in the Passover in it, on the second day, the sheaf of harvest firstfruits was waved to the Lord (Leviticus 23:10-12-34-39; Joel 2:28)
Horse - "Canst thou make him afraid (rather 'make him spring') as a grasshopper?" So in Joel 2:4 war horses are compared to locusts
Flesh - (4) The finite earthly creature , in contrast with God and His Spirit ( Isaiah 31:3 , Genesis 7:21 ) a use of the term to emphasize man’s frailty and dependence on God ( Job 34:15 , Isaiah 40:6-8 ), but without any moral disparagement, as it is applied to the whole human race without reference to its sin ( Joel 2:28 ), and to the human nature of Christ ( John 1:14 , Romans 1:3 )
Smoke - ... Joel 2:30 (b) Peter quotes this passage in Acts 2:19 as indicating the great day of the power of the Spirit upon the earth
Teeth - ... Joel 1:6 (a) This type like those preceding it represents the philosophy and rapacity of the invading nation, which destroyed Israel as the lion destroys its prey
Repent - 18:10); “And rend your heart, and not your garments, and turn unto the Lord your God: for he is gracious and merciful, slow to anger … and repenteth him of evil” (Joel 2:13)
Clouds - Dark clouds overshadow the judgment day of Yahweh, which the prophets announced (Ezekiel 30:3 ,Ezekiel 30:3,30:18 ; Joel 2:2 ; Zephaniah 1:15 )
Edom - Because of this violent hatred of the Israelite people, God assured Edom of a fitting punishment (Jeremiah 49:7-22; Lamentations 4:21-22; Ezekiel 25:12-14; Ezekiel 35:15; Joel 3:19; Amos 1:11-12)
Agriculture - ... A typical pledge that, as there has been the early outpouring of the Spirit at Pentecost, so there shall be a latter outpouring previous to the great harvest of Israel and the Gentile nations (Zechariah 12:10; Joel 2:23; Joel 2:28-32)
Armour, Arms - The rômach appears to have been a lighter form of spear, a lance , and to have largely supplanted the heavier spear or pike in later times ( Nehemiah 4:13 ; Nehemiah 4:16 , Joel 3:10 ). It is appropriately the symbol of war, as the plough-share is of peace ( Isaiah 2:4 , Micah 4:3 , Joel 3:10 )
Day - For their foes, however, there would come "a great and terrible day of the Lord," Joel 2:31 ; Malachi 4:5
Dreams - Joel wrote that when the Spirit comes “your sons and your daughters shall prophesy, your old men shall dream dreams, your young men shall see visions” (1 Samuel 2:28 )
Fulfill - At Cana Jesus' gift of wine corresponded to the blessings of God's future (John 2:1-11 ; Isaiah 25:6 ; Joel 3:18 ; Amos 9:13 ; Zechariah 9:17 )
Lion - Joel 1:6] Revelation 9:17, Revelation 10:3 [cf
Send - 14:27) or a sickle (Joel 3:13)
Strength - Joel 2:22 uses chel'âh in the sense of “wealth” or products of the ability of a tree to produce fruit
Locust - See this circumstance referred to, Judges 6:5 ; Judges 7:12 ; Psalms 105:34 ; Jeremiah 46:23 ; Jeremiah 51:14 ; Joel 1:4 ; Nahum 3:15 ; Jdt_2:19-20 ; where the most numerous armies are compared to the arbeh, or locust
Judgment - In Joel 2:10 , the invasion of Judea by foreign armies is thus foretold: "The earth shall quake before them; the heavens shall tremble; the sun and the moon shall be dark, and the stars shall withdraw their shining. " And in Joel 2:30-31 , the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans is thus predicted: "I will show wonders in the heavens and in the earth, blood, and fire, and pillars of smoke
Stranger - Hosea 7:9 ; Hosea 8:7 , Isaiah 1:7 , Ezekiel 7:21 ; Ezekiel 11:9 , Joel 3:17 , Obadiah 1:11 , Psalms 54:3 etc
Sun - Though there is no actual mention of an eclipse in the Bible, part of the language used in describing the terrors of the day of the Lord both in OT and NT is derived from such an event: ‘the sun shall be turned into darkness’ ( Joel 2:31 ), ‘the sun became black as sackcloth of hair’ ( Revelation 6:12 )
Intercession - The priests had intercession as part of their job description (Joel 2:17 )
Prayer - ... Prayer is frequently enjoined in Scripture (Exodus 22:23,27 ; 1 Kings 3:5 ; 2 Chronicles 7:14 ; Psalm 37:4 ; Isaiah 55:6 ; Joel 2:32 ; Ezekiel 36:37 , etc
Obadiah, Theology of - Allen, The Books of Joel, Obadiah, Jonah and Micah ; D
Harp - Driver, Joel and Amos (Cambridge Bible, 1898), p
Adam in the nt - Isaiah 11:1-2 , Joel 2:28-32
Dry Dried Drieth - ... Joel 1:10 (b) This refers to the absence of any blessings to fill the heart with joy
Heritage - " (Psalms 94:5) See some other sweet Scriptures to this amount: (Joel 2:17; Micah 7:14-18; Isaiah 58:14)... But when the reader hath duly pondered the blessed thought of beholding the Lord and his fulness as the heritage of his people, and his people as his heritage of delight, both in nature, providence, and grace, there is one thought more the subject of heritage proposeth to the meditation that ought not to be forgotten, The customs and manners of the eastern world differ so widely in many points from ours, that unless due attention be had to them we lose much of the sense and spirit of the things spoken of
Earth - 10:10; Joel 2:10; Isa
Mountains - We could understand how the words of Joel shall yet be literally true, The mountains shall drop down new wine,' when every vine on these hills shall be hanging its ripe clusters over the terraces
Mourning - We only find in Scripture that they used to tear their garments, a custom still observed; but now they tear a small part merely, and for form's sake, 2 Samuel 13:19 2 Chronicles 34:27 Ezra 9:3 Job 2:12 Joel 2:13
Miracles - It is noteworthy that the mighty deeds of our Lord and His disciples are never called ‘prodigies’ (τέρατα) alone; the only apparent exception to this rule is in Acts 2:19 (‘I will show wonders in heaven’), which, however, is a quotation from Joel 2:30, and ‘wonders in heaven’ are coupled with ‘signs on earth,’ and both are interpreted by St. Peter as ‘powers and wonders and signs’ in Joel 2:22
Holy Spirit - ... God promised that a day was coming when not merely selected people, but all God’s people, regardless of status, sex or age, would have God’s Spirit poured out upon them (Joel 2:28-29; cf. Joel 2:28-29 with Acts 2:16-18; cf
Holy Spirit - Not only did the prophets benefit from the influence of the Spirit, but also the Spirit will be shed upon the people of God (Isaiah 44:3 ) and upon all the people (Joel 2:28 )
Wonders - Elsewhere in the NT it is found once in a quotation from Joel to represent the marvels wrought by Jehovah in the heaven (Acts 2:19), and twelve times in reference to miracles wrought by Moses (Acts 7:36), by Jesus (Acts 2:22), by the man of sin (2 Thessalonians 2:9), and by the Apostles and early missionaries (Acts 2:43; Acts 4:30; Acts 5:12; Acts 6:8; Acts 14:3; Acts 15:12, Romans 15:19, 2 Corinthians 12:12, Hebrews 2:4)
Canaan, Land of - Exodus 15:14 ; Isaiah 14:29,31 ; Joel 3:4
Captives - The Prophet Joel complains of the contemptuous cheapness in which the people of Israel were held by those who made them captives: "And they have cast lots for my people; and have given a boy for a harlot, and sold a girl for wine, that they might drink
Sela - See also Isaiah 34:5-15 Ezekiel 35:1-15 Joel 3:19 Amos 1:11,12 Obadiah 1:3-16
Decrees - ... Joel M
Circumcision - They saw that the prophecies of Ezekiel, in which the Lord promised a clean heart and an indwelling of his Holy Spirit (36:25-27), and the dramatic proclamation of Joel that God would pour out his Spirit upon all flesh (2:28; cf
Day - ... At Pentecost Peter can speak of the fulfillment of Joel's prophecy of the day of the Lord (Acts 2:17-21 ; cf. Joel 2:28-32 )
Baptism of the Holy Spirit - " In just a little over a week, the disciples celebrate Pentecost and receive the outpouring of the Holy Spirit in fulfillment of the prophecy of Joel 2:28-32 ( Acts 2:1-41 , esp
Peace - The desert will become a fertile field (Isaiah 32:15 ), while the cultivated lands will drip with "new wine" and the "ravines of Judah will run with water" (Joel 3:18 )
Blood - ... Joel 2:31 (c) It is not clearly understood whether the moon will actually become red, or whether men because of strained eyes see the moon as red, or whether the tumult of earth's sorrows changes man's vision
Prophecy - Hence we read concerning the acts of Manasseh, that they were written among the sayings of the Seers, (2 Chronicles 33:19)... It were unnecessary to remark, what every reader of the Bible is supposed to know, that we have recorded, from the grace of God the Holy Spirit, the writings of four of what, by way of distinction, are called the greater prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and Daniel; and the Writings of the twelve of lesser prophets, as they are named, Hoses, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi
Poverty - A terrible picture of devastation (produced by a locust plague) is given by the prophet Joel (ch
Wine And Strong Drink - Hence it may be said that tîrôsh is applied not only to the ‘must’ in the wine-fat (see § 3), but to ‘new wine’ before it has fully matured and become yayin , or, as Driver suggests in his careful study of the OT occurrences ( Joel and Amos , 79 f. ), which denotes wine as the result of fermentation, from a root signifying ‘to ferment,’ and ‘âsîs , a poetical synonym of tîrôsh , and like it used both of the fresh juice and of the fermented liquor (see Joel 1:5 , Isaiah 49:26 ); in Amos 9:13 it is rendered ‘sweet wine,’ which suggests the gleukos (EV [Note: English Version
Prophecy, Prophets - Similarly prophecies of “the day of the Lord” had several fulfillments (partial) which also foreshadowed a final fulfillment (Obadiah 1:15 ; Joel 1:15 ; Joel 2:1 ; Zephaniah 1:7 ,Zephaniah 1:7,1:14 ; Ezekiel 30:3 ; compare 2 Peter 3:10 ). ... The early believers saw the outpouring of the Spirit (Acts 2:17 ) as a fulfillment of Joel's prediction that all God's people, young and old, male and female, would prophesy
Minister Ministry - ... It may be mere accident that θεραπεία and θεραπεύειν are never used in the NT in the classical sense of Divine worship, although both are used in this sense in the Septuagint (Joel 1:14; Joel 2:15, Isaiah 54:17, Daniel 7:10, Judith 11:17)
Oracle - Joel 2:28
Slave - International slave trading was condemned (Ezekiel 27:13; Joel 3:4-8; Amos 1:6; Amos 1:9; cf
Poetry - ... Poetry in the Old Testament... Genesis 2:23 ; Genesis 3:14-19 ; Genesis 3:23-24 ; Genesis 8:22 ; Genesis 9:25-27 ; Genesis 14:19-20 ; Genesis 16:11-12 ; Genesis 25:23 ; Genesis 27:27-29 ,Genesis 27:27-29,27:39-40 ; Genesis 48:15-16 ; Genesis 49:2-27 ... Exodus 15:1-18 ,Exodus 15:1-18,15:21 ... Leviticus 10:3 ... Numbers 6:24-27 ; Numbers 10:35-36 ; Numbers 12:6-8 ; Numbers 21:14-15 ; Numbers 21:17-18 ,Numbers 21:17-18,21:27-30 ; Numbers 23:7-10 ; Numbers 23:18-24 ; Numbers 24:3-9 ,Numbers 24:3-9,24:15-24 ... Deuteronomy 32:1-43 ; Deuteronomy 33:2-29 ... Joshua 10:12-13 ... Judges 5:2-31 ; Judges 14:14 ,Judges 14:14,14:18 ; Judges 15:16 ... Ruth 1:16-17 ,Ruth 1:16-17,1:20-21 ... 1 Samuel 2:1-10 ; 1Samuel 15:22-23,1 Samuel 15:33 ; 1 Samuel 18:7 ; 1 Samuel 21:11 ; 1 Samuel 29:5 ... 2 Samuel 1:19-27 ; 2 Samuel 3:33-34 ; 2 Samuel 22:2-51 ; 2 Samuel 23:1-7 ... 1 Kings 8:12-13 ; 1 Kings 12:16 ... 2 Kings 19:21-28 ... 1 Chronicles 16:8-36 ... 2 Chronicles 5:13 ; 2 Chronicles 6:41-42 ; 2 Chronicles 7:3 ; 2 Chronicles 10:16 ; 2 Chronicles 20:21 ... Ezra 3:11 ... Job 3:2-42:6 ... Psalm 1-150 ... Proverbs 1-31 ... Ecclesiastes 1:2-11 ,Ecclesiastes 1:2-11,1:15 ,Ecclesiastes 1:15,1:18 ; Ecclesiastes 3:2-9 ; Ecclesiastes 7:1-13 ; Ecclesiastes 8:1 ; Ecclesiastes 10:1-4 ,Ecclesiastes 10:1-4,10:8-20 ; Ecclesiastes 11:1-4 ... Song of Song of Solomon 1-8 ... Isaiah—largely poetry... Jeremiah—poetic selections throughout except for 32–45... Lamentations 1-5 ... Ezekiel 19:2-14 ; Ezekiel 23:32-34 ; Ezekiel 24:3-5 ; Ezekiel 26:17-18 ; Ezekiel 27:3-9 ; Ezekiel 27:25-36 ; Ezekiel 28:1-10 ; Ezekiel 28:12-19 ; Ezekiel 28:22-23 ; Ezekiel 29:3-5 ; Ezekiel 30:2-4 ; Ezekiel 30:6-8 ; Ezekiel 30:10-19 ; Ezekiel 31:2-9 ; Ezekiel 32:2-8 ; Ezekiel 32:12-15 ; Ezekiel 32:19 ... Daniel 2:20-23 ; Daniel 4:3 ; Daniel 4:34-35 ; Daniel 6:26-27 ; Daniel 7:9-10 ; Daniel 7:13-14 ; 7:23-27 Hosea—all poetry except for 1; Daniel 2:16-20 ; Daniel 3:1-5 ... Joel—all poetry except for Daniel 2:30-3:8 ... Amos—largely poetry... Obadiah 1:1 ... Jonah 2:2-9 ... Micah 1-7 ... Nahum 1-3 ... Habakkuk 1-3 ... Zephaniah 1-3 ... Zechariah 9-11:3 ; Zechariah 11:17 ; Zechariah 13:7-9 ... Parallelism The predominant feature of Hebrew poetry is parallelism
Heart - It is, therefore, in those movements which characterize repentance, placed in antithesis to outward manifestations of sorrow for sin, ‘Rend your heart and not your garments’ ( Joel 2:13 )
Longsuffering - In the Septuagint the word occurs in the following passages: Exodus 34:6, Numbers 14:18, Nehemiah 9:17, Psalms 86:15; Psalms 103:8; Psalms 145:8, Proverbs 14:29; Proverbs 15:18; Proverbs 16:32; Proverbs 19:11; Proverbs 25:15, Ecclesiastes 7:8, Jeremiah 15:15, Joel 2:13, Jonah 4:2, Nahum 1:3
Colours - Joel 2:30-31; Ass
Eclipse - This, in the poetic language of sacred prophecy, is expressed by "the moon's being turned into blood," Joel 2:31
Life - , Joel 1:18 ; Joel 1:20 ); their life is a thing to be considered
God (2) - His word is an echo of such a passage as Isaiah 61:1 ‘The Spirit of the Lord Jehovah is upon me,’ and is in part a fulfilment of the promise in Joel (Joel 2:28) that the Spirit shall be poured out upon all flesh
Angel - ] Genesis 6:2 ; Genesis 6:4 ; ‘sons of the mighty’ ( bene ’elim ), Psalms 89:7 (8), Psalms 29:1 ; ‘mighty ones’ ( gibborim ), JL 4:11 ( Joel 3:11 EV [Note: English Version. ... ( b ) Angels are represented as appearing in human form, and as having many human characteristics: they speak like men ( 1 Kings 19:5 ); they eat ( Genesis 18:8 ); they fight ( Genesis 32:1 , JL 4:11, ( Joel 3:11 ), cf
War - phrase ‘to consecrate war’ ( Joel 3:9 , Jeremiah 6:4 etc
Sacrifice - The text before us is a remarkable instance of this; as likewise Joel 2:13
Flesh - It may signify a comprehensive sense whereby “all flesh” refers to all of humanity (Joel 2:28 ; Matthew 24:22 ) or including both the human and animal creation (Genesis 6:13 , Genesis 6:17 ; Genesis 7:16 ; Leviticus 17:14 )
Hosea - , Joel about 810 B
Slave, Slavery - The fact that Israel was enslaved in Egypt may have influenced this development (Leviticus 25:39-43 ; Deuteronomy 5:15 ; 15:13-15 ; Joel 2:29 )
Church - ... Heritage of God, Jeremiah 12:7; Psalms 127:3; Joel 3:2
Heart - Joel 2:13); “… man looketh on the outward appearance, but the Lord looketh on the heart” (1 Sam
Zabii - The Sabians mentioned in Scripture were evidently a nation, or perhaps a wandering horde, such as fell upon Job's cattle, Job 1:15 ; men of stature, Isaiah 45:14 ; a people afar off, Joel 3:8
Amos, Theology of - Joel 3:12-21 ; Obadiah 1:15-21 ; Zechariah 12:1-9 ; 14:1-21 ; Malachi 4:1-6 ). Isaiah 65:17-25 ; Ezekiel 47:1-12 ; Joel 3:18 ). Wolff, Joel and Amos
Expiation, Propitiation - When this happened, the prophets of the Old Testament frequently protested against the externalism of the priestly cult of sacrifice, saying much more effect came through a humble heart, the sacrifice of repentance (Psalm 51:17 ; Isaiah 1:10-20 ; Jeremiah 6:20 ; Hosea 6:6 ; Joel 2:13 ; Micah 6:6-8 )
Phoenice - They even sold Jews as slaves to their enemies the Edomites, in violation of "the brotherly covenant" once uniting Hiram and David (Joel 3:4-8; Amos 1:9-10; Isaiah 23; Ezekiel 28)
Gestures - Gestures often may involve external objects such as the tearing of one's clothing (Joel 2:13 ) or the casting down of one's crown before God (Revelation 4:10 )
Oil - Indeed, it is evident that the same apparatus served for the making both of wine and of oil (see Wine for the names of the parts, and note the phrase, Joel 2:24 , ‘the fats [vats] shall overflow with wine and oil’)
Cattle - They need pasture lands (Joel 1:18 )
Repentance - , Isaiah 45:22 ; 55:7 ; Joel 2:12-13 )
Gods - Jeremiah 16:1; Jeremiah 10:1; Jeremiah 9:17, Isaiah 8:1, Joel 1:1 etc
Hallel - See, further, Joel Muller, note to Sopherim xviii
Agriculture - The primary crops of the Bible include grain, grapes, and olives (Genesis 27:28 ; Deuteronomy 7:13 ; Joel 1:10 )
Apocalyptic - ... Old Testament While portions of Joel, Amos, Zechariah, and Isaiah have apocalyptic features, Daniel is the only Old Testament book which is wholly apocalyptic
Dream (2) - That they were occasionally so employed is everywhere recognized, and they therefore find a place in the several enumerations of the modes of revelation (Numbers 12:6, Deuteronomy 13:1-5, 1 Samuel 28:6; 1 Samuel 28:15, Joel 2:28, Acts 2:17, Jeremiah 23:3; Jeremiah 23:25; Jeremiah 23:28; Jeremiah 23:32; Jeremiah 27:9; Jeremiah 29:8, Zechariah 10:2; Job 4:13; Job 33:15 stand somewhat apart). And it is possible that the order in which the various methods of revelation are enumerated in such passages as Deuteronomy 13:1, 1 Samuel 28:6; 1 Samuel 28:15, Joel 2:28, Acts 2:17 may imply a gradation in which revelation through dreams may stand at the foot. ... The citation in Acts 2:17 of the prediction of Joel 2:8 suffices to show that there rested no shadow upon the ‘dreaming of dreams’ in the estimation of the writers of the NT
Economic Life - ... Despite the back-breaking work of harvesting fields with flint-edged sickles (Joel 3:13 ), the grain and the fruits meant the survival of the village and was cause for celebration (Judges 21:19 ). Following the harvest, the threshing floor became the center of the economic activity of the village and countryside (Joel 2:24 )
Jonah, Theology of - Allen, The Books of Joel, Obadiah, Jonah and Micah ; J
Palestine - Originally denoted only the sea-coast of the land of Canaan inhabited by the Philistines (Exodus 15:14 ; Isaiah 14:29,31 ; Joel 3:4 ), and in this sense exclusively the Hebrew name Pelesheth (rendered "Philistia" in Psalm 60:8 ; 83:7 ; 87:4 ; 108:9 ) occurs in the Old Testament
Habakkuk, Theology of - Watts, The Books of Joel, Obadiah, Jonah, Nahum, Habakkuk and Zephaniah
Fear - This sense of estrangement and guilt that comes as consequence of sin produces in the heart of individuals the fear of the day of the Lord because they will appear before the judgment of God (Joel 2:1 )
Sheba - ); and they were not averse to the slave-trade ( Joel 3:8 ); eventually, it was hoped, they would become tributaries of Israel ( Isaiah 60:6 , Psalms 72:10 )
Tongues, Gift of - (g) The gift of tongues, the ecstatic burst of praise, is definitely asserted to be a fulfillment of the prediction of (Joel 2:28 ) We are led, therefore, to look for that which answers to the gift of tongues in the other element of prophecy which is included in the Old Testament use of the word; and this is found in the ecstatic praise, the burst of sang
Sea, the Salt, - -- (1) The Salt Sea, (Genesis 14:3 ) (2) Sea of the Arabah (Authorized Version "sea of the plain," which is found in (4:49) ); (3) The East Sea (Joel 2:20 ) (4) The sea, (Ezekiel 47:8 ) (5) Sodomitish Sea, 2Esdras; (6) Sea of Salt and Sea of Sodom, in the Talmud; (7) The Asphaltic Lake, in Josephus; (8) The name "Dead Sea" appears to have been first used in Greek by Pausanias and Galen, and in Latin (mare mortuum ) by Justin xxxvi
Holy Spirit, the - ... The full outpouring of the Holy Spirit on Israel and on the nations is yet future (Isaiah 44:3; Isaiah 36:25-27; Zechariah 12:10; Joel 2:28), of which the earnest was given on Pentecost (Acts 2:16; Acts 2:21); the law of God, which is love, being written on the heart, instead of on stone as the Decalogue (Jeremiah 31:33-34; Hebrews 8:8; Hebrews 8:12; Hebrews 10:16-17; 2 Corinthians 3:3)
Worship - According to Acts 2:1-42 , Pentecost was the occasion of a great filling and empowering of the disciples of Jesus by the Holy Spirit (interpreted as a fulfillment of Joel 2:28-32 )
Nahum, Theology of - In the Bible, locusts are agents of destruction and are used to depict a devastating army (see Joel 1:2-12 ; 2:1-11 )
Samuel - Strange to say, notwithstanding the awful warning in Eli's case of the danger of not correcting children, Samuel had two sons, Joel and Abiah, whom he made judges in Beersheba, and who unlike their father turned aside after lucre and bribes, and perverted judgment (1 Samuel 8:1-3)
Blood - Peter’s reference to the portents of the Day of the Lord, quoting Joel’s words, ‘blood … the moon [shall be turned into] blood’ (Acts 2:19-20; cf. Joel 2:30-31)
Attributes of Christ - St Paul charged the Ephesian elders to ‘feed the Church of God which he purchased with his own blood’ (Acts 20:28) and applied to Christ the words of Joel, ‘Whosoever shall call upon the name of the Lord shall be saved’ (Romans 10:13)
Dead Sea - This was anciently called the Sea of the Plain, Deuteronomy 3:17 ; Deuteronomy 4:49 , from its situation in the great hollow or plain of the Jordan; the Salt Sea, Deuteronomy 3:17 ; Joshua 15:5 , from the extreme saltness of its waters; and the East Sea, Ezekiel 47:18 ; Joel 2:20 , from its situation relative to Judea, and in contradistinction to the West Sea, or Mediterranean
Blood - Peter’s reference to the portents of the Day of the Lord, quoting Joel’s words, ‘blood … the moon [shall be turned into] blood’ (Acts 2:19-20; cf. Joel 2:30-31)
New Jerusalem - With Joel, who introduces us into the apocalyptic atmosphere, we find the same conception, as in the Prophets, of the eternity of the Messianic Kingdom with Jerusalem as its centre: ‘So shall ye know that I am the Lord your God, dwelling in Zion my holy mountain: then shall Jerusalem be holy, and there shall no strangers pass through her any more. … But Judah shall abide for ever, and Jerusalem from generation to generation’ (Joel 3:17-18; Joel 3:20)
Trade And Commerce - According to Joel ( Joel 3:4-7 ), the Phœnicians acted as dealers, purchasing prisoners of war (in this case Jews), and exporting them to foreign countries
Priest - ... They blew the "alarm" for marching, with the long silver trumpets which belonged to them in a special way (Numbers 10:1-8); two if the multitude was convened, one if a council of elders and princes (Numbers 10:10); with them the priest announced the beginning of solemn days and days of gladness, and summoned all to a penitential fast (Joel 2:1; Joel 2:15)
Prophet - So also Jeremiah, Matthew 2:18; Hebrews 8:8; Daniel, Matthew 24:15; Hosea, Matthew 2:15; Romans 9:25; Joel, Acts 2:17; Amos, Acts 7:42; Acts 15:16; Jonah, Matthew 12:40; Micah, Matthew 12:7; Habakkuk, Acts 13:41; Haggai, Hebrews 12:26; Zechariah, Matthew 21:5; Mark 14:27; John 19:37; Malachi, Matthew 11:10; Mark 1:2; Luke 7:27. The dream and vision were lower forms of inspiration than Moses enjoyed, namely, "mouth to mouth, not in dark speeches"; directly, without the intervention of dream, vision, or person (compare Exodus 33:11 with Joel 2:28; Daniel 1:17)
Egypt - Joel 2:1-11. See Isaiah 19:1-25; Isaiah 20:1-6; Isaiah 30:3; Isaiah 31:3; Isaiah 36:6; Jeremiah 2:36; Jeremiah 9:25-26; Jeremiah 43:11-13; Jeremiah 44:30; Jeremiah 46:1-28; Ezekiel 29:1-21; Ezekiel 30:1-26; Ezekiel 31:1-18; Ezekiel 32:1-32; Daniel 11:42; Joel 3:19; and "the sceptre of Egypt shall depart away
Obsolete or Obscure Words in the English av Bible - ... Fats, Joel 2:24—vats
Tyre - Their pride ( Ezekiel 28:2 ), their contempt for the rights of man ( Amos 1:9 ), their slave-trading propensities ( Joel 3:4-8 ) are denounced by the Hebrew prophets
Call, Calling - Joel 2:32 is quoted in both Acts 2:21 and Romans 10:13 , but in both places "the Lord" is then identified as Jesus (Acts 2:36 ; Romans 10:14 )
Grace - , Exodus 33:19 ; Exodus 34:6 , Psalms 77:9 ; Psalms 103:8 , Joel 2:13 , Jonah 4:2
Number Systems And Number Symbolism - ... Joel F
Marriage (i.) - heder, ‘the nuptial chamber’ (Judges 15:1), in which stood the huppah, the bridal ‘bed with a canopy’ (Joel 2:16; Gesenius, s
Ezekiel, Book of - Joel 3:18 ; Zechariah 14:8
Sea, the Salt - "The East Sea" (Ezekiel 47:8; Ezekiel 47:10-11; Joel 2:20)
Prophets, the - There is but little whereby to fix precisely the dates of Joel and Habakkuk
Thessalonians, Epistles to the - Isaiah 13:6-13 ; Joel 2 ; Amos 5:18-20
Philistia - They sold Israelites as slaves to Edom and Greece, for which God threatens retribution in kind, and destruction (Amos 1:6-8; Joel 3:3-8)
Time - On the one hand, the messianic age, inaugurated with Christ's first coming, appears as the beginning of the last days according to Peter's use of Joel 2:28 in explaining the charismatic phenomena accompanying the Spirit's outpouring at Pentecost ( Acts 2:17 )
Hope - ] ) of Jeremiah 17:17 , Joel 3:16 , into ‘refuge
Altar - ... Joel F
Pentecost - " (John 7:39) But now that the Son of God hath finished the whole of his ministry upon earth, and is returned to glory, the Holy Ghost comes down in a fulness of blessings, and to him is committed the whole efficiency of the work, as the Almighty Minister in the church, to render the whole effectual; and to this agree the words of the prophets: Isaiah 44:3-5; Joel 2:28, etc
Sacrifice - The Jews, without these dispositions, could not present any offering agreeable to God; and he often explains himself on this matter in the prophets, Psalm 40:6 Isaiah 1:11-14 Hosea 6:6 Joel 2:12-18 Amos 5:21,22 , etc
Palestine - ] in Joel 3:4 ; in Exodus 15:14 , Isaiah 14:29 ; Isaiah 14:31 Peter alestina; RV [Note: Revised Version. This part of the rainy season is the ‘ former rain ’ of the Bible (as in Joel 2:23 )
Slave, Slavery - This trade was mainly in the hands of the Phœnicians and Edomites ( Amos 1:6 ; Amos 1:9 , Ezekiel 27:13 , Joel 3:6 )
Edom - " Edom's spite is marked (Joel 3:19; Amos 1:6; Amos 1:9; Amos 1:11)
Forgiveness - Isaiah 44:22 , Jeremiah 35:15 ; Jeremiah 18:11 , Hosea 14:1 , Joel 2:13 etc
New Covenant - also Isaiah 32:15 ; 44:3 ; Ezekiel 37:12-13 ; 39:29 ; Joel 2:28 )
Guilt - , Joel 1:4 ff
Corinthians, First And Second, Theology of - (4) The promise of the bestowal of the Spirit on all God's people in the age to come ( Ezekiel 36:25-28 ; Joel 2:28-32 ; etc. 1 Corinthians 14 with Psalm 74:9 ; Lamentations 2:9 ; Joel 2:28-32 )
Miracles - Joel (Joel 2:28-29-31) apparently foretells a fuller outpouring of the Spirit accompanied with "prophesying," "dreams," and "wonders," in connection with and before "the great and terrible day of the Lord" (compare Zechariah 12:10)
Prophecy, Prophet - Joel 2:24-32; Haggai 2:20-23)
Mercy, Merciful - Nowhere is their interrelatedness more evident than in the following recurrent Old Testament liturgy which combines all three: “God is merciful ( racham ) and gracious (chana ), slow to anger, and abounding in steadfast love (chesed ) and faithfulness” (Exodus 34:6 ; Numbers 14:18 ; Nehemiah 9:17 ; Psalm 86:15 ; Psalm 103:8 ; Psalm 145:8 ; Joel 2:13 ; Jonah 4:2 )
Holy Spirit - The point of contact between the OT and NT is the expectation of a special outpouring of the Spirit in connexion with the establishment of Messiah’s Kingdom ( Ezekiel 39:29 , Joel 2:28-29 , Zechariah 12:10 ; cf
Government - ... Joel F
Judgment, Day of - This occurs in a quotation from Joel, so "the Lord" is clearly Yahweh
Isaiah - Isaiah was contemporary with the Prophets Amos, Hosea, Joel, and Micah
Quakers - "As we dare not encourage any ministry but that which we believe to spring from the influence of the Holy Spirit, so neither dare we attempt to restrain this influence to persons of any condition in life, or to the male sex alone; but, as male and female are one in Christ, we allow such of the female sex as we believe to be endued with a right qualification for the ministry, to exercise their gifts for the general edification of the church; and this liberty we esteem a peculiar mark of the Gospel dispensation, as foretold by the prophet Joel, Joel 2:28-29
Omnipresence - If we assume the genuineness of the words above cited, they seem to show that Christ’s Messianic consciousness included the ability to fulfil such OT predictions as " translation="">Joel 2:27 ‘Ye shall know that I am in the midst of Israel’; " translation="">Zephaniah 3:17 ‘The Lord thy God in the midst of thee is mighty. Christ’s Messianic consciousness could hardly fail to include the conceptions involved in " translation="">Isaiah 42:1; Isa_49:6 as well as " translation="">Joel 2:27
Zechariah, Book of - 12, leads us immediately into the familiar apocalyptic conception introduced by Zephaniah, and developed by Ezekiel and Joel
Harmony of the Gospels - Joel Snider... ...
Animals - Isaiah 35:9 ; 65:17,25 ; 66:22 ; Hosea 2:18 ; Joel 2:22 ; Ephesians 1:9-10 ; Revelation 21:1-4 )
Chronicles, the Books of - ... Also other scriptures confirm statements in Chronicles; compare 2 Chronicles 32:1-6 with Isaiah 22:8-11; Isaiah 22:2 Chronicles 20 with Psalm 48; 83; Joel 3
Mercy - Mercy and hesed [ Exodus 34:6 ; Deuteronomy 4:31 ; 13:17 ; Hosea 2:19 ); its meaning through hesed [ Psalm 25:6 ; 40:11 ; 69:17 ; Isaiah 63:7 ; Jeremiah 16:5 ; 42:12 ; Hosea 2:19 ; Joel 2:13 ; Zechariah 7:9 )
Providence of God - Birds (Matthew 6:26 ; 10:29 ), fish (Jonah 1:17 ; Matthew 17:27 ), animals (Psalm 147:9 ; Hosea 2:18 ; Joel 2:21-22 ), indeed, every living thing is God's (Job 12:10 ; Psalm 145:13-16 ) and in their own way they are all praising God (Psalm 148:3,4,7-10 )
Adam - Isaiah 11:1-2, Joel 2:28-32
Plagues of Egypt - Joel 2:20
Adam - Isaiah 11:1-2, Joel 2:28-32
Prophecy Prophet Prophetess - Joel 2:28 f
God - He may change his treatment of people from blessing to judgment when they rebel (Genesis 6:6-7; 1 Samuel 15:11; 1 Samuel 15:23) or from judgment to blessing when they repent (Joel 2:13-14; Jonah 3:10)
Destroy, Destruction - ... "Not completely" is a motif of many destruction prophecies (Isaiah 6:11-13 ; Jeremiah 5:10 ; 30:11 ; 31:35 ; Joel 2:32 ; Amos 9:8 )
Repentance - Genesis 6:7, Exodus 32:12; Exodus 32:14, 1 Chronicles 21:15, Joel 2:13, 1 Samuel 15:29 [cf
Lots - A war was the war primarily not of Israel but of Jahweh, and that specially if it was for the punishment of wrong-doing; hence the members of a punitive expedition were chosen by lot (Judges 20:9), hence also the spoil taken in war (Judges 5:30), whether captives (2 Samuel 8:2, Nahum 3:10, Joel 3:3) or sections of a conquered city (Obadiah 1:11), The services of the sanctuary were sacred; hence the priestly functions were assigned to the orders by lot (1 Chronicles 24:5; 1 Chronicles 24:7, Luke 1:9), Shemaiah the scribe writing out the lots in the presence of a committee consisting of the king, the high priest, and other functionaries (1 Chronicles 24:6; 1 Chronicles 24:31)
Sanctify - In Joel 1:14 the verb is applied to Israel’s holy days: “Sanctify ye a fast, call a solemn assembly
Jerusalem (2) - the Valley of Jehoshaphat* [Note: Eusebius, onomasticon2, 193, 20] (a name very probably connected originally with the neighbouring village of Shʻafat, and corrupted to Jehoshaphat because of Joel 3:2; Joel 3:12)
Authority of Christ - No one in reading Daniel 7 takes the four great beasts, and the sea out of which they rise, literally; why, then, must we be compelled to take the human form and the clouds of heaven, literally? The Book of Acts (Acts 2:16-21) sees in the experience of the Church at Pentecost the fulfilment of a prophecy in Joel (Joel 2:30) which speaks of ‘blood and fire and vapour of smoke, of the sun turning into darkness and the moon into blood,’ though no such phenomena actually accompanied the gift of the Spirit
Sanctification, Sanctify - In Isaiah 13:3 , Joel 3:9 , Jeremiah 6:4 (see RVm [Note: Revised Version margin
Heaven, Heavens, Heavenlies - When Peter linked the Spirit's coming with Joel 2:28-32 ( Acts 2:17-21 ), he was saying that the eschatological hope of heaven was near
Mark, Theology of - Isaiah 13:9-10 ; Joel 2:10,31 )
Gestures - Genesis 37:29; Genesis 37:34, Joel 2:13); in the Gospels we find it mentioned only of Caiaphas (Mark 14:63 and || Mt
Eschatology - Peter as the fulfilment of Joel’s prophecy, which expressly referred to ‘the Last Days’ (Acts 2:16-33; cf. Joel 2:28-32)
Confession - Paul here implies that the Lord Jesus is one with the Lord Jahweh on whom the prophet Joel bade men call when he predicted ‘this word of faith
Acts - ... Joel Snider... ...
Wealth - In expectation of just such obedience, the prophets look beyond the coming exile to the restoration of a remnant in the land, whose prosperity will once again be great (Isaiah 54-55,60-66 ), including much to eat (Joel 2:23-27 ) and the shared wealth of all the nations (Zechariah 14:14 )
Fig-Tree - Not merely is the girdled fig-tree an OT emblem of the punishment of Israel (Joel 1:7, cf
War - Sacrifices were also offered, in reference to which the soldiers were said to consecrate themselves to the war, Isaiah 13:3 ; Jeremiah 6:4 ; Jeremiah 51:27 ; Joel 3:9 ; Obadiah 1:1
Isaiah - Portions of Ezekiel, Joel, and Daniel are written in this style marked by cosmological orientation, proximate pessimism, symbolism with few historical allusions, suprahistorical perspective—that is, the future was so bewildering and the events so vaguely perceived that the writer penned his forecast in the symbolic language of faith, pointing to a resolution of world history
Love, Lover, Lovely, Beloved - , when His ‘beloved’ is injured or wronged ( Joel 2:18 , Zechariah 1:14 etc
Apocalyptic Literature - In the course of time this conception was supplemented by the further expectation of a judgment for Jews as well as for heathen ( Amos 2:3-8 ; Amos 3:9-15 ; Amos 5:10-13 , Zechariah 1:2-18 ; Zechariah 2:4-13 ; Joel 2:18-28 , Ezekiel 30:2 f
Nazirite - Driver, Cambridge Bible, ‘Joel and Amos,’ Cambridge, 1897, p
Scripture - " Isaiah 1:10; Jeremiah 2:4; Ezekiel 12:17; Daniel 9:2; Hosea 1:1; Joel 1:1
Palestine - Although the word Palestine (or Palestina) is found four times in the KJV (Exodus 15:14 ; Isaiah 14:29 ,Isaiah 14:29,14:31 ; Joel 3:4 ), these are references to the territory of the Philistines and so properly designate only the strip of coastland occupied by that people
Prayer - Joel 2:17 ), whether the earlier prophets, (§ iv
Lots - A war was the war primarily not of Israel but of Jahweh, and that specially if it was for the punishment of wrong-doing; hence the members of a punitive expedition were chosen by lot (Judges 20:9), hence also the spoil taken in war (Judges 5:30), whether captives (2 Samuel 8:2, Nahum 3:10, Joel 3:3) or sections of a conquered city (Obadiah 1:11), The services of the sanctuary were sacred; hence the priestly functions were assigned to the orders by lot (1 Chronicles 24:5; 1 Chronicles 24:7, Luke 1:9), Shemaiah the scribe writing out the lots in the presence of a committee consisting of the king, the high priest, and other functionaries (1 Chronicles 24:6; 1 Chronicles 24:31)
Nazirite - Driver, Cambridge Bible, ‘Joel and Amos,’ Cambridge, 1897, p
Church, the - Ezekiel 36:25-27 ; Joel 2:28-29 ; with Acts 2 ; 2 Corinthians 3 ; Romans 8 ; etc
Gospel - Joel Snider... ...
Christ, Christology - The proof of the new age He inaugurated was seen in the coming of the Holy Spirit (Acts 2:16-21 , quoting Joel 2:28 )
Israel, History of - Joel emphasized the day of—Yahweh as a day of Judah's preservation coupled with the destruction of Edom and Egypt
Forgiveness - He is described as "slow to anger" and "abounding in love/mercy, " "compassionate and gracious" (Exodus 34:6 ; Numbers 14:18 ; Nehemiah 9:17 ; Psalm 86:15 ; 103:8 ; 145:8 ; Joel 2:13 ; John 4:2 )
Living (2) - 1 Corinthians 10:4), and perhaps more especially those OT sayings in which it had been predicted that living water should flow out from Jerusalem, or from the House of the Lord (Ezekiel 47:1; Ezekiel 47:12, Zechariah 14:8, Joel 3:18, cf
Egypt - Joel 3:19
Magic, Divination, And Sorcery - Dreams are spoken of as a legitimate channel for God’s communications to His prophets and others ( Numbers 12:6 , 1 Samuel 28:6 , Job 33:15 , Joel 2:28 )
Marriage - 168) finds in this a relic of ‘beena’ marriage (see above, § 1), the huppah or canopy ( Joel 2:16 ) being originally the wife’s tent ( Genesis 24:67 , Judges 4:17 ); cf
Wisdom of Solomon - In 19:9 (of the Israelites in the bed of the Red Sea), ὡς γὰρ ἵπποι ἐνεμήθησαν καὶ ὡς ἀμνοὶ διεσκίρτησαν, ‘they fed like horses and skipped like lambs,’ the author clearly did not intend ‘fed’; from Isaiah 63:13 as explained by Kimchi it would seem that the original had øöå, ‘they ran’ (used of horses in Joel 2:4, Amos 6:12), misread -
Food - ] , and that without any justification, as the marginal alternative of ‘honey,’ 2 Chronicles 31:5 ; yet Joel includes ‘the palm tree’ in his list of fruit-trees ( 2 Chronicles 1:12 ), and from the Mishna we learn that dates, like the fruits already discussed, were not only eaten as they came from the palm, but were dried in clusters and also pressed into cakes for convenience of transport
Holy Spirit - ... Perhaps the most important prophetic text on the Spirit is Joel 2:28-32 , which Peter quotes at Pentecost (Acts 2:17-21 )
Anger - It would be a time when human wrongdoing, much of which was apparently overlooked in this age, would receive its sure reward, although genuine repentance would apparently avert the coming anger (Joel 2, Amos 5:4 ff
Create, Creation - The consequences of the fall will be reversed and a renewal of the fruitfulness and vitality that first characterized the cosmos and the garden of Eden will take place (Isaiah 65:17-25 ; 66:22 ; Ezekiel 47:1-12 ; Joel 3:18 ; Amos 9:13 ; Romans 8:18-23 ; 2 Peter 3:7,10-13 ; Revelation 21:1-22:5 )
Missions - He quotes the words of Joel in explanation of what had happened at Pentecost, saying, It shall come to pass in the last days, saith God, that I will pour out of my Spirit upon all flesh’ (Acts 2:17), And it shall come to pass, that whosoever shall call on the name of the Lord shall be saved’ (Acts 2:21)
James And John, the Sons of Zebedee - Psalms 2:1, Acts 4:25, and for רְגָשָׁא, Joel 3:14, strepitus, see Payne Smith, Thes
Judgment Damnation - For Israel this day will be one of sifting and purging, for her oppressors a day of terror and anguish (Isaiah 2:17-18, Joel 2:14-16)
House - They may, however, safely be assumed to have been much smaller than those to which we are accustomed, although the commonest variety, the challôn , was large enough to allow a man to pass out ( Joshua 2:15 , 1 Samuel 19:12 ) or in ( Joel 2:9 )
Noah - ... Psalms 29:10 translated "Jehovah sat (so sit, Psalms 9:4; Psalms 9:7-8; Joel 3:12) at the flood"; mabbul , Noah's deluge; as King and Judge vindicating His people and destroying their ungodly foe, "and therefore Jehovah will sit King for ever
Turning - Isaiah 6:10, Psalms 51:13, Jeremiah 3:14, Ezekiel 33:11, Hosea 12:6, Joel 2:12 f
Bible - has Proverbs, Job, Book 3 of the Psalter, and the Prophets Joel and Jonah
God - The growth of true monotheistic ideas may be traced in such passages as Deuteronomy 4:35 ; Deuteronomy 4:39 ; Deuteronomy 6:4 ; Deuteronomy 10:14 , 1 Kings 8:60 , Isaiah 37:16 , Joel 2:27 ; it culminates in Deutero-Isaiah ( Isaiah 43:10 ‘Before me there was no God formed, neither shall there be after me’; Isaiah 44:6 ‘I am the first and I am the last, and beside me there is no God’; so Isaiah 45:5 )
Immanuel - term for ‘virgin’ is בִּתוּלָה, though even this is used in Joel 1:8 for ‘young widow
Calendar, the Christian - 1 Thessalonians 5:2 ἡμέρα Κυρίου, Acts 2:20 from Joel 2:31; 2 Peter 3:10, 1 Corinthians 1:8 ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ τοῦ Κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, and 1 Corinthians 5:5, 2 Corinthians 1:14, Philippians 1:6), and would mean that the Apocalyptist is carried forward in vision to the day of the end of the world
Greek Versions of ot - , Lamentations 1:1 to Lamentations 2:20 , Joel, Obad
Apocalypse - , Joel, and generally all the portions of the OT which describe visions of God or offer pictures of bliss or woe), the book leaves the reader with a strong impression of its spiritual unity
Palestine - Four times in KJV, found always in poetry (Exodus 15:34; Isaiah 14:29; Isaiah 14:31; Joel 3:4); same as Philistia (Psalms 60:8; Psalms 87:4; Psalms 83:7 "the Philistines"
Canaan - These are the latter rains, Joel 2:23
Palesti'na - These two forms occur in the Authorized Version but four times in all, always in poetical passages; the first in ( Exodus 15:14 ) and Isai 14:29 The second (Joel 3:4 ) In each case the Hebrew is Pelesheth , a word found, besides the above, only in ( Psalm 60:8 ; 83:7 ; 87:4 ) and Psal 108:9 In all which our translators have rendered it by "Philistia" or "Philistines
Bible - There have been printed separately the Psalms, Canticles, some chapters of Genesis, Ruth, Joel, Jonah, Zephaniah, Malachi, and the New Testament, all which have been since reprinted in the Polyglot of London
Messiah - The one great pre-requisite of this new nation was to be the observance of the Law, which would insure the coming of the Spirit of Jehovah upon the new Israel ( Joel 2:28-29 , Haggai 1:13 , Zechariah 2:1-5 , etc
Church - Peter began his Pentecostal address to the assembled Jews by pointing out that the outpouring of the Spirit was a fulfilment of Jewish prophecy (Joel 2:28-31) and an inauguration of ‘the last days,’ which were to precede the coming of the Messiah in glory
Bible - the Pentateuch or five books of Moses, called Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy, the books of Joshua, Judges, Ruth , 1 & 2 Samuel , 1 & 2 Kings , 1 & 2 Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther, Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, the Song of Solomon, the prophecies of Isaiah, Jeremiah with his Lamentations, Ezekiel, Daniel, Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi