Character Study on Jude

Character Study on Jude

Ezra 5: Be it known unto the king, that we went into the province of Judea, to the house of the great God, which is builded with great stones, and timber is laid in the walls, and this work goeth fast on, and prospereth in their hands.
Jude 1: Jude, the servant of Jesus Christ, and brother of James, to them that are sanctified by God the Father, and preserved in Jesus Christ, and called:

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Dictionary

1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Jude, Saint
Apostle, brother of Saint James the Less, and one of the "Brothers of Jesus" (Luke 6; Acts 1; Matthew 10; Mark 3). He is not to be confused with Thaddeus of Edessa, one of the 72 disciples, Judas Jacobi, or Judas Simon, disciples of the Apostles. After the Lord's Supper, Judas asked Christ why He would not manifest Himself to the world (John 14). Judas's missionary work was performed principally in Palestine, also in Syria, Mesopotamia, and Persia. The place of his death is unknown; Beirut and Arad in Phenicia have been mentioned as possible places, and there is a tradition that he suffered martyrdom. His Epistle, addressed to all the churches in the East, and to the Jews in particular, is in some parts coincident with 2Peter. Patron of desperate cases, and hospitals. Emblems: a sword, a square rule, and a club. Relics in Saint Peter's, Rome, and at Toulouse. Feast, Roman Calendar, October 28,.

1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Jude, Epistle of Saint
When rising heresies endangered the faith of the Hebrew Christian communities, the Apostle Jude, with the surname Thaddeus (Matthew 10), the brother of James the Less (Luke 6) and one of the "brethren of the Lord" (Matthew 13), addressed to them his "Catholic Epistle" as a warning against the false prophets. With picturesque forcefulness the author expresses a wealth of practical doctrine in this singularly brief document. The illustrations are mostly drawn from the Old Testament and, what is remarkable, from the Jewish apocalyptic literature, i.e.,The Assumption of Moses (verse 9) and the Book of Enoch (verse 14). The historical proofs of divine punishment (5-7) are a prophetic assurance that a like punishment is awaiting the depraved teachers. Hence the readers must be faithful to the teaching of the Apostles. The Epistle was most probably written in Jerusalem after the death of its first bishop, James, to whose authority the author makes appeal in verse 1, and before the destruction of the city, hence about 65 AD.

Easton's Bible Dictionary - Jude
= Judas. Among the apostles there were two who bore this name, (1) Judas (Jude 1:1 ; Matthew 13:55 ; John 14:22 ; Acts 1:13 ), called also Lebbaeus or Thaddaeus (Matthew 10:3 ; Mark 3:18 ); and (2) Judas Iscariot (Matthew 10:4 ; Mark 3:19 ). He who is called "the brother of James" (Luke 6:16 ), may be the same with the Judas surnamed Lebbaeus. The only thing recorded regarding him is in John 14:22 .

Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Jude, Theology of
Jude wrote this urgent letter to counter ungodly persons who turned the grace of God into lawlessness, and by their audacious blasphemy denied the Lord Jesus Christ. These false teachers claimed the authority to teach on the basis of their so-called visions and were causing division within the churches.

Jude exhorts the churches to defend the apostolic faith and to recognize that God will judge these false teachers. Therefore they continue to engage in spiritual discipline and anticipate the coming of Jesus Christ, at which time God will present the faithful to himself as a holy and rejoicing people.

Jude's method is to remind the readers of what they already know and to reinforce that message. By appealing to the Old Testament, to contemporary writings, and to the teaching of the apostles, he affirms the certainty of divine judgment. By a denunciatory description of the false teachers and their fate, he renders them unattractive to the readers. And by an exhortation to spiritual discipline he assures them of their stability in the faith. Finally, in the doxology he gives ultimate assurance that God is able to preserve the faithful and to present them to himself holy and blameless.

Jude (or Judah) identifies himself as "the brother of James, " implying that he is also the step brother of Jesus (Matthew 13:55 ; Mark 6:3 ) and that he has the authority to address these churches and condemn the false teachers. Some have suggested that the author was not a contemporary of the apostles (v. 17) and that the book was written later by another Jude or some unknown person. But the brother of our Lord was the only man in the early church who could be called simply "James" without ambiguity. And there is no evidence that the early church would accept letters written falsely in the name of an important person. The date of this letter then must fall within Jude's lifetime, that is, in the middle or latter half of the first century.

The recipients of the letter are not specified but they are familiar with the Old Testament, contemporary Jewish literature, and methods of interpretation. This is appropriate to Jewish Christians in Palestine or Syria, though Christian Gentiles would likely be included. These may be churches Jude had visited on his itinerant ministries.

Eschatology . The overarching theological perspective in Jude is eschatology. This appears in three primary ways: (1) the eschatological fulfillment of the types and prophecies in the Old Testament and apocryphal literature; (2) the certainty of divine judgment upon ungodly sinners; (3) the anticipation of salvation by spiritual discipline and divine protection.

The dominant eschatological motif in Jude is the certainty of divine judgment. God judges sin, rebellion, and apostasy whenever and wherever it occurs—before creation in the heavenly court (v. 6), in the evil cities at the time of the patriarchs (v. 7), and among God's people in the wilderness (vv. 5,11). Jude's emphasis is upon the eschatological judgment of the great Day (v. 6). Yet judgment continues in the present, as indicated by the angels who are currently being kept under judgment (v. 6) and the process of corruption in the lives of the ungodly (v. 10).

These judgments are presented in Jude as types or prophecies that were being fulfilled by the false teachers (v. 7). They were long ago prescribed to the same condemnation (vv. 4,14-15). The punishment of the ungodly will be the "eternal fire of judgment" (vv. 6-7) in contrast to eternal life for the faithful (vv. 21,24). Yet some persons who had been victimized by the false teachers could be rescued from eternal judgment prior. So Jude exhorted his readers to persuade some and to rescue others.

Soteriology . Salvation in Jude is a call to eternal life (vv. 1,21), which culminates in a royal presentation before Almighty God (v. 24). It is motivated by the love of God, implemented by the Spirit, and completed by the mercy of Jesus Christ. This salvation is shared equally by all with no elitism, or any advantage of time, place, or nationality.

The called are required to be faithful by adhering to the apostolic faith, living under the authority of the Lord Jesus Christ (vv. 17,25), and engaging in the disciplines of the church to keep themselves in the love of God (vv. 20-21). In this way the faithful enjoy the increasing mercy, peace, and love of God (v. 2). In contrast, the unfaithful—like Israel in the wilderness—place themselves under the judgment of God by presuming on his grace, neglecting spiritual discipline, and repudiating Jesus Christ in word and deed (v. 4).

But the Almighty God who delivered Israel from Egypt is the one who will bring salvation to completion for his eternal glory. He keeps the faithful for Jesus Christ (v. 1) and guards them lest they fall (v. 24). And he will cause them to stand honorably in his royal, glorious presence.

Ecclesiology . Even though the word is not used, the church is the central concern of Jude's letter. The church is the "called" people of God (v. 1) who assemble for worship (and to hear this letter) and to keep the love feast, including the Lord's Supper. This letter seems to reflect an early Christian sermon with its statement of purpose, appeal to Scripture, exhortation, and benediction.

Jesus Christ is the sovereign Lord over the church. This authority is extended through his apostles and their teaching. It is evidenced by Jude, who addresses these churches as a servant of Jesus Christ and as a brother of James, the renowned leader of the church in Jerusalem (Acts 15:13 ; 21:18 ). Jude describes the ministry of local leaders as "sheperding" (v. 12). He himself models this by his concern (v. 3) and emulation of God's love for them (vv. 3,20). His gentle attitude is expressed in his "wish" to "remind" them, rather than to scold or rebuke them.

Jude also appeals to Scripture as having authority for the church. These writings are the authoritative record of God's working in history, and they provide a prophetic perspective for interpreting the current experiences of the church. In addition, Jude makes use of materials from the apocryphal writings of 1Enoch (v. 14) and the Assumption of Moses (v. 9) as affirmation of his message to the churches.

The mission of the church is expressed in three exhortations: to defend the faith (v. 3), to keep themselves in the love of God (v. 21), and to rescue some while maintaining her own purity.

Theology Proper . The theology of Jude is explicitly monotheistic and implicitly Trinitarian. God is our Father (v. 1) and Savior (v. 25). He is the eternal one to whom glory, majesty, might, and authority belong for ever and ever (v. 24). He is also the Lord—an allusion to the divine name in the Old Testament (vv. 5,9, 14)—who saves his people, and the Judge who condemns the world, sinners, and evil angels (vv. 5,9, 14). And he is the King who will summon his people to appear before him for a royal audience (v. 24).

The second person of the Trinity is "our Lord Jesus Christ" (vv. 4,17, 21,25). His messianic office is assumed, and the primary emphasis is on his lordship (vv. 4,17, 21). Jude emphasizes this by the use of two nouns, both "Master" (despotes [5,9, and especially 14), Jude's use of "Lord" may imply a reference to Jesus Christ as the fulfillment of the typological message of the texts, and the unity of Father and Son.

Jesus Christ is the Lord of the Church, and the mediator between God and the faithful. Through him praise is offered to God (v. 25), and by him God will grant the final expression of mercy in the gift of eternal life (v. 21). It is for Jesus Christ and his day that God is keeping the faithful (v. 1).

The Holy Spirit is mentioned twice in Jude. Unlike the false teachers, those who are faithful have the Spirit (v. 19). And it is in the Spirit that the church conducts her worship and Christian discipline (vv. 20,21).

Norman R. Ericson

Bibliography . R. J. Bauckham, 2Peter, Jude ; D. Guthrie, New Testament Theology: A Thematic Study ; G. E. Ladd, A Theology of the New Testament .



Easton's Bible Dictionary - Jude, Epistle of
The author was "Judas, the brother of James" the Less (Jude 1:1 ), called also Lebbaeus (Matthew 10:3 ) and Thaddaeus (Mark 3:18 ). The genuineness of this epistle was early questioned, and doubts regarding it were revived at the time of the Reformation; but the evidences in support of its claims are complete. It has all the marks of having proceeded from the writer whose name it bears. There is nothing very definite to determine the time and place at which it was written. It was apparently written in the later period of the apostolic age, for when it was written there were persons still alive who had heard the apostles preach (ver. 17). It may thus have been written about A.D. 66 or 70, and apparently in Palestine.

The epistle is addressed to Christians in general (ver. 1), and its design is to put them on their guard against the misleading efforts of a certain class of errorists to which they were exposed. The style of the epistle is that of an "impassioned invective, in the impetuous whirlwind of which the writer is hurried along, collecting example after example of divine vengeance on the ungodly; heaping epithet upon epithet, and piling image upon image, and, as it were, labouring for words and images strong enough to depict the polluted character of the licentious apostates against whom he is warning the Church; returning again and again to the subject, as though all language was insufficient to give an adequate idea of their profligacy, and to express his burning hatred of their perversion of the doctrines of the gospel."

The striking resemblance this epistle bears to 2Peter suggests the idea that the author of the one had seen the epistle of the other.

The doxology with which the epistle concludes is regarded as the finest in the New Testament.



Holman Bible Dictionary - Jude, the Book of
Letter of exhortation to those who are “called” (Jude 1:1 ) and “beloved” (Jude 1:3 ,Jude 1:3,1:17 ,Jude 1:17,1:20 ), to “contend for the faith which was once delivered unto the saints” (Jude 1:3 ). Simultaneously, it is a direct attack against the opponents of the gospel. Following his negative description of the opponents, Jude concluded the letter by urging his readers to have attitudes and life-styles different from the opponents. Then he committed them to the Lord's safekeeping in one of the most beautiful benedictions in Holy Scripture (Jude 1:24-25 ). The authorship of this little letter has traditionally been ascribed to Jude, the half-brother of Jesus (Mark 6:3 ). Although the letter says nothing directly about the date, origin, or destination of the letter, it is generally thought that the book was written later than A.D. 60 and earlier than A.D. 100. This is because the content of the faith is clearly fixed (Jude 1:3 ) and the congregation is comprised of second-generation Christians (Jude 1:17 ). The recipients were most likely Jewish-Christians in Syria, known to have been a likely place for the kind of heresy the letter addresses.

The hard-hitting attack denounces the demoralizing faction that has slipped into the congregation (Jude 1:4 ,Jude 1:4,1:12 ). They are arrogant in theology; they boast of visions and revile angelic beings (Jude 1:8-10 ). They are self-centered (Jude 1:4 ,Jude 1:4,1:8 ,Jude 1:8,1:15 ); they create divisions (Jude 1:16-19 ) and leave disappointment behind (Jude 1:12 ).

Jude, by use of a creative interpretation of Old Testament examples (some found in noncanonical sources), responds with two sets of three exhortations. His first set of examples appeal to:

(1) the murmuring Israelites (2) the fallen angels (3) those in Sodom and Gomorrah.

The second set appeals to:

(1) Cain (2) Balaam (who in Rabbinic tradition is the father of the libertines) (3) Korah (who challenged Moses' authority).

He tells the believers to:

(1) pray in the Spirit (2) keep themselves in the love of God (3) await the coming of the Lord Jesus Christ.

Then he concludes by exhorting them to:

(1) show mercy (2) snatch others from the brink of disaster (3) avoid those who have fallen under false teaching.

Jude is a helpful book, for it reminds us that God alone can safely bring believers through the hazardous environment. While false teachers may reject Christ's authority, Jesus is our Savior and Lord now and forevermore.

Outline

I. Introduction (1-2)

II. An Appeal to Struggle for the Faith (3-4)

A. Authentic Christians contend for the true faith (3).

B. Pseudo-Christians live immoral lives and deny Christ (4).

III. The Certainty of Divine Judgment (5-7)

A. Hebrew history shows the certainty of judgment (5).

B. Fallen angels show the certainty of judgment (6).

C. Immoral Sodom and Gomorrah show the certainty of judgment (7).

IV. A Description of Heretics (8-19)

A. They defile the body (8a).

B. They flaunt authority (8b-11).

C. They practice immoralities (12-16).

D. They follow ungodly lusts (17-19).

V. An Exhortation to the Faithful (20-23)

A. Grow in the faith (20a).

B. Pray in the Holy Spirit (20b).

C. Remain in the love of God (21a).

D. Anticipate the coming of Jesus (12b).

E. Minister to erring Christians (22-23).

VI. Conclusion: Praise for the Only God and Savior (24-25)

David S. Dockery



Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Jude, Epistle of
JUDE, EPISTLE OF. This short epistle is an earnest warning and appeal, couched in vivid and picturesque language, addressed to a church or a circle of churches which have become suddenly exposed to a mischievous attack of false teaching.

1. Contents

(1) Text . For its length Jude offers an unusual number of textual problems, the two most important of which are in Judges 1:5 and Judges 1:22-23 . Though the RV [Note: Revised Version.] is probably right in translating ‘Lord’ in Judges 1:5 , many ancient authorities read ‘Jesus.’ Also, the position of ‘once’ is doubtful, some placing it in the following clause. In Judges 1:22-23 editors differ as to whether there are two clauses or three. The RV [Note: Revised Version.] , following the Sinaitic, has three; and Weymouth also, who, however, follows A in his ‘resultant’ text based on a consensus of editorial opinion. But there is much in favour of a two-claused sentence beginning with either ‘have mercy’ or ‘refute.’

(2) Outline

(i.) Salutation, Judges 1:1-2 . The letter opens moat appropriately with the prayer that mercy, peace, and love may increase among the readers, who are guarded by the love of God unto the day when Jesus Christ will appear.

(ii.) Occasion of the Epistle, Judges 1:3-4 . With affectionate greeting Jude informs his readers that he was engaged upon an epistle setting forth the salvation held by all Christians Jews and Gentiles when he was surprised by news which showed him that their primary need was warning and exhortation; for the one gospel which has been entrusted to the keeping of the ‘saints’ had been endangered in their case by a surreptitious invasion of false teachers, who turned the gospel of grace into a plea for lust, thereby practically denying the lordship of Jesus Christ. It had long been foretold that the Church would be faced by this crisis through these persons. (This was a common expectation in the Apostolic age; see 2 Thessalonians 2:3 , 1 Timothy 4:1 , 2 Timothy 3:1 f., 2 Timothy 4:3 , 2 Peter 3:3 , Matthew 24:11-12 .)

(iii.) Warnings from history, Matthew 24:5-7 . Versed as they are in Scripture, they should take warning from the judgments of God under the Old Covenant. His people were destroyed for a postasy, though they had lately been saved from Egypt. Even angels were visited with eternal punishment for breaking bounds, and for fornication like that for which afterwards the cities of the plain perished. These are all awful examples of the doom that awaits those guilty of apostasy and sensuality.

(iv.) Description of the invaders, Matthew 24:8-16 . Boasting of their own knowledge through visions, these false teachers abandon themselves to sensuality, deny retribution, and scoff at the power of a spiritual world. Yet even Michael the archangel, when contending with Satan for the body of Moses, did not venture to dispute his function as Accuser, but left him and his blasphemies to a higher tribunal. But these persons, professing a knowledge of the spiritual realm of which they are really ignorant, have no other knowledge than that of sensual passion like the beasts, and are on their way to ruin. Sceptical like Cain, greedy inciters to lust like Balaam, rebellious like Korah, they are plunging into destruction. Would-be shepherds, they sacrilegiously pollute the love-feasts; delusive prophets, hopelessly dead in sin, shameless in their apostasy, theirs is the doom foretold by Enoch on the godless. They murmur against their fate, which they have brought upon themselves by lewdness, and they bluster, though on occasion they cringe for their own advantage.

(v.) The conduct of the Christian in this crisis, Matthew 24:17-23 . The Church need not be surprised by this attack, since it was foretold by the Apostles as a sign of the end, but should resist the disintegrating influence of these essentially unspiritual persons. The unity of the Church is to be preserved by mutual edification in Divine truth, by prayer through the indwelling Spirit, by keeping within the range of Divine love, and by watching for the day when Christ will come in mercy as Judge. Waverers must be mercifully dealt with; even the sensual are not past hope, though the work of rescue is very dangerous.

(vi.) Doxology, Matthew 24:24-25 . God alone, who can guard the waverer from stumbling, and can remove the stains of sin and perfect our salvation through Jesus Christ, is worthy of all glory.

2. Situation of the readers . The recipients of Jude may have belonged to one church or to a circle of churches in one district. They were evidently Gentiles, and of come standing ( Matthew 24:3 ; Matthew 24:5 ). The Epistle affords very little evidence for the locality of the readers, but Syria or the Hellenistic cities of Palestine seem to suit the conditions. Syria would be a likely field for a distortion of the Pauline gospel of grace ( Matthew 24:4 ). Also, if Jude was the brother of James of Jerusalem, whose influences extended throughout Palestine and probably Syria ( Galatians 2:9 ; Galatians 2:12 ), the address in Galatians 2:1 is explained. Syria was a breeding-ground for those tendencies which developed into the Gnostic systems of the 2nd century. Even as early as 1 Cor. ideas similar to these were troubling the Church ( 1Co 5:10 ; 1 Corinthians 11:17 ff.), and when the Apocalypse was written the churches of Asia were distressed by the Nicolaitans and those who, like Balaam, led the Israelites into idolatrous fornication ( Revelation 2:2 ; Revelation 2:6 ; Revelation 2:14-15 ). In 3 Jn. there is further evidence of insubordination to Apostolic authority. New esoteric doctrine, fornication, and the assumption of prophetic power within the Church for the sake of personal aggrandizement, are features common to all. Jude differs in not mentioning idolatry. Possibly magic played no inconsiderable part in the practice of these libertines. We know that it met the gospel early in its progress ( Acts 8:9-24 ; Acts 13:6-12 ; Acts 19:18-19 ). There is, however, no trace in Jude of a highly elaborated speculative system like those of the 2nd cent. Gnosticism. These persons deny the gospel by their lives, a practical rather than an intellectual revolt against the truth. The inference from Acts 19:5-7 is that these errorists would not refuse to acknowledge the OT as a source of instruction; being in this also unlike Gnostics of the 2nd century. The phenomenon, as it is found in Jude, is quite explicable in the last quarter of the 1st century.

3. Authorship . The author of this Epistle is very susceptible to literary influence, especially that of Paul. Compare Judges 1:1 with 1Th 1:4 , 2 Thessalonians 2:13 ; Judges 1:10 ; Judges 1:19 with 1 Corinthians 2:14 ; Judges 1:20-21 with Romans 5:5 ; Romans 8:26 , Colossians 2:7 ; Judges 1:24-25 with Romans 16:25-27 , Colossians 1:22 ; and with the Pastoral Epistles frequently, e.g. , 1 Timothy 1:3 ; 1Ti 1:17 ; 1 Timothy 5:24 ; 1Ti 6:5 , 2 Timothy 3:6 ; 2Ti 3:8 ; 2 Timothy 3:13 ; 2 Timothy 4:3 f. His relation to 2Peter is so close that one probably borrowed from the other, though there is great diversity of opinion as to which. See Peter [Second Ep. of], 4. ( e ). Bigg suggests ‘that the errors denounced in both Epistles took their origin from Corinth, that the disorder was spreading, that St. Peter took alarm and wrote his Second Epistle, sending a copy to St. Jude with a warning of the urgency of the danger, and that St. Jude at once Issued a similar letter to the churches in which he was personally interested.’ Jude is also unique in the NT in his use of apocryphal writings the Assumption of Moses in 2 Timothy 4:9 , and the Book of Enoch in v. 6, 14, 15 almost in the same way as Scripture.

The Jude who writes cannot be the Apostle Judas (Luke 6:16 , Acts 1:13 ), nor does he ever assume Apostolic authority. James ( Acts 1:1 ) must be the head of the Jerusalem Church, and the brother of our Lord. Jude probably called himself ‘servant’ and not ‘brother’ of Jesus Christ ( Matthew 13:55 , Mark 6:3 ), because he felt that his unbelief in Jesus in the days of His flesh did not make that term a title of honour, and he may have come to understand the truth that faith, not blood, constitutes true kinship with Christ. The difficulty of accounting for the choice of such a pseudonym, and the absence from the letter of any substantial improbability against the traditional view, make it reasonable to hold that Jude the brother of our Lord was the author. He may have written it between a.d. 75 and 80, probably before 81, for Hegesippus (170) states that Jude’s grandsons were small farmers in Palestine, and were brought before Domitian (81 96) and contemptuously dismissed.

4. External testimony . In the age of the Apostolic Fathers the only witness to Jude is the Didache , and that is so faint as to count for little. By the beginning of the 3rd cent. it was well known in the west, being included in the Muratorian Fragment ( c [Note: circa, about.] . 200), commented upon by Clement of Alexandria, and accepted by Origen and by Tertullian. Ensebius places it among the ‘disputed’ books, saying that it had little early recognition. It is absent from the Peshitta version. The quotations from apocryphal writings hindered its acceptance, but the early silence, on the assumption of its genuineness, is to be accounted for chiefly by its brevity and its comparative unimportance.

R. A. Falconer.

Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Jude Epistle of
1. Relation to 2 Peter.-The striking coincidences between this Epistle and the Second Epistle of Peter, covering the greater part of the shorter writing, raise in an acute form the question of relative priority. It is best, however, to investigate each Epistle independently before approaching the problem of their mutual relations. Since, however, the present writer, in spite of the attempts made by Spitta, Zahn, and Bigg to prove the dependence of Jude on 2 Peter, is convinced, with the great majority of critics, that 2 Peter is based on Jude, the discussion of this question is not raised in this article but postponed to that on Peter, Epistles of.

2. Contents.-The writer of the Epistle seems to have been diverted from the project of a more extensive composition by the urgent necessity of exhorting his readers ‘to contend earnestly for the faith which was once for all delivered unto the saints’ (Judges 1:3). Whether he had made any progress with his work on ‘our common salvation,’ or, if so, whether he subsequently completed his interrupted enterprise, we do not know. In any case, we possess no other work from his hand than this brief Epistle. The urgency of the crisis completely absorbs him. His letter is wholly occupied with the false teachers and their propaganda, which is imperilling the soundness of doctrine, the purity of morals, and the sanctities of religion. He does not refute them; he denounces and threatens them. Hot indignation at their corruption of the true doctrine and loathing for the vileness of their perverted morals inspire his fierce invective. The situation did not seem to him appropriate for academic discussion; the unsophisticated moral instinct was enough to guide all who possessed it to a right judgment of such abominations. History shows us their predecessors, and from the fate which overtook them the doom of these reprobates of the last time can be plainly foreseen (Judges 1:5-7; Judges 1:11). Indeed, it had been announced by Enoch, who in that far-off age had prophesied directly of the Divine judgment that would overtake them (Judges 1:14 f.).

But, while nothing is wanting to the vehemence of attack, we can form only a very vague impression as to the tenets of the false teachers. The writer assumes that his readers are familiar with their doctrines, and his method does not require any exposition of their errors such as would have been involved in any attempt to refute them. It is, accordingly, not strange that very divergent views have been held as to their identity. Our earliest suggestion on this point comes from Clement of Alexandria (Strom. iii. 2), who taught that Jude was describing prophetically the Gnostic sect known as the Carpocratians. Grotius (Praep. in Ep. Judae) also thought that this sect was the object of the writer’s denunciation; but, since he held that Jude was attacking contemporary heretics, he assigned the Epistle to Jude the last Bishop of Jerusalem, in the reign of Hadrian. This view has found little, if any, acceptance; but the identification of the false teachers with the Carpocratians has been widely accepted by modern scholars. There are certainly striking points of contact.

Carpocrates, who lived at Alexandria in the first half of the 2nd cent. (perhaps about a.d. 130-150), taught that the world was made by angels who had revolted from God. The soul of Jesus through its superior vigour remembered what it had seen when with God. He was, however, an ordinary man, but endowed with powers which enabled Him to outwit the world-angels. Similarly, any soul which could despise them would triumph over them and thus become the equal of Jesus. Great stress was laid on magic as a means of salvation. The immorality of the sect rivalled that of the Cainites. It was defended by a curious doctrine of transmigration, according to which it was necessary for the soul to go through various human bodies till it completed the circle of human experience; but if all of this-including, of course, the full range of immoral conduct-could be crowded into one lifetime, the necessity for such transmigration was obviated.

The language of the Epistle would quite well suit the Carpocratians, especially in its reference to the combination of error in teaching with lasciviousness in conduct. The railing at dignitaries with which the writer charges the false teachers (Judges 1:8) would answer very well to the attitude of Carpocrates towards the angels. But we should probably reject any identification so definite. The characteristics mentioned by Jude were the monopoly of no sect. The indications point to teaching of a much less developed type. It is not even certain that it was Gnostic in character, though the signs point strongly in that direction. The Gnostics were wont to describe themselves as ‘spiritual,’ and the ordinary members of the Church as ‘psychics.’ If the false teachers were Gnostics, we understand who Jude should retort upon them the accusation that they were ‘sensual’ (lit. [Note: literally, literature.] ‘psychics’), ‘not having the Spirit’ (Judges 1:19). They blaspheme that of which they are ignorant. The charge that they deny the only Master (Judges 1:4) may be an allusion to the dualism of the Gnostics, which drew a distinction between the supreme God and the Creator. They are dreamers (Judges 1:8), i.e. false prophets, who speak swelling words (Judges 1:16). The statement that they have gone in the way of Cain (Judges 1:11) reminds us very forcibly of the Ophite sect known as the Cainites (q.v. [Note: quod vide, which see.] ). But, while all these indications point to some rudimentary form of Gnosticism, it cannot be said that they definitely demand such a reference. Not only are they very vague and general; they could be accounted for without recourse to Gnosticism at all. The problem in some respects hangs together with that presented by other descriptions of false teaching which we find in the NT, especially in the Epistle to the Colossians, the Pastoral Epistles, the Letters to the Seven Churches, and the Epistles of John (q.v. [Note: quod vide, which see.] ). In the judgment of the present writer, the identification with a Gnostic tendency seems on the whole to be probable, but by no means so secure as to determine without more ado the question of date.

3. Date and authorship.-The determination of the date is closely connected with the problem of authorship. There can be no reasonable doubt that the clause ‘the brother of James’ (Judges 1:1) is meant to identify the author as Jude, the Lord’s brother. If the conclusions reached in the preceding article are correct, this Jude was probably dead at the latest by a.d. 80. The question whether the Epistle can have been written so early is not easy to decide. The author not only distinguishes himself from the apostles, which the Lord’s brother would naturally have done, but he looks back on their age as one which has already passed away (Judges 1:17), and is conscious that he is living in ‘the last time,’ when their prophecy of the corning of ‘mockers’ is being fulfilled (Judges 1:18). The language has a striking parallel in 1 John 2:18, and it would be easier to understand in the closing decade of the 1st cent. than twenty years earlier. Such phrases as ‘the faith which was once for all delivered unto the saints’ (1 John 2:3), or ‘your most holy faith’ (1 John 2:20), are also more easily intelligible when the fluid theology of the primitive age was hardening into a definite creed. The external evidence can be reconciled with either view. It is true that the earliest attestation of the Epistle is late. If the usual view is correct, Jude was employed by the author of 2 Peter; but, since that work itself belongs in all probability to a date well on in the 2nd cent., its evidence is of little value on this point. Jude is reckoned as canonical in the Muratorian Canon; it is quoted by Tertullian (de Cultu Fem. i. 3), Clement of Alexandria (Paed. iii. 8. 44, Strom. iii. 2), and Origen (in Matth. x. 17, xv. 27, xvii. 30); not, however, by Irenaeus. Eusebius (HE [Note: E Historia Ecclesiastica (Eusebius, etc.).] iii. 25, 31; cf. ii. 23, 25) regards it as one of the disputed books, and Jerome (de Vir. illustr. iv.) tells us that in his time it was rejected by many. But the lateness of any quotation of it and the suspicion entertained of it are of little moment. Its brevity would sufficiently account for the silence of earlier writers; the fact that it was not written by an apostle, or its reference (vv. 9, 14f.) to Jewish Apocalypses (The Assumption of Moses and The Book of Enoch), would explain its rejection by those to whom Eusebius and Jerome refer. These objections simply rest on a theoretical assumption of what a canonical work ought to be; no historical evidence lies behind them.

The opening words of the Epistle, ‘Judas, a servant of Jesus Christ, and brother of James,’ constitute a weighty argument in favour of the traditional view that it was written by Jude the Lord’s brother. The attempt to treat this as embodying a false claim deliberately made by the author is open to grave objections. Apparently we have to reckon with the deliberate adoption of a pseudonym by the author of 2 Peter. But this case is probably solitary in the NT; and, unless we are driven to adopt such suggestions, it is desirable to avoid them as far as possible. Apart from this, however, it is not easy to see why the author should have hit upon a personality so obscure as Jude. If he did so because the relationship to James gave his name prestige, it might be asked why he should not have attributed it to James himself. The suggestion that it was sent to districts where Jude had laboured and was held in high regard is exposed to the difficulty that the recipients would naturally ask, How is it that we hear of this letter for the first time now that Jude has been some years dead? We are then reduced to the alternatives of admitting the authenticity, or of supposing that the identification with the Lord’s brother was no original part of the Epistle. If the preceding discussion has pointed to the probability that the false teaching assailed was Gnostic in character, and that other phenomena in the Epistle make it unlikely that it was earlier than the closing decade of the 1st cent., the second alternative must be preferred. In that case the most probable explanation of the opening words is that the author’s name was really Jude, and that the phrase ‘and brother of James’ was inserted by a scribe who wished to make it clear which Jude was intended. The precise date must of course remain very uncertain. Nothing compels us to go below the year a.d. 100. Moreover, the author has apparently a new situation to deal with. It ought, however, to be frankly recognized that the Epistle is quite conceivable as the work of Jude the Lord’s brother in the decade a.d. 70-80.

4. Destination.-Nothing is known as to the destination of the Epistle, nor can anything be inferred with confidence. It is not clear whether the Epistle is catholic or is addressed to readers in a definite locality, though the former is perhaps the more likely view.

Literature.-Commentaries by Huther in Meyer (1852, Eng. translation from 4th ed., 1881), Meyer-Kühl (1897), Meyer-Knopf (1912), H. von Soden (1890, 31899), E. H. Plumptre (Cambridge Bible, 1880), C. Bigg (International Critical Commentary , 1901), W. H. Bennett (Century Bible, 1901), J. B. Mayor (1907), who also contributes the Commentary to Expositor’s Greek Testament (1910), Hollmann (1907), Windisch (1911); F. Spitta, Der zweite Brief des Petrus und der Brief des Judas, 1885; the relevant sections in NT Introductions, especially these by H. J. Holtzmann (31892); A. Jülicher (51906, Eng. translation , 1904); T. Zahn (Eng. translation , 1909, ii.); W. F. Adeney (1899), and J. Moffatt (1911); articles by F. H. Chase in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) , Sieffert in Realencyklopädie für protestantische Theologie und Kirche 3, O. Cone in Encyclopaedia Biblica , R. A. Falconer in Hastings’ Single-vol. Dictionary of the Bible .

A. S. Peake.

Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Jude, the Lord's Brother
The list of the Lord’s brothers is given in Mark 6:3 as ‘James, and Joses, and Judas [Authorized Version ‘Juda’], and Simon,’ in Matthew 13:55 as ‘James, and Joseph, and Simon, and Judas.’ It would be precarious, even apart from the variation in order, to infer that Judas was one of the younger brothers of Jesus; still, this is not improbable, especially if, as the present writer believes, ‘the brethren of the Lord’ were sons of Joseph and Mary. We know practically nothing of his history. If the statement in John 7:5 can be trusted, that at that time the brethren of Jesus did not believe in Him, he cannot be identified with ‘Judas, the son of James,’ who is mentioned in Luke’s list of the apostles (Luke 6:16, Acts 1:13), and described in John 14:22 as ‘Judas (not Iscariot).’ We may assume from Acts 1:14 that in the interval between the incident, recorded in John 7:3-10 and the Ascension, Jude and his brothers had recognized the Messiahship of Jesus. We gather from 1 Corinthians 9:5 that ‘the brethren of the Lord’ were married to Christian wives, by whom they were accompanied on missionary journeys. Presumably these references included Jude. He seems to have taken no very prominent position in the Church, being overshadowed, like Joses and Simon, by James. The date of his death is uncertain, but the evidence of Hegesippus, quoted in Historia Ecclesiastica (Eusebius, etc.)iii. xx., suggests that he died before Domitian came to the throne. Eusebius informs us that the grandchildren of Jude were brought before Domitian, as descendants of David, but released when the Emperor discovered that they were horny-handed husbandmen, who were expecting a heavenly kingdom at Christ’s Second Coming. They survived till the reign of Trajan. The last statement suggests that a considerable interval elapsed between the interview with the Emperor and their death; and, inasmuch as the reign of Domitian (a.d. 81-96) was separated from that of Trajan (a.d. 98-117) only by Nerva’s short reign of two years (a.d. 96-98), we should probably place the interview quite early in Domitian’s reign. Since not Jude alone but presumably the father of these grandsons was apparently dead at the time, it is hardly likely that the death of Jude occurred at a later date than the decade a.d. 70-80, when he would be well advanced in years. This has an important though not decisive bearing on the question whether the Epistle of Jude is rightly assigned to him (see following article).

A. S. Peake.

People's Dictionary of the Bible - Jude
Jude (jûde), Epistle of. It is referred to by Clement of Alexandria, Tertullian, and Origen. It was probably written in Palestine, about a.d. 65. This epistle seems to have been intended to guard the faithful against prevalent errors, and to urge them to constancy in the faith. It is not improbable that Peter had read Jude's epistle, when he wrote his Second epistle; and that the thoughts, under the influence of the Holy Spirit, had made a strong impression upon his mind.

1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Epistle of Saint Jude
When rising heresies endangered the faith of the Hebrew Christian communities, the Apostle Jude, with the surname Thaddeus (Matthew 10), the brother of James the Less (Luke 6) and one of the "brethren of the Lord" (Matthew 13), addressed to them his "Catholic Epistle" as a warning against the false prophets. With picturesque forcefulness the author expresses a wealth of practical doctrine in this singularly brief document. The illustrations are mostly drawn from the Old Testament and, what is remarkable, from the Jewish apocalyptic literature, i.e.,The Assumption of Moses (verse 9) and the Book of Enoch (verse 14). The historical proofs of divine punishment (5-7) are a prophetic assurance that a like punishment is awaiting the depraved teachers. Hence the readers must be faithful to the teaching of the Apostles. The Epistle was most probably written in Jerusalem after the death of its first bishop, James, to whose authority the author makes appeal in verse 1, and before the destruction of the city, hence about 65 AD.

The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Jude
See Judas

Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Jude
EPISTLE OF, a canonical book of the New Testament, written against the heretics, who, by their impious doctrines and disorderly lives, corrupted the faith and good morals of Christians. The author of this epistle, called Judas, and also Thaddeus and Lebbeus, was one of the twelve Apostles; he was the son of Alpheus, brother of James the less, and one of those who were called our Lord's brethren. We are not informed when, or how, he was called to be an Apostle; but it has been conjectured, that, before his vocation to the Apostleship, he was a husbandman, that he was married, and that he had children. The only account we have of him in particular, is that which occurs in John 14:21-23 . It is not unreasonable to suppose that, after having received, in common with other Apostles, extraordinary gifts at the pentecost, he preached the Gospel for some time in several parts of the land of Israel, and wrought miracles in the name of Christ. And, as his life seems to have been prolonged, it is probable that he afterward left Judea, and went abroad preaching the Gospel to Jews and Gentiles in other countries. Some have said that he preached in Arabia, Syria, Mesopotamia, and Persia; and that he suffered martyrdom in the last mentioned country. But we have no account of his travels upon which we can rely; and it may be questioned whether he was a martyr.

In the early ages of Christianity, several rejected the Epistle of St. Jude, because the apocryphal books of Enoch, and the ascension of Moses, are quoted in it. Nevertheless, it is to be found in all the ancient catalogues of the sacred writings; and Clement, of Alexandria, Tertullian, and Origen quote it as written by Jude, and reckon it among the books of sacred Scripture. In the time of Eusebius it was generally received. As to the objections that have been urged against its authority, Dr. Lardner suggests that there is no necessity for supposing that St. Jude quoted a book called Enoch or Enoch's prophecies; and even allowing that he did quote it, he gives it no authority; it was no canonical book of the Jews; and if such a book existed among the Jews, it was apocryphal, and yet there might be in it some right things. Instead of referring to a book called the "Assumption or Ascension of Christ," which probably was a forgery much later than his time, it is much more credible that St. Jude refers to the vision in Zechariah 3:1-3 . It has been the opinion of several writers, and, among others, of Hammond and Benson, that St. Jude addressed his epistle to the Jewish Christians; but Dr. Lardner infers, from the words of the inscription of the epistle, verses, 1, 3, that it was designed for the use of all in general who had embraced the Christian religion. The last mentioned author supposes that this epistle was written A.D. 64, 65, or 66.

American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Jude
See JUDAS 2.

The EPISTLE OF JUDE, assigned conjecturally to the year 66 A. D., is a fervid and vehement voice of warning against following certain false teachers in their errors and corruptions, and so sharing their awful doom. It resembles the second epistle of Peter. As to the quotation in Jude 1:14,15 , see ENOCH 2.

Smith's Bible Dictionary - Jude,
called also LEBBEUS and THADDEUS , Authorized Version "Judas the brother of James," one of the twelve apostles. The name of Jude occurs only once in the Gospel narrative. ( John 14:22 ; Matthew 10:3 ; Mark 3:18 ; Luke 6:16 ; John 14:22 ; Acts 1:13 ) Nothing is certainly known of the later history of the apostle. Tradition connects him with the foundation of the church at Edessa.
Smith's Bible Dictionary - Jude, Epistle of
Its author was probably Jude, one of the brethren of Jesus, the subject of the preceding article. There are no data from which to determine its date or place of writing, but it is placed about A.D. 65. The object of the epistle is plainly enough announced ver. 3; the reason for this exhortation is given ver.
The remainder of the epistle is almost entirely occupied by a minute depiction of the adversaries of the faith. The epistle closes by briefly reminding the readers of the oft-repeated prediction of the apostles --among whom the writer seems not to rank himself --that the faith would be assailed by such enemies as he has depicted, vs. (Jude 1:17-19 ) exhorting them to maintain their own steadfastness in the faith, vs. (Jude 1:20,21 ) while they earnestly sought to rescue others from the corrupt example of those licentious livers, vs. (Jude 1:22,23 ) and commending them to the power of God in language which forcibly recalls the closing benediction of the epistle to the Romans. vs. (Jude 1:24,25 ) cf. Roma 16:25-27 This epistle presents one peculiarity, which, as we learn from St. Jerome, caused its authority to be impugned in very early times --the supposed citation of apocryphal writings. vs. (Jude 1:9,14,15 ) The larger portion of this epistle, vs. (Jude 1:3-16 ) is almost identical in language and subject with a part of the Second Epistle of Peter. (2 Peter 2:1-19 )
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Jude, Epistle of
Written by Jude the brother of James, and apparently the same person as the apostle JUDAS, q.v. The Epistle is addressed to "the called ones, beloved in God the Father and preserved in Jesus Christ." Apostasy had set in, and the saints are exhorted to contend for the faith divinely delivered. Ungodly ones had crept in, who abused the grace of God, and denied their only Master and Lord Jesus Christ.

Three instances are produced to show how apostasy had been punished:

1. Some of those saved out of Egypt were yet destroyed.

2. Fallen angels are kept in eternal chains for judgement.

3. Sodom and Gomorrha, which lie under the abiding effect of the judgement on them. Then the railers are put to shame by the conduct of Michael the archangel, who when rightly contending with Satan about the body of Moses did not rail against him, but said, "The Lord rebuke thee."

Three stages of departure from the way of truth are mentioned, with a woe upon those who are found in them:

1. The way of Cain — man's nature and will, and hatred of God's people: cf. 1 John 3:12 .

2. The error of Balaam for reward — ecclesiastical corruption: cf. Rev . 2:14.

3. The gainsaying of Core — opposition to the royalty and priesthood of Christ: cf. Numbers 16 : Such were doubly dead, by nature and apostasy, and are reserved for eternal darkness.

Enoch prophesied of the judgement on the ungodly when the Lord comes with His holy myriads. See ENOCH. The saints had been warned against some who separated themselves, as being superior to others, whereas they were only natural men, and had not the Spirit. The saints were to build up themselves on their most holy faith; and by prayer in the Holy Spirit to keep themselves experimentally in the love of God, awaiting the mercy of the Lord Jesus Christ unto eternal life. They were to try to save others. The Epistle closes with a full ascription of praise to Him who is able to keep His saints from stumbling and set them with exultation blameless before His glory.

The American Church Dictionary and Cycopedia - Jude, Saint
Also called Thaddaeus or Labbaeus, "the brother ofJames," and whose name sometimes appears as Judas, and in oneinstance it is added in parenthesis, "not Iscariot." St. Jude wasan Apostle of our Lord and wrote the Epistle which bears his name.He is sometimes called the Jeremiah of the New Testament, as hewrote to the Church in "solemn and rugged language of present perilsand coming storms." The object of his Epistle is to contendearnestly for pure Christian doctrine, and it is he who has givenus that stirring text which is adopted as a motto by all true andloyal Churchmen, viz.: "that ye should earnestly contend for theFaith which was once delivered to the Saints." He is said to havebeen married and to have left descendants who were summoned beforethe Emperor Domitian as confessors for Christ's sake. St. Jude iscommemorated on the double Festival of St. Simon and St. Jude,observed on October 28th. It may be that the union of these twonames is intended to be an illustration of that unity of the Faithfor which the Epistle of St. Jude so strongly contends, as thesetwo Apostles ministered and suffered together, (See SIMON, ST.) TheCollect for the Day embodies this idea. In ecclesiastical artSt. Jude is variously represented, as having a boat in his hand; aboat hook; a carpenter's square; a ship with sails in his hand;carrying loaves or a fish; with a club; with an inverted cross; witha medallion of our Saviour on his breast or in his hand; with ahalbert; as a child with a boat in his hand.

Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Jude, the Epistle of
Authenticity. Eusebius (H. E. iii. 25) reckons it among the disputed (antilegomena ) scriptures, but recognized by the majority. The doubts about it arose probably from the reference to the mysterious conflict of Michael the archangel with Satan concerning Moses' body, nowhere else mentioned in Scripture, but found in the apocryphal Book of Enoch. So Jerome, Catalog. Scriptor. Ecclesiastes 4. Its being addressed generally, and to no particular church, also retarded its recognition as canonical; also its identity in the main with 2 Peter 2. If Jude indeed quotes the passage from the Book of Enoch he thereby stamps with inspired approval that passage, not the whole book, just as Paul sanctions particular sentiments from Aratus, Epimenides, and Menander (Acts 17:28; Titus 1:12; 1 Corinthians 15:33). But as Jude differs a little from the Book of Enoch, written probably by a Jew thoroughly imbued with Daniel's sacred writings, it is likely he rather sanctions the current tradition of the Jews as to Enoch's prophecies, just as Paul names the Egyptian magicians "Jannes and Jambres," though the Old Testament does not. Jude, under the Spirit, took the one gem out of the mass of earthy matter surrounding it, and set it in the gold of inspiration. (See ENOCH.)

So Jude also stamps as true the tradition as to the archangel Michael's dispute with Satan concerning Moses' body (Judges 1:9; compare Deuteronomy 34:6). As John (second and third Epistles) calls himself "the elder," so James and Jude call themselves "servants of Jesus Christ." Clemens Alex. (Adumbr. 1007) says, "Jude through reverential awe did not call himself brother, but servant, of Jesus Christ, and brother of James." He cites Judges 1:1 as Scripture (ver. 8,17: Strom. 3:2, section 11; and ver. 5 in Paedagog. 3:8, section 44). Tertullian (de Cultu Faem. 3) cites the epistle as that of the apostle Jude. The Muratori Fragm., A.D. 170, asserts its canonicity (Routh Reliq. Sacr. 1:306). Origen (comm. on Matthew 13:55) says "Jude the Lord's brother wrote an epistle of few lines, but full of the strong words of heavenly grace." Also he quotes ver. 6 (comm. on Matthew 22:23) and ver. 1 (comm. on Matthew 18:10). Jerome (Catalog. Scriptor. Ecclesiastes) reckons it among the Scriptures.

The oldest manuscripts of the Peshito Syriac omit it, but Ephraem Syrus recognizes it. It was circulated in the E. and W. in the second century. To whom addressed. The references to Old Testament history (Judges 1:5; Judges 1:7) and to Jewish tradition (Judges 1:14 ff) render it probable Jude addressed Jewish Christians primarily, then all Christians (Judges 1:1). The kindred epistle, 2 Peter, is similarly addressed. The persons stigmatized were heretics in doctrine, "denying the only Lord God and our Saviour Jesus Christ," and libertines in practice. Hence Jude urges his readers "earnestly to contend for the faith once delivered unto the saints." Insubordination, self seeking, and licentiousness, resulting from antinomian teachings, are the evils stigmatized, against which Jude gives the only safeguards, namely, that believers should "build themselves in their most holy faith, and pray in the Holy Spirit." These evils, combined with mocking scepticism, shall characterize the days immediately before the Lord's coming to judgment, as when Enoch warned the ungodly just on the eve of the flood.

As Peter wrote his first epistle (see 1 Peter 5:13) and probably his second also at Babylon it is not unlikely that Jude too addressed primarily the Jewish Christians in and about Mesopotamian Babylon (a place of much resort of the Jews), or else the Christian Jews dispersed in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia, whom Peter, his model, addresses. For Jerome (Annot. in Mt.) says that Jude preached in Mesopotamia; and his epistle of 25 verses contains no less than eleven passages from 2 Peter. Probably Judges 1:4 witnesses to the fulfillment of Peter's prophecy, "there are certain men crept in unawares, who were before of old ordained (Greek 'forewritten,' i.e. announced beforehand, namely, by Peter's written prophecy) to this condemnation, ungodly men, denying the only Lord God and our Lord Jesus Christ."

Compare 2 Peter 2:1, "there shall be false teachers among you who privily shall bring in damnable heresies, even denying the Lord that bought them, and bring upon themselves swift destruction." Also Judges 1:17-18 quote 2 Peter 3:3," remember the words which were spoken before of the apostles of our Lord Jesus; how they told you that there should be mockers in the last time who should walk after their own ungodly lusts." As Peter confirms Paul's inspiration (2 Peter 3:15-16), so Jude confirms Peter's. The distinction between Jude and Peter is that Jude portrays adversaries of Christianity and heretics in general, Peter heretical teachers in particular.

Time and place of writing. If the time were after the fall of Jerusalem (A.D. 70), some think Jude would have scarcely omitted allusion to an event which uprooted the whole Jewish polity. But John in his epistles, certainly written after the destruction of Jerusalem, makes no allusion to it. The tone is that of a writer in Palestine; the title "brother of James" best suits a region where James was well known as the bishop of its metropolis. Judges 1:17-18 imply some time had elapsed since the date of the second epistle of Peter, written probably A.D. 68 or 69; if so, our epistle was written after the destruction of Jerusalem.

Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Jude
It is generally believed that the author of the letter of Jude was the younger brother of Jesus, whose original name Judas was later shortened to Jude (Mark 6:3). Jesus’ brothers at first did not accept him as the Son of God and the Davidic Messiah (John 7:5), but the resurrection must have caused them to change their minds. They were among the foundation members of the Jerusalem church (Acts 1:14; cf. 1 Corinthians 15:7).

Purpose and content of Jude’s letter

Jude’s purpose in writing his letter was to oppose a kind of false teaching which denied that practical self-control was necessary for those who had become Christians. They claimed that when a person passed into a higher experience of spiritual life, the deeds of the body could no longer affect the purity of the soul. In fact, immoral behaviour could be a sign of spiritual maturity.

Jude’s response to this was to warn his readers that those who taught and practised such immorality were perverting the gospel and bringing judgment upon themselves (v. 1-16). True Christians, besides learning more of Christian truth, kept themselves pure and developed practical godliness in their daily lives (v. 17-25).

The content of Jude is similar to that of 2 Peter. Perhaps one writer borrowed from the other; or, more likely, both used a kind of argument that was common in opposing the false teaching. Such false teaching was widespread during the latter half of the first century, and seems to have been yet another early form of Gnosticism.

Morrish Bible Dictionary - Jude
See JUDAS.

Sentence search

Jude, the Book of - Letter of exhortation to those who are “called” (Jude 1:1 ) and “beloved” (Jude 1:3 ,Jude 1:3,1:17 ,Jude 1:17,1:20 ), to “contend for the faith which was once delivered unto the saints” (Jude 1:3 ). Following his negative description of the opponents, Jude concluded the letter by urging his readers to have attitudes and life-styles different from the opponents. Then he committed them to the Lord's safekeeping in one of the most beautiful benedictions in Holy Scripture (Jude 1:24-25 ). The authorship of this little letter has traditionally been ascribed to Jude, the half-brother of Jesus (Mark 6:3 ). This is because the content of the faith is clearly fixed (Jude 1:3 ) and the congregation is comprised of second-generation Christians (Jude 1:17 ). ... The hard-hitting attack denounces the demoralizing faction that has slipped into the congregation (Jude 1:4 ,Jude 1:4,1:12 ). They are arrogant in theology; they boast of visions and revile angelic beings (Jude 1:8-10 ). They are self-centered (Jude 1:4 ,Jude 1:4,1:8 ,Jude 1:8,1:15 ); they create divisions (Jude 1:16-19 ) and leave disappointment behind (Jude 1:12 ). ... Jude, by use of a creative interpretation of Old Testament examples (some found in noncanonical sources), responds with two sets of three exhortations. ... Jude is a helpful book, for it reminds us that God alone can safely bring believers through the hazardous environment
Judas - Jude
Jude, Epistle of - Its author was probably Jude, one of the brethren of Jesus, the subject of the preceding article. (Jude 1:17-19 ) exhorting them to maintain their own steadfastness in the faith, vs. (Jude 1:20,21 ) while they earnestly sought to rescue others from the corrupt example of those licentious livers, vs. (Jude 1:22,23 ) and commending them to the power of God in language which forcibly recalls the closing benediction of the epistle to the Romans. (Jude 1:24,25 ) cf. (Jude 1:9,14,15 ) The larger portion of this epistle, vs. (Jude 1:3-16 ) is almost identical in language and subject with a part of the Second Epistle of Peter
co're - (Jude 1:11 ) [KORAH , 1]
Thaddeus - A surname of the apostle Jude
Jude - ... The EPISTLE OF Jude, assigned conjecturally to the year 66 A. As to the quotation in Jude 1:14,15 , see ENOCH 2
Archangel - (1 Thessalonians 4:16 ; Jude 1:9 ), the prince of the angels
Core - (coh' rih) KJV transliteration of Greek spelling of Korah in Jude 1:11
Lebbae'us - (a man of heart ), one name of Jude, who was one of the twelve apostles
Ungodliness, Ungodly - 1: ἀσέβεια (Strong's #763 — Noun Feminine — asebeia — as-eb'-i-ah ) "impiety, ungodliness," is used of (a) general impiety, Romans 1:18 ; 11:26 ; 2 Timothy 2:16 ; Titus 2:12 ; (b) "ungodly" deeds, Jude 1:15 , RV, "works of ungodliness;" (c) of lusts or desires after evil things, Jude 1:18 . ); 3:7; Jude 1:4,15 (twice). ... B — 1: ἀσεβέω (Strong's #764 — Verb — asebeo — as-eb-eh'-o ) akin to A and B, signifies (a) "to be or live ungodly," 2 Peter 2:6 ; (b) "to commit ungodly deeds," Jude 1:15
Jude, the Epistle of - If Jude indeed quotes the passage from the Book of Enoch he thereby stamps with inspired approval that passage, not the whole book, just as Paul sanctions particular sentiments from Aratus, Epimenides, and Menander (Acts 17:28; Titus 1:12; 1 Corinthians 15:33). But as Jude differs a little from the Book of Enoch, written probably by a Jew thoroughly imbued with Daniel's sacred writings, it is likely he rather sanctions the current tradition of the Jews as to Enoch's prophecies, just as Paul names the Egyptian magicians "Jannes and Jambres," though the Old Testament does not. Jude, under the Spirit, took the one gem out of the mass of earthy matter surrounding it, and set it in the gold of inspiration. )... So Jude also stamps as true the tradition as to the archangel Michael's dispute with Satan concerning Moses' body (Judges 1:9; compare Deuteronomy 34:6). As John (second and third Epistles) calls himself "the elder," so James and Jude call themselves "servants of Jesus Christ. 1007) says, "Jude through reverential awe did not call himself brother, but servant, of Jesus Christ, and brother of James. 3) cites the epistle as that of the apostle Jude. on Matthew 13:55) says "Jude the Lord's brother wrote an epistle of few lines, but full of the strong words of heavenly grace. The references to Old Testament history (Judges 1:5; Judges 1:7) and to Jewish tradition (Judges 1:14 ff) render it probable Jude addressed Jewish Christians primarily, then all Christians (Judges 1:1). Hence Jude urges his readers "earnestly to contend for the faith once delivered unto the saints. " Insubordination, self seeking, and licentiousness, resulting from antinomian teachings, are the evils stigmatized, against which Jude gives the only safeguards, namely, that believers should "build themselves in their most holy faith, and pray in the Holy Spirit. ... As Peter wrote his first epistle (see 1 Peter 5:13) and probably his second also at Babylon it is not unlikely that Jude too addressed primarily the Jewish Christians in and about Mesopotamian Babylon (a place of much resort of the Jews), or else the Christian Jews dispersed in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia, whom Peter, his model, addresses. ) says that Jude preached in Mesopotamia; and his epistle of 25 verses contains no less than eleven passages from 2 Peter. " As Peter confirms Paul's inspiration (2 Peter 3:15-16), so Jude confirms Peter's. The distinction between Jude and Peter is that Jude portrays adversaries of Christianity and heretics in general, Peter heretical teachers in particular. 70), some think Jude would have scarcely omitted allusion to an event which uprooted the whole Jewish polity
Lebbaeus - One of the twelve apostles, who was surnamed THADDAEUS, Matthew 10:3 ; apparently the apostle Jude
Simon (st.) And Saint Jude's Day - Jude who ministered in that country and whowas martyred by the Magi. Jude, see Jude, Saint
Lebbaeus - (See Jude
Jude, Saint - Jude wasan Apostle of our Lord and wrote the Epistle which bears his name. Jude iscommemorated on the double Festival of St. Jude,observed on October 28th. Jude so strongly contends, as thesetwo Apostles ministered and suffered together, (See SIMON, ST. Jude is variously represented, as having a boat in his hand; aboat hook; a carpenter's square; a ship with sails in his hand;carrying loaves or a fish; with a club; with an inverted cross; witha medallion of our Saviour on his breast or in his hand; with ahalbert; as a child with a boat in his hand
Catholic Epistles - Letters addressed by the Apostles not to any particular body, but to the Universal Church: two by Peter, one each by John, Jude, and James the Less
Epistles, Catholic - Letters addressed by the Apostles not to any particular body, but to the Universal Church: two by Peter, one each by John, Jude, and James the Less
Lebbaeus - Courageous, a surname of Judas (Jude), one of the twelve (Matthew 10:3 ), called also Thaddaeus, not to be confounded with the Judas who was the brother of our Lord
Greedily - Jude 1:11
Seventh - 1: ἕβδομος (Strong's #1442 — Adjective — hebdomos — heb'-dom-os ) occurs in John 4:52 ; Hebrews 4:4 (twice); Jude 1:14 ; Revelation 8:1 ; 10:7 ; 11:15 ; 16:17 ; 21:20
ju'Das, the Lord's Brother - (Matthew 13:55 ; Mark 6:3 ) Whether this and the Jude above are the same is still a disputed point
Dignities - Compare Jude 1:8
Thaddaeus - (See Jude
Myriad - See Jude 1:14 ; Revelation 5:11 ; Revelation 9:16 ; Luke 12:1 ; Acts 19:19 ; Acts 21:20 ; Hebrews 12:22
Judas - Called Jude in Jude 1 ; and apparently the same as 'Lebbaeus, whose surname was Thaddaeus
Twice - 1: δίς (Strong's #1364 — Adverb — dis — dece ) occurs in Mark 14:30,72 ; Luke 18:12 ; Jude 1:12 ; combined with nuriades, "ten thousand," in Revelation 9:16 ; rendered "again" in Philippians 4:16 ; 1 Thessalonians 2:18
Jude, the Lord's Brother - ’ We may assume from Acts 1:14 that in the interval between the incident, recorded in John 7:3-10 and the Ascension, Jude and his brothers had recognized the Messiahship of Jesus. Presumably these references included Jude. Eusebius informs us that the grandchildren of Jude were brought before Domitian, as descendants of David, but released when the Emperor discovered that they were horny-handed husbandmen, who were expecting a heavenly kingdom at Christ’s Second Coming. Since not Jude alone but presumably the father of these grandsons was apparently dead at the time, it is hardly likely that the death of Jude occurred at a later date than the decade a. This has an important though not decisive bearing on the question whether the Epistle of Jude is rightly assigned to him (see following article)
Jude, Theology of - Jude wrote this urgent letter to counter ungodly persons who turned the grace of God into lawlessness, and by their audacious blasphemy denied the Lord Jesus Christ. ... Jude exhorts the churches to defend the apostolic faith and to recognize that God will judge these false teachers. ... Jude's method is to remind the readers of what they already know and to reinforce that message. ... Jude (or Judah) identifies himself as "the brother of James, " implying that he is also the step brother of Jesus (Matthew 13:55 ; Mark 6:3 ) and that he has the authority to address these churches and condemn the false teachers. 17) and that the book was written later by another Jude or some unknown person. The date of this letter then must fall within Jude's lifetime, that is, in the middle or latter half of the first century. These may be churches Jude had visited on his itinerant ministries. The overarching theological perspective in Jude is eschatology. ... The dominant eschatological motif in Jude is the certainty of divine judgment. Jude's emphasis is upon the eschatological judgment of the great Day (v. ... These judgments are presented in Jude as types or prophecies that were being fulfilled by the false teachers (v. So Jude exhorted his readers to persuade some and to rescue others. Salvation in Jude is a call to eternal life (vv. Even though the word is not used, the church is the central concern of Jude's letter. It is evidenced by Jude, who addresses these churches as a servant of Jesus Christ and as a brother of James, the renowned leader of the church in Jerusalem (Acts 15:13 ; 21:18 ). Jude describes the ministry of local leaders as "sheperding" (v. ... Jude also appeals to Scripture as having authority for the church. In addition, Jude makes use of materials from the apocryphal writings of 1Enoch (v. The theology of Jude is explicitly monotheistic and implicitly Trinitarian. Jude emphasizes this by the use of two nouns, both "Master" (despotes [5,9, and especially 14), Jude's use of "Lord" may imply a reference to Jesus Christ as the fulfillment of the typological message of the texts, and the unity of Father and Son. ... The Holy Spirit is mentioned twice in Jude. Bauckham, 2Peter, Jude ; D
Ungodly - Jude 1:4
Dishonesty - 1: αἰσχύνη (Strong's #152 — Noun Feminine — aischune — ahee-skhoo'-nay ) "shame," so the RV in 2 Corinthians 4:2 (for AV, "dishonesty"), is elsewhere rendered "shame," Luke 14:9 ; Philippians 3:19 ; Hebrews 12:2 ; Jude 1:13 ; Revelation 3:18
Contend - , "to separate throughout or wholly" (dia, "asunder," krino, "to judge," from a root kri---, meaning "separation"), then, to distinguish, decide, signifies, in the Middle Voice, "to separate oneself from, or to contend with," as did the circumcisionists with Peter, Acts 11:2 ; as did Michael with Satan, Jude 1:9 . of Jude 1:22 , where the thought may be that of differing in opinion. ... 3: ἐπαγωνίζομαι (Strong's #1864 — Verb — epagonizomai — ep-ag-o-nid'-zom-ahee ) signifies "to contend about a thing, as a combatant" (epi, "upon or about," intensive, agon, "a contest"), "to contend earnestly," Jude 1:3
Snatch - 1: ἁρπάζω (Strong's #726 — Verb — harpazo — har-pad'-zo ) "to snatch," is translated "to snatch" in the RV only, in Matthew 13:19 , AV, "catcheth away;" John 10:12 , AV, "catcheth;" 10:28,29, AV, "pluck;" Jude 1:23 , AV, "pulling
Peshitta - The Peshitta lacked those books rejected by the Syriac-speaking churches (2Peter; 2,3John; Jude; Revelation)
Epistle - The New Testament includes letters written by Paul, James, Peter, John, and Jude
Love Feasts - 1: ἀγάπη (Strong's #26 — Noun Feminine — agape — ag-ah'-pay ) is used in the plural in Jude 1:12 , and in some mss. and Jude
Black, Blackness - 1, especially "the gloom of the regions of the lost," is used four times; 2 Peter 2:4 , "darkness" (RV); 2 Peter 2:17 , RV, "blackness," for AV, "mist;" Jude 1:6 , "darkness;" Jude 1:13 , "blackness," suggesting a kind of emanation
e'Noch, the Book of - The first trance of the existence of this work is found in the Epistle of (Jude 1:14,15 ) An apocryphal book called Enoch was known at a very early date, but was lost sight of until 1773, when Bruce brought with him on his return from Egypt three MSS. Notwithstanding the quotation in Jude, and the wide circulation of the book itself, the apocalypse of Enoch was uniformly and distinctly separated from the canonical Scriptures
Thadde'us, - [See Jude ]
Earnestly - Jude 1:3
James, Son of Alphaeus - He was most probably the writer of the Epistle of James, and the brother of Jude, or Judas, who was also an apostle. Luke 6:16 ; James 1:1 ; Jude 1
Lasciviousness - KJV term for an unbridled expression of sexual urges (Mark 7:22 ; 2 Corinthians 12:21 ; Galatians 5:19 ; Ephesians 4:19 ; 1 Peter 4:3 ; Jude 1:4 )
Dathan - Jude 11
Catholic Epistles - A name often given to the Epistles of James, 1 and 2Peter, 1John, and Jude, and which are called 'general' epistles in the A
Blemish - ... B — 1: ἄμωμος (Strong's #299 — Adjective — amomos — am'-o-mos ) "without blemish;" is always so rendered in the RV, Ephesians 1:4 ; 5:27 ; Philippians 2:15 ; Colossians 1:22 ; Hebrews 9:14 ; 1 Peter 1:19 ; Jude 1:24 ; Revelation 14:5 . This meaning is to be preferred to the various AV renderings, "without blame," Ephesians 1:4 , "unblameable," Colossians 1:22 , "faultless," Jude 1:24 , "without fault," Revelation 14:5
Thaddaeus - , Jude or Judas, the author of the epistle
Dignity, Dignities - 1: δόξα (Strong's #1391 — Noun Feminine — doxa — dox'-ah ) primarily denotes "an opinion, estimation, repute;" in the NT, always "good opinion, praise, honor, glory, an appearance commanding respect, magnificience, excellence, manifestation of glory;" hence, of angelic powers, in respect of their state as commanding recognition, "dignities," 2 Peter 2:10 ; Jude 1:8
Antilegomena - These are the Epistle to the Hebrews, the Epistles of James and Jude, the second Epistle of Peter, the second and third Epistles of John, and the Revelation
Brute - 1: ἄλογος (Strong's #249 — Adjective — alogos — al'-og-os ) translated "brute" in the AV of 2 Peter 2:12 ; Jude 1:10 , signifies "without reason," RV, though, as J
Jude - It is generally believed that the author of the letter of Jude was the younger brother of Jesus, whose original name Judas was later shortened to Jude (Mark 6:3). ... Purpose and content of Jude’s letter... Jude’s purpose in writing his letter was to oppose a kind of false teaching which denied that practical self-control was necessary for those who had become Christians. ... Jude’s response to this was to warn his readers that those who taught and practised such immorality were perverting the gospel and bringing judgment upon themselves (v. ... The content of Jude is similar to that of 2 Peter
Enoch - Genesis 5:18-24 ; Luke 3:37 ; Hebrews 11:5 ; Jude 14 . ... In Jude a prophesy of Enoch is quoted which is not found in the O. As Jude wrote under the inspiration of God this could have been revealed to him, as many other things in scripture have been, and which could have beenknown in no other way; or he may have been inspired to record whathad been handed down orally. There is an apocryphal book called THE BOOK OF ENOCH, from which some believe that Jude quoted, though it is not inspired
Sensual - To be sensual is to be led by the passions of man's flesh: it is placed with 'earthly' and 'devilish' in James 3:15 ; and is contrasted with having the Holy Spirit in Jude 19
Autumn - 1: φθινοπωρινός (Strong's #5352 — adjective — phthinoporinos — fthin-op-o-ree-nos' ) an adjective signifying autumnal (from phthinoporon, "late autumn," from phthino, "to waste away," or "wane," and opora, "autumn"), is used in Jude 1:12 , where unfruitful and worthless men are figuratively described as trees such as they are at the close of "autumn," fruitless and leafless (AV, "trees whose fruit withereth")
Love Feast - The only certain biblical reference to the love feast comes in Jude 12 , where the plural form of the word "love" with the definite article (hai agapai ) probably denotes a communal celebration in the church (there is another possible reference in 2 Peter 2:13 , but it is probably not genuine ). But there is no reason to think that the practice of a communal fellowship meal, conceived of as a normal aspect of church life or worship, could not have developed in the church addressed by Jude. ... Whether Jude 12 alludes to a fellowship meal or to the Lord's Supper, the term chosen to describe it reveals that it was to be an event in which love was expressed and fellowship confirmed. ... Whether these developments are relevant to an understanding of the love feast as it occurs in Jude cannot be determined. Bauckham, Jude, 2Peter ; J. Peter and Jude
Proper - in Acts 1:19 , AV, "proper;" in 1 Corinthians 7:7 , RV, "own" (AV, "proper"); in Jude 1:6 , RV, "their proper (habitation)," AV, "their own
Stars - The eleven stars (Genesis 37:9 ); the seven (Amos 5:8 ); wandering (Jude 1:13 ); seen in the east at the birth of Christ, probably some luminous meteors miraculously formed for this specific purpose (Matthew 2:2-10 ); stars worshipped (Deuteronomy 4:19 ; 2 Kings 17:16 ; 21:3 ; Jeremiah 19:13 ); spoken of symbolically (Numbers 24:17 ; Revelation 1:16,20 ; 12:1 )
Vengeance - In Deuteronomy 32:35 Romans 12:19 Hebrews 10:30 Jude 1:7 , means retributive justice- a prerogative of God with which those interfere who seek to avenge themselves
Wild - 1: ἄγριος (Strong's #66 — Adjective — agrios — ag'-ree-os ) denotes (a) "of or in fields" (agros, "a field"), hence, "not domestic," said of honey, Matthew 3:4 ; Mark 1:6 ; (b) "savage, fierce," Jude 1:13 , RV, metaphorically, "wild (waves)," AV, "raging
Enoch - He was the "seventh from Adam" (Jude 1:14 ), as distinguished from the son of Cain, the third from Adam. Mention is made of Enoch's prophesying only in Jude 1:14
Jude, - The name of Jude occurs only once in the Gospel narrative
Juda - One of Christ's "brethren" or cousins; brother of James; of the twelve; author of the EPISTLE (See Jude
Jude, Epistle of - Jude, EPISTLE OF. For its length Jude offers an unusual number of textual problems, the two most important of which are in Judges 1:5 and Judges 1:22-23 . With affectionate greeting Jude informs his readers that he was engaged upon an epistle setting forth the salvation held by all Christians Jews and Gentiles when he was surprised by news which showed him that their primary need was warning and exhortation; for the one gospel which has been entrusted to the keeping of the ‘saints’ had been endangered in their case by a surreptitious invasion of false teachers, who turned the gospel of grace into a plea for lust, thereby practically denying the lordship of Jesus Christ. The recipients of Jude may have belonged to one church or to a circle of churches in one district. Also, if Jude was the brother of James of Jerusalem, whose influences extended throughout Palestine and probably Syria ( Galatians 2:9 ; Galatians 2:12 ), the address in Galatians 2:1 is explained. Jude differs in not mentioning idolatry. There is, however, no trace in Jude of a highly elaborated speculative system like those of the 2nd cent. The phenomenon, as it is found in Jude, is quite explicable in the last quarter of the 1st century. Jude with a warning of the urgency of the danger, and that St. Jude at once Issued a similar letter to the churches in which he was personally interested. ’ Jude is also unique in the NT in his use of apocryphal writings the Assumption of Moses in 2 Timothy 4:9 , and the Book of Enoch in v. ... The Jude who writes cannot be the Apostle Judas (Luke 6:16 , Acts 1:13 ), nor does he ever assume Apostolic authority. Jude probably called himself ‘servant’ and not ‘brother’ of Jesus Christ ( Matthew 13:55 , Mark 6:3 ), because he felt that his unbelief in Jesus in the days of His flesh did not make that term a title of honour, and he may have come to understand the truth that faith, not blood, constitutes true kinship with Christ. The difficulty of accounting for the choice of such a pseudonym, and the absence from the letter of any substantial improbability against the traditional view, make it reasonable to hold that Jude the brother of our Lord was the author. 75 and 80, probably before 81, for Hegesippus (170) states that Jude’s grandsons were small farmers in Palestine, and were brought before Domitian (81 96) and contemptuously dismissed. In the age of the Apostolic Fathers the only witness to Jude is the Didache , and that is so faint as to count for little
Catholic Epistles - The title of ‘Catholic’ was given by the early Church to the seven Epistles which bear the names of James, Peter, Jude, and John
Archangel - This world is only twice used in the Bible, 1 Thessalonians 4:16 Jude 1:9
Jude - And, as his life seems to have been prolonged, it is probable that he afterward left Judea, and went abroad preaching the Gospel to Jews and Gentiles in other countries. Jude, because the apocryphal books of Enoch, and the ascension of Moses, are quoted in it. Nevertheless, it is to be found in all the ancient catalogues of the sacred writings; and Clement, of Alexandria, Tertullian, and Origen quote it as written by Jude, and reckon it among the books of sacred Scripture. Jude quoted a book called Enoch or Enoch's prophecies; and even allowing that he did quote it, he gives it no authority; it was no canonical book of the Jews; and if such a book existed among the Jews, it was apocryphal, and yet there might be in it some right things. Jude refers to the vision in Zechariah 3:1-3 . Jude addressed his epistle to the Jewish Christians; but Dr
Error - 1), "a wandering, a forsaking of the right path, see James 5:20 , whether in doctrine, 2 Peter 3:17 ; 1 John 4:6 , or in morals, Romans 1:27 ; 2 Peter 2:18 ; Jude 1:11 , though, in Scripture, doctrine and morals are never divided by any sharp line. planetes, "a wandering," Jude 1:13 , and the adjective planos, "leading astray, deceiving, a deceiver
Spot - ... A — 2: σπίλος (Strong's #4696 — Noun Masculine — spilas — spee'-los ) is rendered "spots" in Jude 1:12 , AV: see ROCK , No. 1, is used in Jude 1:23 , in the clause "hating even the garment spotted by the flesh," the garment representing that which, being brought into contact with the polluting element of the flesh, becomes defiled: see CLOTHING , No
Jude - Among the apostles there were two who bore this name, (1) Judas (Jude 1:1 ; Matthew 13:55 ; John 14:22 ; Acts 1:13 ), called also Lebbaeus or Thaddaeus (Matthew 10:3 ; Mark 3:18 ); and (2) Judas Iscariot (Matthew 10:4 ; Mark 3:19 )
Majesty - ... 2: μεγαλωσύνη (Strong's #3172 — Noun Feminine — megalosune — meg-al-o-soo'-nay ) from megas, "great," denotes "greatness, majesty;" it is used of God the Father, signifying His greatness and dignity, in Hebrews 1:3 , "the Majesty (on high)," and Hebrews 8:1 , "the Majesty (in the Heavens);" and in an ascription of praise acknowledging the attributes of God in Jude 1:25
Joseph Barsabas - Lightfoot suggests that he was Joses son of Alphaeus, and that Judas Barsabas was his brother and the apostle Jude
Jude - Jude (jûde), Epistle of. It is not improbable that Peter had read Jude's epistle, when he wrote his Second epistle; and that the thoughts, under the influence of the Holy Spirit, had made a strong impression upon his mind
Gomorrha, Sodom And - Their names are synonymous with impenitent sin, and their fall with a manifestation of God's just wrath (Deuteronomy 29; 2 Peter 2; Jude 1:7; Ezechiel 16)
Chains - Jeremiah 39:7 ; Lamentations 3:7 ; Acts 12:6,7 ; 2 Timothy 1:16 ; Jude 6
Evil, Principalities of - In Jude 1:1, "principalities" denotes rather the dominion or province or their former power before the fall
Catholic - They are, one epistle of James, two of Peter, three of John, and one of Jude
Sodom And Gomorrha - Their names are synonymous with impenitent sin, and their fall with a manifestation of God's just wrath (Deuteronomy 29; 2 Peter 2; Jude 1:7; Ezechiel 16)
Unawares - (4) In Jude 1:4 , AV, pareisduno, "to slip in secretly," is rendered "crept in unawares
Jude Epistle of - Since, however, the present writer, in spite of the attempts made by Spitta, Zahn, and Bigg to prove the dependence of Jude on 2 Peter, is convinced, with the great majority of critics, that 2 Peter is based on Jude, the discussion of this question is not raised in this article but postponed to that on Peter, Epistles of. 2), who taught that Jude was describing prophetically the Gnostic sect known as the Carpocratians. Judae) also thought that this sect was the object of the writer’s denunciation; but, since he held that Jude was attacking contemporary heretics, he assigned the Epistle to Jude the last Bishop of Jerusalem, in the reign of Hadrian. The characteristics mentioned by Jude were the monopoly of no sect. ’ If the false teachers were Gnostics, we understand who Jude should retort upon them the accusation that they were ‘sensual’ (lit. There can be no reasonable doubt that the clause ‘the brother of James’ (Judges 1:1) is meant to identify the author as Jude, the Lord’s brother. If the conclusions reached in the preceding article are correct, this Jude was probably dead at the latest by a. If the usual view is correct, Jude was employed by the author of 2 Peter; but, since that work itself belongs in all probability to a date well on in the 2nd cent. Jude is reckoned as canonical in the Muratorian Canon; it is quoted by Tertullian (de Cultu Fem. ... The opening words of the Epistle, ‘Judas, a servant of Jesus Christ, and brother of James,’ constitute a weighty argument in favour of the traditional view that it was written by Jude the Lord’s brother. Apart from this, however, it is not easy to see why the author should have hit upon a personality so obscure as Jude. The suggestion that it was sent to districts where Jude had laboured and was held in high regard is exposed to the difficulty that the recipients would naturally ask, How is it that we hear of this letter for the first time now that Jude has been some years dead? We are then reduced to the alternatives of admitting the authenticity, or of supposing that the identification with the Lord’s brother was no original part of the Epistle. In that case the most probable explanation of the opening words is that the author’s name was really Jude, and that the phrase ‘and brother of James’ was inserted by a scribe who wished to make it clear which Jude was intended. It ought, however, to be frankly recognized that the Epistle is quite conceivable as the work of Jude the Lord’s brother in the decade a
Gomorrha - And in allusion to the fire of Gomorrha, the apostle Jude describes the sad ruin of sinners under the image of suffering eternal fire. (Jude 1:1:7) And Peter to the same effect
Lascivious, Lasciviousness - 1: ἀσέλγεια (Strong's #766 — Noun Feminine — aselgeia — as-elg'-i-a ) denotes "excess, licentiousness, absence of restraint, indecency, wantonness;" "lasciviousness" in Mark 7:22 , one of the evils that proceed from the heart; in 2 Corinthians 12:21 , one of the evils of which some in the church at Corinth had been guilty; in Galatians 5:19 , classed among the works of the flesh; in Ephesians 4:19 , among the sins of the unregenerate who are "past feeling;" so in 1 Peter 4:3 ; in Jude 1:4 , of that into which the grace of God had been turned by ungodly men; it is translated "wantonness" in Romans 13:13 , one of the sins against which believers are warned; in 2 Peter 2:2 , according to the best mss. , "lascivious (doings)," RV (the AV "pernicious ways" follows those texts which have apoleiais); in 2 Peter 2:7 , RV, "lascivious (life)," AV "filthy (conversation)," of the people of Sodom and Gomorrah; in 2 Peter 2:18 , RV, "lasciviousness" (AV, "wantonness"), practiced by the same persons as mentioned in Jude
e'Noch - ) In the Epistle of Jude ( Jude 1:14 ) he described as "the seventh from Adam;" and the number is probably noticed as conveying the idea of divine completion and rest, while Enoch was himself a type of perfected humanity
Everlasting - ... 2: ἀΐδιος (Strong's #126 — Adjective — aidios — ah-id'-ee-os ) denotes "everlasting" (from aei, "ever"), Romans 1:20 , RV, "everlasting," for AV, "eternal;" Jude 1:6 , AV and RV "everlasting
Foam - Jude 1:13
Woe - 11; Luke 17:1 ; 21:23 ; 22:22 ; 1 Corinthians 9:16 ; Jude 1:11 ; Revelation 8:13 (thrice); 12:12; as a noun, Revelation 9:12 (twice); 11:14 (twice); (b) in grief, "alas," Revelation 18:10,16,19 (twice in each)
Apostles - Their names are as follows (Matthew 10; Mark 3; Luke 6): ...
Andrew

Bartholomew

James the Greater

James the Lesser

John

Matthew

Matthias (elected in place of Judas)

Philip

Simon Peter

Simon

Thaddeus or Jude

Thomas
Though not one of the twelve Apostles, Saint Paul is numbered as an Apostle of the first rank
Catholic Epistles - The New Testament letters not attributed to Paul and written to a more general or unidentifiable audience: James; 1,2Peters; 1,2, and 3John; Jude
Wind - The wind is also used as a symbol of the unseen influence of Satan, Jude 12 ; and where permitted he carries out his evil designs by the wind
Complainer, Complaint - , "complaining of one's lot" (memphomai, "to blame," moira, "a fate, lot"); hence, "discontented, querulous, repining;" it is rendered "complainers" in Jude 1:16
Wither - (2) For "whose fruit withereth," Jude 1:12 , AV, see AUTUMN
Reserve - 1: τηρέω (Strong's #5083 — Verb — tereo — tay-reh'-o ) "to guard, keep, preserve, give heed to," is translated "to reserve," (a) with a happy issue, 1 Peter 1:4 ; (b) with a retributive issue, 2 Peter 2:4 ; 2:9 , AV (RV, "keep"); 2:17; 3:7; Jude 1:6 , AV (RV, "hath kept"); 1:13; (c) with the possibility either of deliverance or execution, Acts 25:21 , AV (RV, "kept")
Enoch - According to Jude 1:14 , he prophesied
Respect of Persons - Thus ought men to estimate and treat their fellow men; and to court the favor of the rich and influential is sharply censured in Scripture, Proverbs 28:21 James 2:1-9 Jude 1:16
Wave - ); (b) figuratively, Jude 1:13
Hire, Hired - A — 1: μισθός (Strong's #3408 — Noun Masculine — misthos — mis-thos' ) denotes (a) "wages, hire," Matthew 20:8 ; Luke 10:7 ; James 5:4 ; in 1 Timothy 5:18 ; 2 Peter 2:13 ; Jude 1:11 , RV, "hire" (AV,"reward"); in 2 Peter 2:15 , RV, "hire" (AV, "wages")
Wander - , "planet"), is used metaphorically in Jude 1:13 , of the evil teachers there mentioned as "wandering (stars)
Rage, Raging - ... Note: In Jude 1:13 , AV, the adjective agrios, "wild," is translated "raging" (RV, "wild")
Archangel - In the Bible, a Greek word found only in the New Testament in two places: 1 Thessalonians 4:16, "For the Lord Himself will descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with the trumpet of God; and the dead in Christ shall rise first"; and Jude 1:1:9, "But Michael the archangel, when he disputed with the devil and argued about the body of Moses, did not dare pronounce against him a railing judgment, but said, 'The Lord rebuke you
Michael - We meet with this name only five times in Scripture: thrice in Daniel 10:13; Dan 10:21; Dan 12:1, once in Jude 1:1:9, and once in Revelation 12:7
Apostle - ... 10 Jude, the brother of James
Dreamer of Dreams - In Jeremiah 27:9 the 'dreamers' are classed with 'diviners,' and in Jude 8 they are those that defile the flesh
Once - , "once and twice," Philippians 4:16 ; 1 Thessalonians 2:18 ; (b) "once for all," of what is of perpetual validity, not requiring repetition, Hebrews 6:4 ; 9:28 ; 10:2 ; 1 Peter 3:18 ; Jude 1:3 , RV, "once for all" (AV, "once"); Jude 1:5 (ditto); in some mss
Dominion - The meaning of the word in Peter and Jude presents some difficulty. κυριότης) says that in Peter evil angels are implied from the context, though not in Jude. Jude [International Critical Commentary , 1901], p. Bennett inclines to this interpretation in Jude and regards it as included also in 2 Peter, where he gives the general principle of the argument thus: when good angels withstand dignities, i
Black - “Black” is also used figuratively to describe mourning (Job 30:28 ; Jeremiah 4:28 ; Jeremiah 8:21 ; Jeremiah 14:2 ), a visionless day (Micah 3:6 ), the abode of the dead (Job 3:5 ; Jude 1:13 ), and the treachery of Job's friends (Job 6:16 )
Saint - The "saints" spoken of in Jude 1:14 are probably not the disciples of Christ, but the "innumerable company of angels" ( Hebrews 12:22 ; Psalm 68:17 ), with reference to Deuteronomy 33:2
Gomorrah - Their destruction is mentioned as an "ensample unto those that after should live ungodly" (2 Peter 2:6 ; Jude 1:4-7 )
Benediction - Most New Testament epistles close with benedictions as well (Romans 15:13 ; Romans 16:25-27 ; 1 Corinthians 16:23 ; 2 Corinthians 13:14 ; Galatians 6:18 ; Ephesians 3:20-21 ; Ephesians 6:23-24 ; Philippians 4:23 ; 1 Thessalonians 5:28 ; 2 Thessalonians 3:18 ; 1 Timothy 4:20 ; 2 Timothy 4:22 ; Titus 3:15 ; Philippians 1:25 ; Hebrews 13:20-21 ,Hebrews 13:20-21,13:25 ; 1 Peter 5:14 ; 2 Peter 3:18 ; 3 John 1:15 ; Jude 1:24-25 )
Alphaeus - If the translation Luke 6:16 be correct, "Jude, brother of James," Alphaeus was his father also
Principality - Jude 6
Gomorrah - ; by Paul, quoting Isaiah, Romans 9:29; by Peter and Jude, 2 Peter 2:6
Vengeance - ... Notes: (1) Dike, "justice," is translated "vengeance" in the AV of Acts 28:4 and Jude 1:7 : see JUSTICE
Saint - Jude 1:14
Cloud - (Proverbs 16:15 ; Isaiah 18:4 ; 25:5 ; Jude 1:12 ) comp
Natural, Naturally - , "natural" or "animal"), here relating perhaps more especially to the mind, a wisdom in accordance with, or springing from, the corrupt desires and affections; so in Jude 1:19 . 1), is used in Jude 1:10
Scoffer - 2 Peter 3:3 warns that the last days will see scoffers laughing at the idea of Christ's return (compare Jude 1:18 )
Chain - " ... (2) In Jude 1:6 the RV renders desmos by "bonds" (for the AV "chains")
Innumerable - , "the myriads"); Acts 21:20 , "thousands;" Hebrews 12:22 , "innumerable hosts;" Jude 1:14 , "ten thousands" (RV, marg
Own - , "did it not remain (meno) to thee?" (3) In Jude 1:6 (1st part), AV, heauton, "of themselves," their own" (RV), is rendered "their;" in the 2nd part, RV, idios, one's own, is translated "their proper" (AV, "their own")
James (st.) the Less - Jude
Love-Feast - The name is indeed found only in the Epistle of Jude (v. In Jude and 2 Peter. -The writer of the Epistle of Jude speaks (Judges 1:12) of certain heretics who are ‘hidden rocks in your love-feasts when they feast with you. The matter is of no importance for our purpose, as it is the opinion of the majority of scholars that 2 Peter is dependent on Jude, and there can be no reasonable doubt that in Jude ἀγάπαις is the right reading. Batiffol maintains that Jude is in the habit of using plurals instead of singulars, and understands him here to mean ‘love’ with no reference to the Agape. But this translation of the word does not seem possible; and we are clearly driven to the conclusion that, among the people to whom Jude wrote, the Agape was an established institution, and the name had already been given to it. James‡ [Note: on 2 Peter and Jude (Cambridge Greek Testament, Cambridge, 1912), p. ‘Jude, Epistle of. ’ There is nothing to indicate the relation of the Agape mentioned by Jude to the Eucharist. But abuses arose in connexion with it both in Corinth and-apparently-among those to whom the Epistle of Jude was written
Eternal Death - The miserable fate of the wicked in hell (Matthew 25:46 ; Mark 3:29 ; Hebrews 6:2 ; 2 th 1:9 ; Matthew 18:8 ; 25:41 ; Jude 1:7 ). The same Greek words in the New Testament (aion, aionios, aidios) are used to express (1) the eternal existence of God (1 Timothy 1:17 ; Romans 1:20 ; 16:26 ); (2) of Christ (Revelation 1:18 ); (3) of the Holy Ghost (Hebrews 9:14 ); and (4) the eternal duration of the sufferings of the lost (Matthew 25:46 ; Jude 1:6 )
Dream, Dreamer - ) which means "shall be given up to dream by dreams," translated "shall dream dreams;" metaphorically in Jude 1:8 , of being given over to sensuous "dreamings," RV, AV, "dreamers," and so defiling the flesh
Blasphemy - The same Greek word is translated 'railing' in 1 Timothy 6:4 ; Jude 9 ; and 'evil speaking' in Ephesians 4:31 , as it might well be rendered elsewhere
Natural - ' Romans 1:26,27 ; 2 Peter 2:12 ; Jude 10
Last Time or Days - 2 Timothy 3:1 ; 2 Peter 3:3 ; Jude 18
Dare, Daring, Durst - , "having dared, went in;" Luke 20:40 ; John 21:12 ; Acts 5:13 ; 7:32 ; Romans 15:18 ; 2 Corinthians 10:2 , RV, "show courage," (AV, "be bold"); 10:12, RV, "are (not) bold;" 11:21; Philippians 1:14 , "are bold;" Jude 1:9 ; (b) in the sense of bearing, enduring, bringing oneself to do a thing, Romans 5:7 ; 1 Corinthians 6:1
Enoch - Jude cites a prophecy of Enoch
Multiply - 1: πληθύνω (Strong's #4129 — Verb — plethuno — play-thoo'-no ) used (a) transitively, denotes "to cause to increase, to multiply," 2 Corinthians 9:10 ; Hebrews 6:14 (twice); in the Passive Voice, "to be multiplied," Matthew 24:12 , RV, "(iniquity) shall be multiplied" (AV, "shall abound"); Acts 6:7 ; 7:17 ; 9:31 ; 12:24 ; 1 Peter 1:2 ; 2 Peter 1:2 ; Jude 1:2 ; (b) intransitively it denotes "to be multiplying," Acts 6:1 , RV, "was multiplying" (AV, "was multiplied")
ye, You, Yourselves, Your Own Selves - , Matthew 5:13,14,48 ; 6:9,19,20 ; Mark 6:31,37 ; John 15:27 (1st part); Romans 1:6 ; 1 Corinthians 3:17,23 ; Galatians 3:28,29 (1st part); Ephesians 1:13 (1st part); 2:8; 2:11,13; Philippians 2:18 ; Colossians 3:4,7 (1st part); 4:1; 1 Thessalonians 1:6 ; 2:10,19,20 ; 3:8 ; 2 Thessalonians 3:13 ; James 5:8 ; 1 Peter 2:9 (1st part); 1 John 2:20,24 (1st and 3rd occurrences),27 (1st part); 4:4; Jude 1:17,20 . , "in (en; some texts have para, 'among') yourselves;" so Romans 12:16 (with para); 1 Peter 4:8 ; Jude 1:20,21 ; in Ephesians 5:19 , RV, "one to another" (AV, and RV marg
Less, James the, Saint - He was called to the apostolate with his brother Jude in the second year of Christ's ministry (Matthew 10; Mark 3; Luke 6; Acts 1)
Michael - He disputed with Satan (Jude 1:9 ) about the body of Moses
Principality - In Jude 1:6 , RV, it signifies, not the first estate of fallen angels (as AV), but their authoriative power, "their own" indicating that which had been assigned to them by God, which they left, aspiring to prohibited conditions
Stumble - ... Note: For aptaistos, "from stumbling," Jude 1:24 , RV, see FALL , B, Note (6)
Eternal - Jude 1:7
Enoch - He had lived only three hundred and sixty years, Genesis 5:18-24 Jude 1:14,15 , quotes a traditionary prophecy of Enoch, showing his belief in a judgment to come
Preserve - The aorist or "point" tense regards the continuous "preservation" of the believer as a single, complete act, without reference to the time occupied in its accomplishment; in Jude 1:1 , AV (RV, "kept")
Natural - This contrast between the spiritual and natural is also evidenced by James 3:15 (NAS) and Jude 1:19 (NIV)
Sons of God - Jude 6,7
Appearing of Christ - Jude 14,15
Archangel - 1: ἀρχάγγελος (Strong's #743 — Noun Masculine — archangelos — ar-khang'-el-os ) "is not found in the OT, and in the NT only in 1 Thessalonians 4:16 and Jude 1:9 , where it is used of Michael, who in Daniel is called 'one of the chief princes,' and 'the great prince' (Sept
Love Feasts - (Agape ), ( 2 Peter 2:13 ; Jude 1:12 ) an entertainment in which the poorer members of the church partook, furnished from the contributions of Christians resorting to the eucharistic celebration, but whether before or after may be doubted
Edification - Jude 20
Blasphemy - But according to its derivation it may mean any species of calumny and abuse: see (1 Kings 21:10 ; Acts 18:6 ; Jude 1:9 ) etc
Lord, Brethren of the - " ...  ... Jude or Judas Thaddeus was, like his elder brother James (Matthew 13; Jude 1:1), slow to understand Jesus's true mission (as, indeed, all the brothers were, according to John 7), like him, drawn to the apostleship (Luke 6), and, like him, the author of a catholic epistle
Peter, Second Epistle of - The development of this evil is viewed in the light of wickedness (rather than of apostasy, as in the Epistle of Jude), as that which is specially obnoxious to the government of God. While in Jude the gainsaying of Core is shown to be the culminating point of apostasy, here the incitement to abominable wickedness by Balaam is before the mind of the Spirit, indicating how corrupting the influence of those who held the place of 'prophet' would become
Canon of the Holy Scriptures - Forgeries of heretics under the imputed authorship of one or the other of the Apostles, as well as erroneous interpolations into the sacred text, made the faithful suspicious and, as a result, doubt was for some time cast upon the following books and passages: Hebrews; James; Jude; 2Peter; 2,3John; Apocalypse; Mark 16,9-20; Luke 22,43-44; and John 7,53, to 8,11. Of the New Testament: the four Gospels; the Acts of the Apostles; 14Epistles of the Apostle Paul; two Epistles of Peter the Apostle; three Epistles of John the Apostle; one of James the Apostle; one of Jude the Apostle; and the Apocalypse of John the Apostle. The Protestant reformers of the 16th century adhered to the narrower canon of the Hebrew Bible, and in the New Testament rejected Hebrews, James, Jude, and the Apocalypse
Defile, Defilement - ; (b) of "moral defilement," Titus 1:15 (twice); Hebrews 12:15 , "of moral and physical defilement," Jude 1:8 . ... A — 4: σπιλόω (Strong's #4695 — Verb — spiloo — spee-lo'-o ) "to make a stain or spot," and so "to defile," is used in James 3:6 of the "defiling" effects of an evil use of the tongue; in Jude 1:23 , "spotted," with reference to moral "defilement. spilos, "a spot, a moral blemish," Ephesians 5:27 ; 2 Peter 2:13 ; aspilos, "without spot, spotless," 1 Timothy 6:14 ; James 1:27 ; 1 Peter 1:19 ; 2 Peter 3:14 ; spilas, Jude 1:12 , "hidden rocks," RV (AV "spots," a late meaning, equivalent to spilos)
Devotion, Days of - In Great Britain they are: ...
Easter Monday

Easter Tuesday

Whit Monday

Whit Tuesday

Purification of Blessed Virgin Mary (February 2,)

Saint Matthias (February 24,)

Saint Gregory the Great (March 12,)

Saint Joseph (March 19,)

Annunciation (March 25,)

Saint George (April 26,)

Saints Philip and James (May 1,)

Finding of the Cross (May 3,)

Saint Augustine (May 27,)

Nativity of Saint John the Baptist (June 24,)

Saint James, Apostle (July 25,)

Saint Anne (July 26,)

Saint Lawrence (August 10,)

Saint Bartholomew (August 24,)

Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary (September 8,)

Saint Matthew (September 21,)

Saint Michael, Archangel (September 29,)

Saints Simon and Jude (October 28,)

Saint Andrew, Apostle (November 30,)

Immaculate Conception (December 8,)

Saint Thomas, Apostle (December 21,)

Saint Stephen (December 26,)

Saint John the Apostle (December 27,)

Holy Innocents (December 28,)

Saint Thomas of Canterbury (December 29,)

Saint Silvester (December 31,)
They are the same in Ireland, excepting that the Immaculate Conception is a holyday of obligation
Days of Devotion - In Great Britain they are: ...
Easter Monday

Easter Tuesday

Whit Monday

Whit Tuesday

Purification of Blessed Virgin Mary (February 2,)

Saint Matthias (February 24,)

Saint Gregory the Great (March 12,)

Saint Joseph (March 19,)

Annunciation (March 25,)

Saint George (April 26,)

Saints Philip and James (May 1,)

Finding of the Cross (May 3,)

Saint Augustine (May 27,)

Nativity of Saint John the Baptist (June 24,)

Saint James, Apostle (July 25,)

Saint Anne (July 26,)

Saint Lawrence (August 10,)

Saint Bartholomew (August 24,)

Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary (September 8,)

Saint Matthew (September 21,)

Saint Michael, Archangel (September 29,)

Saints Simon and Jude (October 28,)

Saint Andrew, Apostle (November 30,)

Immaculate Conception (December 8,)

Saint Thomas, Apostle (December 21,)

Saint Stephen (December 26,)

Saint John the Apostle (December 27,)

Holy Innocents (December 28,)

Saint Thomas of Canterbury (December 29,)

Saint Silvester (December 31,)
They are the same in Ireland, excepting that the Immaculate Conception is a holyday of obligation
Jude, Epistle of Saint - When rising heresies endangered the faith of the Hebrew Christian communities, the Apostle Jude, with the surname Thaddeus (Matthew 10), the brother of James the Less (Luke 6) and one of the "brethren of the Lord" (Matthew 13), addressed to them his "Catholic Epistle" as a warning against the false prophets
Privily - in Jude 1:4 the verb pareisduo (or, duno), "to slip in secretly, steal in," RV, "crept in privily" (AV, "
Excute - 1: ποιέω (Strong's #4160 — Verb — poieo — poy-eh'-o ) "to do, to make," is thrice rendered "execute," of the Lord's authority and acts in "executing" judgment, (a) of His authority as the One to whom judgment is committed, John 5:27 ; (b) of the judgment which He will mete out to all transgressors at His Second Advent, Jude 1:15 ; (c) of the carrying out of His Word (not "work," as in the AV) in the earth, especially regarding the nation of Israel, the mass being rejected, the remnant saved, Romans 9:28
Presence - 2, "in the very presence of," is translated "before the presence of" in Jude 1:24
Epistle of Saint Jude - When rising heresies endangered the faith of the Hebrew Christian communities, the Apostle Jude, with the surname Thaddeus (Matthew 10), the brother of James the Less (Luke 6) and one of the "brethren of the Lord" (Matthew 13), addressed to them his "Catholic Epistle" as a warning against the false prophets
Reprobate - " (Jeremiah 6:30) Awful doctrine! (See Jude 1:1:4-13; Titus 1:16
Michael the Archangel - Jude 9 ; Revelation 12:7 : cf
Beloved - In Jude 1:1 the best texts have this verb (RV); the AV, "sanctified" follows those which have hagiazo
Everlasting Punishment - Such end-of-time trauma befalls the evil, angelic powers which oppose God (Matthew 24:41 ; Jude 1:6 ; Revelation 19:3 ) and those human beings who willfully continue in “sin”—a decision which demonstrates solidarity with the evil powers (Matthew 25:46 ; Mark 3:29 ; Jude 1:13 ; Revelation 14:11 )
Dominion - It also signifies "dominion," and is so rendered frequently in doxologies, 1 Peter 4:11 ; 5:11 ; Jude 1:25 ; Revelation 1:6 ; 5:13 (RV); in 1 Timothy 6:16 , and Hebrews 2:14 it is translated "power. ... A — 2: κυριότης (Strong's #2963 — Noun Feminine — kuriotes — koo-ree-ot'-ace ) denotes "lordship" (kurios, "a lord"), "power, dominion," whether angelic or human, Ephesians 1:21 ; Colossians 1:16 ; 2 Peter 2:10 (RV, for AV, "government"); Jude 1:8
Everlasting Punishment - Such end-of-time trauma befalls the evil, angelic powers which oppose God (Matthew 24:41 ; Jude 1:6 ; Revelation 19:3 ) and those human beings who willfully continue in “sin”—a decision which demonstrates solidarity with the evil powers (Matthew 25:46 ; Mark 3:29 ; Jude 1:13 ; Revelation 14:11 )
Blaspheme, Blasphemy, Blasphemer, Blasphemous - "blasphemy") is so translated thirteen times in the RV, but "railing" in Matthew 15:19 ; Mark 7:22 ; Ephesians 4:31 ; Colossians 3:8 ; 1 Timothy 6:4 ; Jude 1:9 . , Matthew 9:3 ; Mark 3:28 ; Romans 2:24 ; 1 Timothy 1:20 ; 6:1 ; Revelation 13:6 ; 16:9,11,21 ; "hath spoken blasphemy," Matthew 26:65 ; "rail at," 2 Peter 2:10 ; Jude 1:8,10 ; "railing," 2 Peter 2:12 ; "slanderously reported," Romans 3:8 ; "be evil spoken of," Romans 14:16 ; 1 Corinthians 10:30 ; 2 Peter 2:2 ; "speak evil of," Titus 3:2 ; 1 Peter 4:4 ; "being defamed," 1 Corinthians 4:13
Michael, Saint - (Herew: who is like God?) ... Archangel, one of the three angels mentioned by name in Holy Scripture (Daniel 10,12; Jude; Apocalypse 12)
Michael the Archangel - (Herew: who is like God?) ... Archangel, one of the three angels mentioned by name in Holy Scripture (Daniel 10,12; Jude; Apocalypse 12)
Sodom And Gomorrah - The verb (ἐκπορνεύω) used in Jude is also used in Septuagint of Exodus 34:15-16, Leviticus 17:7, Hosea 4:12, Ezekiel 16:26; Ezekiel 16:28; Ezekiel 16:33, of ‘going after’ other gods, and this seems to explain the use of Sodom in Revelation 11:8
Archangel, Michael the - (Herew: who is like God?) ... Archangel, one of the three angels mentioned by name in Holy Scripture (Daniel 10,12; Jude; Apocalypse 12)
Cain - 1 John 3:12 ; Jude 11
Contend - Jude 1:3
Angel - ... There are good angels (Genesis 28:12; Psalms 91:11) and bad angels (2 Peter 2:4; Jude 1:1:6)
ma'ry - The names of the daughters are unknown to us; those of the sons are, James, Joses, Jude and Simon, two of whom became enrolled among the twelve apostles [JAMES ], and a third [SIMON ] may have succeeded his brother ill charge of the church of Jerusalem
Cain - 1 John 3:12 ; Jude 11
Darkness - Matthew 8:12 ; 2 Peter 2:4 ; Jude 6,13
ma'ry - The names of the daughters are unknown to us; those of the sons are, James, Joses, Jude and Simon, two of whom became enrolled among the twelve apostles [JAMES ], and a third [SIMON ] may have succeeded his brother ill charge of the church of Jerusalem
ko'Rah - ) In the New Testament (Jude 1:11 ) Korah is coupled with Cain and Balaam
James the Less, - He was the son of Alpheus or Clopas and brother of our Lord (see above); was called to the apostolate, together with his younger brother Jude, in the spring of the year 28
Darkness - ... In the New Testament, the place of punishment for humans and sinful angels is designated “the outer darkness” (Matthew 8:12 ; Matthew 22:13 ; Matthew 25:30 ; compare 2 Peter 2:4 ; Jude 1:6 ,Jude 1:6,1:13 )
Hell - 2 Peter 2:17 and Jude 13 . Matthew 13:40,42 ; Matthew 25:41 ; 2 Peter 2:4 ; Jude 6 , etc
Epistle - ... Of the books of the New Testament, twenty-one are epistles; fourteen of them by Paul, one by James, two by Peter, three by John, and one by Jude. The epistles and James, by Peter and Jude, are very different in their style and application from those of Paul written to the Gentiles; and those of Paul written to the Gentiles; and those of Paul no doubt contain expressions and allude to facts much more familiar to their original readers than to later ages
James - By referring to ( Matthew 13:55 ) and Mark 6:3 We find that a James the Less and Joses, with two other brethren called Jude and Simon, and at least three sisters, were sisters with the Virgin Mary at Nazareth by referring to ( Luke 6:16 ) and Acts 1:13 We find that there were two brethren named James and Jude among the apostles
Bible, Books of the - ... There are 27 books of the New Testament: ...
the 4Gospels

Matthew

Mark

Luke

John

the Acts of the Apostles

14Epistles of Saint Paul

Romans

1,2Corinthians

Galatians

Ephesians

Philippians

Colossians

1,2Thessalonians

1,2Timothy

Titus

Philemon

Hebrews

7 Catholic Epistles

James

1,2Peter

1,2, and 3John

Jude and

the Apocalypse, the only prophetical book of the New Testament
Second, Secondarily, Secondly - , John 3:4 ; 21:16 ; Acts 7:13 ; Revelation 19:3 , RV (AV, "again"); Jude 1:5 , "afterward" (RV, marg
Rock - ... 2: σπιλάς (Strong's #4694 — Noun Feminine — spilas — spee-las' ) "a rock or reef," over which the sea dashes, is used in Jude 1:12 , "hidden rocks," RV, metaphorical of men whose conduct is a danger to others
Dry - ... A — 2: ἄνυδρος (Strong's #504 — Adjective — anudros — an'-oo-dros ) "waterless" (a, negative, n, euphonic, hudor, "water"), is rendered "dry" in Matthew 12:43 , AV, and Luke 11:24 (RV, "waterless"); "without water" in 2 Peter 2:17 ; Jude 1:12
Feasts or Festivals - Jude the    Virgin
Balaam - Jude 11
Feasts of Charity - Whether such feasts were held at other times, apart from the Lord's supper, is not known; it is difficult to conceive the persons described in Jude 10-12 being allowed to come to the Lord's supper; or those mentioned in 2 Peter 2:13 , if that also refers to the love-feasts
Gomorrah, Gomorrha - Genesis 14,18,19 ; 2 Peter 2:6 ; Jude 7
Chronology of the New Testament - ... 64-67... Epistles to Hebrews, 1st and 2d Peter, Jude, 1st and 2d Timothy, and Titus
Convict - 1, "to convict thoroughly," is used of the Lord's future "conviction" of the ungodly, Jude 1:15
Jesus - ' ... "In the Epistles of James, Peter, John and Jude, the personal name is not once found alone, but in Rev. In the Epistles of James, Peter John, and Jude, men who had companied with the Lord in the days of His flesh, 'Jesus Christ' is the invariable order (in the RV) of the Name and Title, for this was the order of their experience; as 'Jesus' they knew Him first, that He was Messiah they learnt finally in His resurrection
Judas - One of the apostles, called also Jude, Lebbeus, and Thaddeus, Matthew 10:3 Mark 3:18 Jude 1:1 , the son of Alpheus and Mary, and brother of James the LESS. In company with one Sadoc, he attempted to excite a sedition among the Jews, but was destroyed by Quirinus, or Cyrenius, at that time governor of Syria and Judea, Acts 5:37
Savior - 1: παρεκτός (Strong's #3924 — Adverb — soter — par-ek-tos' ) "a savior, deliverer, preserver," is used (a) of God, Luke 1:47 ; 1 Timothy 1:1 ; 2:3 ; 4:10 (in the sense of "preserver," since He gives "to all life and breath and all things"); Titus 1:3 ; 2:10 ; 3:4 ; Jude 1:25 ; (b) of Christ, Luke 2:11 ; John 4:42 ; Acts 5:31 ; 13:23 (of Israel); Ephesians 5:23 (the sustainer and presever of the church, His "body"); Philippians 3:20 (at His return to receive the Church to Himself); 2 Timothy 1:10 (with reference to His incarnation, "the days of His flesh"); Titus 1:4 (a title shared, in the context, with God the Father); 2:13, RV, "our great God and Savior Jesus Christ," the pronoun "our," at the beginning of the whole clause, includes all the titles; Titus 3:6, 2 Peter 1:1 , "our God and Savior Jesus Christ; RV, where the pronoun "our," coming immediately in connection with "God," involves the inclusion of both titles as refering to Christ, just as in the parallel in 2 Peter 1:11 , "our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ" (AV and RV); these passages are therefore a testimony to His deity; 2 Peter 2:20 ; 3:2,18 ; 1 John 4:14
Person - 2, is translated "person" or "persons" in Matthew 22:16 ; Mark 12:14 ; Luke 20:21 ; 2 Corinthians 1:11 ; 2 Corinthians 2:10 ; Galatians 2:6 ; Jude 1:16 , lit
Gainsay, Gainsayer, Gainsaying - 1, is rendered "gainsaying," in Hebrews 12:3 , RV, and Jude 1:11
Rail, Railer, Railing - ... B — 1: βλασφημία (Strong's #988 — Noun Feminine — blasphemia — blas-fay-me'-ah ) is translated "railings" in Matthew 15:19 , RV; 1 Timothy 6:4 , AV and RV; "railing" in Mark 7:22 , RV; Colossians 3:8 , RV; Jude 1:9 , AV and RV, lit
Michael - Jude 1:9 refers to a dispute between the devil and Michael over Moses' body
Star - 1: ἀστήρ (Strong's #792 — Noun Masculine — aster — as-tare' ) "a star," Matthew 2:2-10 ; 24:29 ; Mark 13:25 ; 1 Corinthians 15:41 ; Revelation 6:13 ; 8:10-12 ; 9:1 ; 12:1,4 , isused metaphorically, (a) of Christ, as "the morning star," figurative of the approach of the day when He will appear as the "sun of righteousness," to govern the earth in peace, an event to be preceded by the rapture of the Church, Revelation 2:28 ; 22:16 , the promise of the former to the overcomer being suggestive of some special personal interest in Himself and His authority; (b) of the angels of the seven churches, Revelation 1:16,20 ; 2:1 ; 3:1 ; (c) of certain false teachers, described as "wandering stars," Jude 1:13 , as if the "stars," intended for light and guidance, became the means of deceit by irregular movements
Angel - ... "They are called 'holy' in Mark 8:38 , and 'elect,' 1 Timothy 5:21 , in contrast with some of their original number, Matthew 25:41 , who 'sinned,' 2 Peter 2:4 , 'left their proper habitation,' Jude 1:6 , oiketerion, a word which occurs again, in the NT, only in 2 Corinthians 5:2
Austere - Skleros is used of the character of a man, Matthew 25:24 ; of a saying, John 6:60 ; of the difficulty and pain of kicking against the ox-goads, Acts 9:5 ; 26:14 ; of rough winds, James 3:4 and of harsh speeches, Jude 1:15
Thousand - , "five ten-thousands;" Jude 1:14 , "ten thousands;" in Revelation 5:11 "ten thousand times ten thousand" is, lit
Ever, For Ever, Evermore - , "unto an age," Jude 1:13 , "for ever;" (b) eis ton aiona, lit. , "unto all the ages," Jude 1:25 ("for evermore," RV; "ever," AV); (i) eis hemeran aionos, lit
Dispute, Disputer, Disputing - ... A — 4: ἀντιλογία (Strong's #485 — Noun Feminine — antilogia — an-tee-log-ee'-ah ) denotes "a gainsaying, contradiction" (anti, "against," lego, "to speak"), Hebrews 6:16 (AV, "strife," RV, "dispute"); Hebrews 7:7 , "a gainsaying" (RV, "dispute;" AV, "contradiction"); Hebrews 12:3 (RV, "gainsaying;" AV, "contradiction"); Jude 1:11 ("gainsaying"). 2), the RV and AV "had disputed" is somewhat unsuitable here, for the delinquency was not that they had wrangled, but that they had reasoned upon the subject at all; in Acts 17:17 , AV (RV, "reasoned," as in the AV of 18:4,19); in 19:8,9 (RV, "reasoning"); in 24:12, "disputing;" in Jude 1:9 , "disputed
Dark, Darken, Darkly, Darkness - , Matthew 8:12 ; 2 Peter 2:17 ; Jude 1:13 ; (e) metaphorically, of "moral and spiritual darkness," e. ] ... B — 4: ζόφος (Strong's #2217 — Noun Masculine — zophos — dzof'-os ) denotes "the gloom of the nether world;" hence, "thick darkness, darkness that may be felt;" it is rendered "darkness" in Hebrews 12:18 ; 2 Peter 2:4 ; Jude 1:6 ; in 2 Peter 2:17 , RV, "blackness," AV, "mists;" in Jude 1:13 , RV and AV, "blackness
Archangel - I cannot find in all the Bible, the name archangel but twice; once in 1 Thessalonians 4:16; and once in Jude 1:1:9. And if the reader will compare the passage, particularly in Jude, with what the prophet Daniel saith, (Daniel 10:13-21) I conceive that both together will throw light upon the subject. " In the passage of the apostle Jude's Epistle, he saith,"Michael, the archangel, when contending with the devil, he disputed about the body of Moses. Some have thought that the archangel spoken of by Jude cannot mean Christ, because it is there said, that he durst not bring against Satan a railing accusation, but said, The Lord rebuke thee
Saint, Saints - They are called "holy ones" in Jude 1:14 , RV
Riot, Rioting, Riotous, Riotously - ... Note: The verb ekchuno, a Hellenistic form of ekcheo (though the form actually used is the regular classical aorist Passive of ekcheo), "to pour out, shed," is translated "ran riotously" in Jude 1:11 , RV (AV, "ran greedily"); see POUR , SHED
Fornication, Fornicator - 1 (ek, used intensively), "to give oneself up to fornication," implying excessive indulgence, Jude 1:7
Giants - Some understand the “sons of God” to be angelic beings who intermarried with human women (see Jude 1:6 )
Lord, Lordship - ... "Jude, Jude 1:4 , speaks of 'our only--Lord, Jesus Christ,' and immediately, Jude 1:5 , uses 'Lord' of God (see the remarkable marg. here), as he does later, Jude 1:9,14 . ] ... A — 2: δεσπότης (Strong's #1203 — Noun Masculine — despotes — des-pot'-ace ) "a master, lord, one who possesses supreme authority," is used in personal address to God in Luke 2:29 ; Acts 4:24 ; Revelation 6:10 ; with reference to Christ, 2 Peter 2:1 ; Jude 1:4 ; elsewhere it is translated "master," "masters," 1 Timothy 6:1,2 ; 2 Timothy 2:21 (of Christ); Titus 2:9 ; 1 Peter 2:18
Canon of Scripture - Luther spoke disrespectfully of the Hebrews, James, Jude, and the Revelation, and set them apart at the end of his version. Calvin doubted the authenticity of James, 2Peter, and Jude
Catholic Epistles - those of James, Peter (two), John (three), and Jude, is first met with in Eusebius (HE [Note: E Historia Ecclesiastica (Eusebius, etc. 7, 10) of 1 John-in contradistinction to the other two Epistles of John, which are not addressed to the Church at large; the term is used more frequently by Origen of 1 John, Jude, and 1 Peter, as also, in a single instance, of the Epistle of Barnabas (c. ] 205, and he applies the same attribute to Jude in his Hypotyposeis (T
Baptism of Fire - As John the Baptist preached in the Judean wilderness, he declared, "I baptize you with water for repentance. ... Throughout Scripture, fire often represents judgment (Genesis 19:24 ; 2 Kings 1:10 ; Amos 1:4-7 ; Matthew 7:19 ; 2 Thessalonians 1:8 ; James 5:3 ), including everlasting punishment (Matthew 18:8 ; Jude 7 )
Fault, Faultless - , without any shortcoming, in Jude 1:24 , and "without fault" in Revelation 14:5 , AV, see BLEMISH
Lake of Fire - Jesus extensively uses the imagery of "hell-fire" (Matthew 5:22 ; 7:19 ; 13:40-42,50 ; 18:8-9 ; 25:41 ; Mark 9:43,48-49 ; Luke 16:24 ; John 15:6 ), derived from the Old Testament descriptions of God's retributive judgment, particularly Sodom's ruin (Genesis 19:24 ; Leviticus 10:2 ; Numbers 16:35 ; Isaiah 34:10 ; Luke 17:29 ; Jude 7 )
Achor - (Jude 1:1:4) I know not whether I should have noticed this valley, or the history of Achan, to whom it refers, had it not been from the gracious use the Lord makes of it, in a way of figure, by allusion, in promising happier times to Israel
Simon the Apostle, Saint - In the West he is venerated with Saint Jude (Thaddaeus) on October 28,; in the East separately on May 10,
Darkness - The Old Testament and New Testament describe the future of the ungodly in terms of eschatological darkness, symbolizing perdition (1 Samuel 2:9 ; Matthew 22:13 ; Jude 12-13 ). "Hell" and "pits of darkness" describe the fate of angels who sinned (2 Peter 2:4 ; Jude 6 )
Judas - One of Jesus’ brothers was named Judas, but on becoming a believer he was known by the shorter name, Jude (Matthew 13:55; see Jude)
Disannul, Disannulling - , to deprive a law of its force by opinions or acts contrary to it, Galatians 3:15 , AV, "disannulleth," RV, "maketh void;" (b) "to thwart the efficacy of anything, to nullify, to frustrate it," Luke 7:30 , "rejected;" 1 Corinthians 1:19 , "will I reject;" to make void, Galatians 2:21 ; to set at nought, Jude 1:8 , RV (AV, "despised"); the parallel passage, in 2 Peter 2:10 , has kataphroneo
Example - A — 1: δεῖγμα (Strong's #1164 — Noun Neuter — deigma — digh'-mah ) primarily "a thing shown, a specimen" (akin to deiknumi, "to show"), denotes an "example" given as a warning, Jude 1:7
Michael - One New Testament writer, Jude, refers to an incident from one of these books to illustrate a point in his message
Sodom And Gomorrah - ... The unnatural lusts of the men of Sodom (Genesis 19:4-8 ; Jude 1:7 ) have given us the modern term sodomy, but the city was guilty of a full spectrum of sins including pride, oppression of the poor, haughtiness, and “abominable things” (Ezekiel 16:49-50 )
Example - Jude 1:7 ... 5
Apostasy - See, for instance, Hebrews 3:12 ; Hebrews 10:26,28 , and the epistle of Jude
Tree - , "rose tree"), known by the fruit it produces, Matthew 12:33 ; Luke 6:44 ; certain qualities are mentioned in the NT; "a good tree," Matthew 7:17,18 ; 12:33 ; Luke 6:43 ; "a corrupt tree" (ditto); in Jude 1:12 , metaphorically, of evil teachers, "autumn trees (AV, 'trees whose fruit withereth') without fruit, twice dead, plucked up by the roots," RV; in Luke 13:19 in some texts, "a great tree," AV (RV, "a tree"); for this and Matthew 13:32 see MUSTARD; in Luke 21:29 "the fig tree" is illustrative of Israel, "all the trees" indicating Gentile nations
Peter, Second Epistle of - (2 Peter 1:14-21 ) The danger of being misled by false prophets is dwelt upon with great earnestness throughout the second chapter, which is almost identical in language and subject with the Epistle of Jude
Apostle - The names of the twelve are, Simon Peter; Andrew, his brother; James, the son of Zebedee, called also "the greater;" John, his brother; Philip; Bartholomew; Thomas; Matthew, or Levi; Simon the Canaanite; Lebbeus, surnamed Thaddeus, also called Judas or Jude; James, "the less," the son of Alphaeus; and Judas Iscariot, Matthew 10:2-4 Mark 3:16 Luke 6:14
Jude, Epistle of - The author was "Judas, the brother of James" the Less (Jude 1:1 ), called also Lebbaeus (Matthew 10:3 ) and Thaddaeus (Mark 3:18 )
Doxology - Doxologies also occur at or near the end of several New Testament books ( Romans 16:27 ; Philippians 4:20 ; 1 Timothy 6:16 ; 2 Timothy 4:18 ; Hebrews 13:21 ; 1 Peter 5:11 ; 2 Peter 3:18 ; Jude 1:25 ) and figure prominently in the Revelation (Revelation 1:6 ; Revelation 4:8 ; Revelation 5:13 ; Revelation 7:12 )
Earnest - Meanwhile, they earnestly contend for the faith (Jude 1:3 )
Mercy - 1 Corinthians 7; Jude 1:2
Prison - ... Fallen angels are said to be kept in 'everlasting chains,' Jude 6 ; and there are spirits which are kept in prison
Catholic - They are seven in number; namely, one of James, two of Peter, three of John, and one of Jude
Likewise - 1), is rendered "likewise" in the AV of Matthew 22:26 ; 27:41 , Luke 10:32 ; 16:25 ; John 5:19 ; James 2:25 ; 1 Peter 3:1,7 ; Jude 1:8 ; Revelation 8:12 (in all these the RV has "in like manner"); in the following, AV and RV have "likewise;" Matthew 26:35 ; Luke 5:33 ; 6:31 ; 10:37 ; 17:28,31 ; 22:36 ; John 6:11 ; 21:13 ; Romans 1:27 ; 1 Peter 5:5
Only - , in Matthew 4:10 ; 12:4 ; 17:8 ; 1 Corinthians 9:6 ; 14:36 ; Philippians 4:15 ; Colossians 4:11 ; 2 John 1:1 ; it is used as an attribute of God in John 5:44 ; 17:3 ; Romans 16:27 ; 1 Timothy 1:17 ; 1 Timothy 6:15,16 ; Jude 1:4,25 ; Revelation 15:4
Look, Looking - , in Luke 2:38 ; 23:51 ; Acts 24:15 , RV (AV, "allow"); Titus 2:13 ; Jude 1:21
Nicola'Itans - (2 Peter 2:15 ; Jude 1:11 ) They, like the false prophet of Pethor, united brave words with evil deeds
Habitation - 1: οἰκητήριον (Strong's #3613 — Noun Neuter — oiketerion — oy-kay-tay'-ree-on ) "a habitation" (from oiketer, "an inhabitant," and oikos, "a dwelling"), is used in Jude 1:6 , of the heavenly region appointed by God as the dwelling place of angeles; in 2 Corinthians 5:2 , RV, "habitation," AV, "house," figuratively of the spiritual bodies of believers when raised or changed at the return of the Lord
Wise, Wiser, Wisely - A — 1: σοφός (Strong's #4680 — Adjective — sophos — sof-os' ) is used of (a) God, Romans 16:27 ; in 1 Timothy 1;17 ; Jude 1:25 sophos is absent, in the best mss
Feast - ... A — 5: ἀγάπη (Strong's #26 — Noun Feminine — agape — ag-ah'-pay ) "love," is used in the plural in Jude 1:12 , signifying "love feasts," RV (AV, "feasts of charity"); in the corresponding passage, 2 Peter 2:13 , the most authentic mss. " ... B — 2: συνευωχέομαι (Strong's #4910 — Verb — suneuocheo — soon-yoo-o-kheh'-o ) "to entertain sumptuously with," is used in the Passive Voice, denoting "to feast sumptuously with" (sun, "together," and euochia, "good cheer"), "to revel with," translated "feast with" in 2 Peter 2:13 ; Jude 1:12
Brother - His "brethren did not believe in Him" (John 7:5) may refer to His near relations generally, excepting the two apostles James (who is expressly called "the Lord's brother," Galatians 1:19) and Jude (Judges 1:1). It is not likely there would be two pairs of brothers named alike, of such eminence; James and Jude
Epistles - Of these, three are written by John, two by Peter, and one each by James and Jude
Perish - 114); 1 Corinthians 8:11 ; 15:18 ; 2 Peter 3:9 ; Jude 1:11
Estate, State - " (5) In Jude 1:6 arche, "principality," RV, AV has "first estate," (6) For "last state" see LAST
Separate - ... A — 3: ἀποδιορίζω (Strong's #592 — Verb — apodiorizo — ap-od-ee-or-id'-zo ) "to mark off" (apo, "from," dia, "asunder," horizo, "to limit"), hence denotes metaphorically to make "separations," Jude 1:19 , RV (AV, "separate themselves"), of persons who make divisions (in contrast with ver
Judgment, the Final - " ... The persons to be judged are, (1) the whole race of Adam without a single exception (Matthew 25:31-46 ; 1 Corinthians 15:51,52 ; Revelation 20:11-15 ); and (2) the fallen angels (2 Peter 2:4 ; Jude 1:6 )
Savior - In the New Testament, savior continues as a title of God; indeed, God is the savior in a full third of the New Testament cases (Luke 1:47 ; 1 Timothy 1:1 ; 1 Timothy 2:3 ; 1 Timothy 4:10 ; Titus 1:3 ; Titus 2:10 ; Titus 3:4 ; Jude 1:25 )
Cloud - A "cloud without rain" is a proverbial saying, denoting a man who does not keep his promise (Proverbs 16:15 ; Isaiah 18:4 ; 25:5 ; Jude 1:12 )
Saint - Acts 9:13 ; Colossians 1:26 ; 1 Thessalonians 3:13 ; Jude 14
Korah - In Jude 11 he is called CORE
Lord - It is applied to God and to the Lord Jesus, Luke 2:29 ; Acts 4:24 ; 2 Peter 2:1 ; Jude 4 ; Revelation 6:10 ; and in 2 Timothy 2:21 is translated 'master
Day - 2 Peter 3:3 ; Jude 18
Ordain - (6) In Jude 1:4 , AV, prographo, lit
Balaam - This bad counsel was pursued; the young women of Moab inveigled the Hebrews to the impure and idolatrous worship of Baal-Peor, for which 24,000 Israelites were slain, Numbers 25:1-9 31:16 2 Peter 2:15 Jude 1:11 Revelation 2:14
Canon of Scripture, the, - The Old Testament Canon is ratified by the fact that the present Old Testament books were those accepted in the time of Christ and endorsed by him, and that of 275 quotations of the Old Testament in the New, no book out of the Canon is quoted from except perhaps the word of Enoch in Jude
What - , Matthew 21:23,24,27 ; 24:42,43 ; Luke 5:19 ; 6:32-34 ; 20:2,8 ; 24:19 ; John 12:33 , "what manner of;" so in John 18:32 ; 21:19 ; Romans 3:27 ; 1 Corinthians 15:35 ; in James 4:14 , "what;" 1 Peter 2:20 ; Revelation 3:3 (ditto); 1 Peter 1:11 , "what manner of;" (c) hopoios, "what sort of," 1 Corinthians 3:13 ; "what manner of," 1 Thessalonians 1:9 ; (d) hosos, "how great," Mark 6:30 (twice), RV, "whatsoever;" Acts 15:12 ; Romans 3:19 , "what things soever;" Jude 1:10 (1st part), "whatsoever things," RV; (2nd part) "what;" (e) posos, "how great, how much," 2 Corinthians 7:11 , "what (earnest care)," RV (posos here stands for the repeated words in the Eng
Constrain, Constraint - ... Note: The verb echo, "to have," with ananke, "a necessity," is translated "I was constrained," in Jude 1:3 , RV (AV, "it was needful")
Archangel - In particular, Michael (Daniel 10:13 ,Daniel 10:13,10:21 ; Daniel 12:1 ; Jude 1:9 ; Assumption of Moses 12:7-9), Gabriel (gabriel , “hero of God”; Daniel 8:16 ; Daniel 9:21 ; Luke 1:19 ,Luke 1:19,1:26 ), and Raphael (rapael “God has healed”; a chief figure in the book of Tobit, see Tobit 3:16-17 ) were cast as important interpreters, advocates, and intercessors. The Book of Revelation appears to reflect tradition of archangels found in Enoch (although the term archangelos is found only in 1 Thessalonians 4:16 and Jude 1:9 ) that have holy creatures waiting on the throne of God, presiding over the corners of the earth, and are part of the cosmic reordering at the end of time (Revelation 1:4 ; Revelation 4:5 ; Revelation 7:1 ; Revelation 12:7 ; Enoch 9:1; 10:1; 40:2; 90:21)
Angels - Jude 9 . Jude 6 . 2 Peter 2:10 ; Jude 6-8
Face - , Galatians 1:22 ; 1 Thessalonians 2:17 (second part); (e) the appearance one presents by his wealth or poverty, his position or state, Matthew 22:16 ; Mark 12:14 ; Galatians 2:6 ; Jude 1:16 ; (f) the outward appearance of inanimate things, Matthew 16:3 ; Luke 12:56 ; 21:35 ; Acts 17:26
Pluck - ... 5: ἐκριζόω (Strong's #1610 — Verb — ekrizoo — ek-rid-zo'-o ) "to pluck up by the roots" (ek, "out," rhiza, "a root"), is so translated in Jude 1:12 (figuratively), and in the AV in Luke 17:6 , RV, "rooted up;" "root up," Matthew 13:29 ; "shall be rooted up," Matthew 15:13
Rebuke - " Except for 2 Timothy 4:2 ; Jude 1:9 , it is confined in the NT to the Synoptic Gospels, where it is frequently used of the Lord's rebukes to (a) evil spirits, e
Michael - In the passage in Jude ( Judges 1:9 ) a definite reference is made to the tradition already mentioned, ‘Michael the archangel, when contending with the devil he disputed about the body of Moses, durst not bring against him a railing accusation, but said, The Lord rebuke thee’ (cf
Cleopas - He was the father of Simeon, of James the Less, of Jude, and Joseph or Joses
Advantage - 1, is found in Romans 3:1 , "profit," and Jude 1:16 , "advantage
Jude, Epistle of - Written by Jude the brother of James, and apparently the same person as the apostle JUDAS, q
Peter, Letters of - (Concerning the similarities between 2 Peter and Jude see Jude
Lust - ... Other descriptions besides those already mentioned are: "of the mind," Ephesians 2:3 ; "evil (desire)," Colossians 3:5 ; "the passion of," 1 Thessalonians 4:5 , RV; "foolish and hurtful," 1 Timothy 6:9 ; "youthful," 2 Timothy 2:22 ; "divers," 2 Timothy 3:6 ; Titus 3:3 ; "their own," 2 Timothy 4:3 ; 2 Peter 3:3 ; Jude 1:16 ; "worldly," Titus 2:12 ; "his own," James 1:14 ; "your former," 1 Peter 1:14 , RV; "fleshly," 1 Peter 2:11 ; "of men," 1 Peter 4:2 ; "of defilement," 2 Peter 2:10 ; "of the eyes," 1 John 2:16 ; of the world ("thereof"), 1 John 2:17 ; "their own ungodly," Jude 1:18
Brethren of the Lord (2) - Jude seems even to exclude himself from the number of the Apostles (" translation="">Judges 1:17). ... (4) The names of James, Simon, and Jude occur together, and in the same division, in all the Apostolic lists. Moreover, the father of James is Alphaeus, but the father of Jude is a certain James, of whom nothing definite is known. It is true that some propose to translate Ἰούδας Ἱακώβου (Luke 6:16, Acts 1:13) ‘Jude the brother of James,’ but so unusual, and probably unexampled, a meaning would require at least to be indicated by the context. We conclude, therefore, that James was certainly not the brother of Jude, and there is no evidence that he was the brother of Simon. The coincidence of three such common names as James, Simon, and Jude in the list of brethren and in the list of Apostles proves nothing. If it could be shown that James, Simon, and Jude, Apostles, were also brothers, the coincidence would be worth considering; but since they were not, the coincidence is without significance. ’ James is called ‘of Alphaeus,’ perhaps also ‘the Little’; Simon is called the Cananaean,’ and ‘the Zealot’; Jude receives no less than four distinguishing titles, ‘not Iscariot,’ ‘of James,’ ‘Thaddaeus,’ and ‘Lebbaeus’ (Matthew 10:3, Western Text). Accordingly James and Joses (and consequently also Simon and Jude), the Lord’s ‘brethren,’ were really His cousins on His mother’s side
Eternal - ... "Aionios is also used of the sin that 'hath never forgiveness,' Mark 3:29 , and of the judgment of God, from which there is no appeal, Hebrews 6:2 , and of the fire, which is one of its instruments, Matthew 18:8 ; 25:41 ; Jude 1:7 , and which is elsewhere said to be 'unquenchable,' Mark 9:43
Devil, Devlish - Jude 1:9
Openly - Jude 1:4 ), and of a previous letter, Ephesians 3:3
Compassion, Compassionate - ... A — 4: ἐλεέω (Strong's #1653 — Verb — eleeo — el-eh-eh'-o ) "to have mercy (eleos, "mercy"), to show kindness, by beneficence, or assistance," is translated "have compassion" in Matthew 18:33 (AV); Mark 5:19 ; Jude 1:22
Hate, Hateful, Hater, Hatred - , "hated," or "having been hated;" (b) of a right feeling of aversion from what is evil; said of wrongdoing, Romans 7:15 ; iniquity, Hebrews 1:9 ; "the garment (figurative) spotted by the flesh," Jude 1:23 ; "the works of the Nicolaitans," Revelation 2:6 (and ver
Doubt - ... A different use of the word "doubt" is found in both Romans 14:23 and Jude 22 . "... Jude 22 raises the issue of evangelistic apologetics toward the serious doubter who denies Jesus Christ as the only sovereign Lord (v
Condemn, Condemnation - , Mark 12:40 ; Luke 23:40 ; 1 Timothy 3:6 ; Jude 1:4 ; (b) "the process of judgment leading to a decision," 1 Peter 4:17 ("judgment"), where krisis (see No. 1 above); hence "a judging, a passing of judgment upon a person or thing;" it has a variety of meanings, such as judicial authority, John 5:22,27 ; justice, Acts 8:33 ; James 2:13 ; a tribunal, Matthew 5:21,22 ; a trial, John 5:24 ; 2 Peter 2:4 ; a judgment, 2 Peter 2:11 ; Jude 1:9 ; by metonymy, the standard of judgment, just dealing, Matthew 12:18,20 ; 23:23 ; Luke 11:42 ; Divine judgment executed, 2 Thessalonians 1:5 ; Revelation 16:7 ; (b) sometimes it has the meaning "condemnation," and is virtually equivalent to krima (a); see Matthew 23:33 ; John 3:19 ; James 5:12 , hupo krisin, "under judgment
Hell - Here the damned will be paid back for the harm they have done (Matthew 16:27 ; Luke 12:47-48 ; 2 Peter 2:13 ; Jude 15 Revelation 14:9-11 ). The wicked are imprisoned here so they cannot harm God's people (Matthew 5:25-26 ; 13:42,50 ; 18:34 ; Jude 6 Revelation 20:14-15 ). Consequently this "second death" (Revelation 21:8 ) is a useless and ruined existence (Matthew 25:30 ; Luke 9:25 ; John 3:16-18 ; 2 Thessalonians 1:9 ; 2 Peter 2:12 ; Jude 12 ; Revelation 21:8 ). The reprobate have become obstinate in their rebellion against God, like "unreasoning animals" (Jude 10,13 ; 2 Peter 2:12-22 ). ... In hell, the damned receive their due for "things done while in the body" (2Col 5:10; 2 Peter 2:13 ; Jude 15 Revelation 14:9-11 )
James - Brother of Jude (Judges 1:1; Luke 6:16; Acts 1:13). Clopas (Alexandrinus and Vaticanus manuscripts, John 19:25) or Cleophas (Sinaiticus manuscript) is the Hebrew, Alphaeus the Greek, of the same name: he married Mary, sister of the Virgin Mary, and had by her James, Joses, Jude, and Simon, and three daughters (Mary is sometimes designated "mother of James and Joses," Matthew 27:56, as these were the two oldest); he died before our Lord's ministry began, and his widow went to live with her sister the Virgin Mary, a widow also herself (for Joseph's name never occurs after Luke 2), at Nazareth (Matthew 13:55), Capernaum (John 2:12), and Jerusalem (Acts 1:14). The statement in John 7:3-5, "neither did His brethren believe in Him," does not imply that all of them disbelieved; James and Jude believed. They looked for a reigning Messiah, and thought Jesus' miracles were wrought with a view to this end: "depart hence (from obscure Galilee) and go into Judea, that Thy disciples also may see the works that Thou doest, for there is no man that doeth anything in secret and (yet) he himself seeketh to be known openly (which they take for granted He seeks); if Thou do these things, show Thyself to the world. "... The theory that denies any of the Lord's brethren to have place among the apostles involves the improbability that there were two sets of four first cousins, named James, Joses, Jude, Simon, without anything to show which is son of Clopas and which his cousin. Luke in enumerating the twelve calls Jude: "the brother of James," he must mean brother of the "James, son of Alphaeus," before mentioned. Jude appears in Mark 6:3; Matthew 13:55, as "brother of the Lord"; therefore James the son of Alphaeus must have been" brother," i
Mary of Cleophas - ... Mary was probably the Virgin's older sister or half-sister; she married Cleophas and by him had four sons, James (the apostle), Joses ("Joseph" Vaticanus manuscript, "John" Sinaiticus manuscript), Jude (the apostle), and Simon, and three daughters
Differ, Differing, Different, Difference - In Jude 1:22 , where the Middle Voice is used, the AV has "making a difference," the RV, adopting the alternative reading, the accusative case, has "who are in doubt," a meaning found in Matthew 21:21 ; Mark 11:23 ; Acts 10:20 ; Romans 14:23 ; James 1:6 ; 2:4
Sea - 2, Matthew 18:6 ; (b) metaphorically, of "the ungodly men" described in Jude 1:13 (cp
Deuterocanonical - The deuterocanonical books in the modern canon are, the book of Esther, either the whole, or at least the seven last chapters thereof; the epistle to the Hebrews; that of James, and that of Jude; the second of St
Vanity - Jude, and the Second Epistle of St
Faith, - Jude 3
Apocrypha - ... The following is a list of the Apocrypha: ... Apocrypha of Jewish Origin ... Jewish Apocalypses ...
Book of Henoch

Assumption of Moses

Fourth Book of Esdras

Apocalypse of Baruch

Apocalypse of Abraham
Legendary Apocrypha of Jewish Origin ...
Book of Jubilees, or Little Genesis

Third Book of Esdras

Third Book of Machabees

History and Maxims of Ahikar, the Assyrian
Apocryphal Psalms and Prayers ...
Psalms of Solomon

Prayer of Manasses
Jewish Philosophy ...
Fourth Book of Machabees
Apocrypha of Jewish Origin with Christian Accretions ...
Sibylline Oracles

Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs

Ascension of Isaias
Apocrypha Of Christian Origin ... Apocryphal Gospels of Catholic Origin ...
Protoevangelium Jacobi, or Infancy Gospel of James, describing the birth, education, and marriage of the Blessed Virgin

Gospel of the Pseudo-Matthew

Arabic Gospel of the Infancy

History of Joseph the Carpenter

Transitu Marire, or Evangelium Joannis, describing the death and assumption of the Blessed Virgin
Judaistic and Heretical Gospels ...
Gospel according to the Hebrews

Gospel according to the Egyptians

Gospel of Peter

Gospel of Philip

Gospel of Thomas

Gospel of Marcion

Gospel of Bartholomew

Gospel of Matthias

Gospel of Nicodemus

Gospel of the Twelve Apostles

Gospel of Andrew

Gospel of Barnabas

Gospel of Thaddeus

Gospel of Philip

Gospel of Eve

Gospel of Judas Iscariot
Pilate Literature and Other Apocrypha concerning Christ ...
Report of Pilate to the Emperor

Narrative of Joseph of Arimathea

Pseudo-Correspondence of Jesus and Abgar, King of Edessa
Gnostic Acts of the Apostles ...
Acts of Peter

Acts of John

Acts of Andrew

Acts and Martyrdom of Matthew

Acts of Thomas

Acts of Bartholomew
Catholic Apocryphal Acts of the Apostles ...
Acts of Peter and Paul

Acts of Paul

Acts of Paul and Thecla

Acts of Philip

Acts of Matthew

Acts of Simon and Jude

Acts of Barnabas

Acts of James the Greater
Apocryphal Doctrinal Works ...
Testamentum Domini

Nostri Jesu

Preaching of Peter, or Kerygma Petri
Apocryphal Epistles ...
Pseudo-Epistle of Peter

Pseudo-Epistles of Paul

Pseudo-Epistles to the Laodiceans

Pseudo-Correspondence of Paul and Seneca
Christian Apocryphal Apocalypses ...
Apocalypse of Peter

Apocalypse of Paul
Beast - 2:12; Jude 1:10 , the AV has "beasts," the RV "creatures
Common, Commonly - , communis), said of things had in common, Acts 2:44 ; 4:32 ; of faith, Titus 1:4 ; of salvation, Jude 1:3 ; it stands in contrast to idios, "one's own;" (b) "ordinary, belonging to the generality, as distinct from what is peculiar to the few;" hence the application to religious practices of Gentiles in contrast with those of Jews; or of the ordinary people in contrast with those of the Pharisees; hence the meaning "unhallowed, profane," Levitically unclean (Lat
Nought - ... C — 5: ἀθετέω (Strong's #114 — Verb — atheteo — ath-et-eh'-o ) "to set aside, reject," is translated "set at nought" in Hebrews 10:28 , RV (AV, "despised"); so Jude 1:8
Doctrine - They encouraged believers to be faithful to that body of information they had heard and received in the beginning (1 John 2:7,24 , 26 ; 3:11 ), that "faith that was once for all entrusted to the saints' (Jude 3 )
Rellyanists - He believed that Christ as Mediator was so united to mankind, that his actions were theirs, his obedience and sufferings theirs; and, consequently, that he has as fully restored the whole human race to the divine favour, as if all had obeyed and suffered in their own persons; and upon this persuasion he preached a finished salvation, called by the apostle Jude, "The common salvation
Ungodliness - Elsewhere it occurs only in the Pastoral Epistles (2 Timothy 2:16, Titus 2:12) and Jude (Judges 1:15)
Spirits in Prison - ... That these spirits are the evil angels of Genesis 6:1-4 (or their offspring) is indicated by their being in prison, their disobedience in the time of Noah, their mention in 2 Peter 2:4 and Jude 6 , and the New Testament use of the plural noun ("spirits, " pneumasin ) as a reference to evil spirits unless otherwise qualified
Land - , Matthew 2:20,21 ; 4:15 ; Luke 4:25 ; in 23:44, RV, "(the whole) land," AV, "(all the) earth;" Acts 7:29 ; Hebrews 11:9 , RV, "a land (not his own)," AV "a (strange) country;" Jude 1:5
James - The gospels repeatedly mention James, Joses, Juda, and Simon, as "brothers" of our Lord, and speak in the same connection of his "mother" and his "sisters," Matthew 12:46 13:56, Mark 3:31, 6:3, Luke 8:19 ; moreover, the inspired writers expressly distinguish the brothers of Christ from the apostles both James the Less and Jude, John 2:12 7:3-10 Acts 1:13,14 , thus furnishing strong reasons, as many believe, for the opinion that James the Just was literally a brother of our Lord
Catch - have diarpazo here); in Matthew 13:19 , RV, "snatcheth;" for forceful seizure, see also John 6:15 ; 10:12,28,29 ; Acts 23:10 ; in Jude 1:23 , RV , "snatching
Pray, Prayer - ... A — 2: προσεύχομαι (Strong's #4336 — Verb — proseuchomai — pros-yoo'-khom-ahee ) "to pray," is always used of "prayer" to God, and is the most frequent word in this respect, especially in the Synoptists and Acts, once in Romans 8:26 ; Ephesians 6:18 ; Philippians 1:9 ; 1 Timothy 2:8 ; Hebrews 13:18 ; Jude 1:20 . Jude 1:20 ; James 5:16 , the last clause of which should probably be read "the inwrought [i
Nature, Natural - Jude uses the adverb ( physikos [ Jude 10 ) to refer to those things men and women know without conscious reflection
Lasciviousness - Jude (International Critical Commentary , 1901), 168. ’ In 1 Peter 4:3 the word is definitely used as a general term of the ‘will of the Gentiles,’ and is evidently the licentiousness which accompanied heathen feasts and lawless idolatries, while in Jude and 2 Peter it is the typical sin of the cities of the plain, which the libertines, under the guise of a spurious freedom, followed, and into which they inveigled others
Prophecy, Prophesy, Prophesying - , Matthew 15:7 ; John 11:51 ; 1 Peter 1:10 ; Jude 14
Salvation - , 2 Corinthians 6:2 ; Hebrews 5:9 ; 1 Peter 1:9,10 ; Jude 1:3 ; (g) occasionally, as standing virtually for the Savior, e
Flesh - ... Romans 7:5 (a) This expression is used to describe those who do not have the Spirit of GOD, are not saved, and are called "sensual" in the book of Jude
Servant - ... Paul, James, Peter, and Jude all call themselves 'bondmen of the Lord,' and Christians generally are thus designated
Great - Jude 1:6
Other - (2) The plural of the definite article is translated "others" in Acts 17:32 ; in Jude 1:23 , AV, "others" (RV, "some")
Build, Builder, Building - ... A — 3: ἐποικοδομέω (Strong's #2026 — Verb — epoikodomeo — ep-oy-kod-om-eh'-o ) signifies "to build upon" (epi, "upon"), 1 Corinthians 3:10,12,14 ; Ephesians 2:20 ; Jude 1:20 ; or up, Acts 20:32 ; Colossians 2:7
Hell - , Matthew 13:42 ; 25:46 ; Philippians 3:19 ; 2 Thessalonians 1:9 ; Hebrews 10:39 ; 2 Peter 2:17 ; Jude 1:13 ; Revelation 2:11 ; 19:20 ; 20:6,10,14 ; 21:8
Mock, Mocker, Mocking - " (AV, "scoffers"); Jude 1:18 , RV and AV, "mockers
Simeon (1) - 290) in regarding Simeon as a brother of James and also of Jude though perhaps by another mother (Mill Pantheistic Principles pp
Canon of the New Testament - 165 220) acknowledging the 4 Gospels and Acts 14:1-28 Epistles of Paul (Hebrews being included), and quoting 1 and 2 John 1:1 Petereter, Jude, and the Apocalypse. He does not directly mention the Epistles of James or Jude, although he seems to refer to them once in a rhetorical way, classing Peter, James, and Jude with the 4 Evangelists as represented by Isaac’s servants if we are to trust Rufinus’ version. Jude was even rejected by most people because it contained quotations from Apocryphal writings. He also mentions doubts concerning the five General Epistles, and gives less authority to 2 and 3 John and Jude than to those books which he regards as certainly in the Holy Scriptures. Luther places Hebrews, James, Jude, and the Apocalypse at the end of his translation, after the other NT books, which he designates ‘the true and certain capital books of the NT, for these have been regarded in former times in a different light. ’ He regards Jude as ‘indisputably an extract or copy from 2Peter. Further, Calvin acknowledges the existence of doubts with respect both to James and to Jude; but he accepts them both. the small Epistle of Jude; but they throw the burden of proof on those who would disturb the Canon by a serious proposal to eject any of its contents; and in fact no such proposal as distinct from critical questions of the dates, authorship, historicity, etc
Set - A — 1: ἵστημι (Strong's #2476 — Verb — histemi — his'-tay-mee ) "to cause to stand," is translated "to set" in Matthew 4:5 (aorist tense in the best texts; some have the present, as in AV); 18:2; 25:33; Mark 9:36 ; Luke 4:9 ; 9:47 ; John 8:3 ; Acts 4:7 ; 5:27 ; 6:6 ; in Acts 6:13 , "set up;" Acts 22:30 ; in Jude 1:24 , RV, "to set" (AV, "to present"). 21), and is so rendered in Hebrews 6:18 of the hope of the believer; Hebrews 12:1 , of the Christian race; Hebrews 12:2 , of the joy "set" before Christ in the days of His flesh and at His death; (b) "to be set forth," said of Sodom and Gomorrah, in Jude 1:7 . ... A — 24: προγράφω (Strong's #4270 — Verb — prographo — prog-raf'-o ) "to write before," is translated "were set forth (unto this condemnation)" in Jude 1:4 , RV (AV, "ordained"); the evil teachers were "designated of old for this judgment" (cp
Color, Symbolic Meaning of - Hell is the place of "blackest darkness" reserved for the godless (2 Peter 2:17 ; Jude 13 )
Despise, Despiser - , "to displace, to set aside," RV, "to reject," Luke 10:16 ; 1 Thessalonians 4:8 ; in 1 Timothy 5:12 , "rejected," for AV, "cast off;" in Hebrews 10:28 , "hath set at nought;" so Jude 1:8
Earnest, Earnestness, Earnestly - (4) In Jude 1:3 , epagonizo, "to contend earnestly," is so translated
Last - verses James 5:7,8 ); (e) in 1 Peter 1:5 , "the last time" refers to the time of the Lord's second advent; (f) in 1 John 2:18 , "the last hour" (RV) and, in Jude 1:18 , "the last time" signify the present age previous to the Second Advent
Murder - Jude,’ Edinburgh, 1901, p
Rebels - " (Matthew 26:24) And Jude, speaking of all such, calls them ungodly men,"who were before of old ordained to this condemnation. " (Jude 1:1:4) And Paul speaks of similar characters under the general term of traitors, (2 Timothy 3:4) So that Judas and his company, the reprobate, are the only traitors we meet with in the word of God; and in this sense rebels and traitors are one and the same
Manner - ... A — 3: τρόπος (Strong's #5158 — Noun Masculine — tropos — trop'-os ) "a turning, fashion, manner, character, way of life," is translated "manner" in Acts 1:11 , with reference to the Lord's ascension and return; in Jude 1:7 , of the similarity of the evil of those mentioned in Jude 1:6,7
James Epistle of - 314) mentions it along with Jude, 2 Peter , 2 and 3 John, among the books which, although widely known, were ‘disputed’ (ἀντιλεγόμενα). by some]), because many ancient writers make no mention of it, as was also the case with Jude, though all the Catholic Epistles were publicly read in most churches. of Jude but not that of James. The Muratorian Canon omits it, along with Hebrews , 1 and 2 Peter (on the other hand, the Peshitta includes it, while omitting Jude, 2 Peter , 2 and 3 John, and the Apocalypse). Clement of Alexandria is said to have included a commentary on ‘Jude and the rest of the Catholic Epistles’ in his Hypotyposeis ( Historia Ecclesiastica (Eusebius, etc. 14); but, while his notes on 1 Peter , 1 and 2 John, and Jude are extant in a Latin translation, James is wanting
Greeting - ” (Hebrews 13:20-21 ); “Now unto Him that is able to keep you from falling to the only wise God our Savior” (Jude 1:24-25 )
Homosexuality - This evil of Sodom is mentioned elsewhere (Jeremiah 23:14 ; Ezekiel 16:49-50 ; 2 Peter 2:6-10 ; Jude 1:7 ) in the strongest terms of condemnation
Epistles - Jude one
Feed, Fed - ... 2: ποιμαίνω (Strong's #4165 — Verb — poimaino — poy-mah'ee-no ) "to act as a shepherd" (from poimen, "a shepherd"), is used (a) literally, Luke 17:7 , RV, "keeping sheep," for AV, "feeding cattle;" 1 Corinthians 9:7 ; (b) metaphorically, "to tend, to shepherd;" said of Christ, Matthew 2:6 , RV, "shall be Shepherd of" (for AV, "shall rule"); of those who act as spiritual shepherds under Him, John 21:16 , RV, "tend" (for AV "feed"); so 1 Peter 5:2 ; Acts 20:28 , "to feed" ("to tend" would have been a consistent rendering; a shepherd does not only "feed" his flock); of base shepherds, Jude 1:12
Faith - , Matthew 23:23 ; Romans 3:3 , RV, "the faithfulness of God;" Galatians 5:22 (RV, "faithfulness"); Titus 2:10 , "fidelity;" (c) by metonymy, what is believed, the contents of belief, the "faith," Acts 6:7 ; 14:22 ; Galatians 1:23 ; 3:25 [contrast Galatians 3:23 , under (a)]; Galatians 6:10 ; Philippians 1:27 ; 1 Thessalonians 3:10 ; Jude 1:3,20 (and perhaps 2 Thessalonians 3:2 ); (d) a ground for "faith," an assurance, Acts 17:31 (not as in AV, marg
Elect, Elected, Election - have it in John 1:34 , instead of huios, "Son;" (b) angels, 1 Timothy 5:21 , as "chosen" to be of especially high rank in administrative association with God, or as His messengers to human beings, doubtless in contrast to fallen angels (see 2 Peter 2:4 ; Jude 1:6 ); (c) believers (Jews or Gentiles), Matthew 24:22,24,31 ; Mark 13:20,22,27 ; Luke 18:7 ; Romans 8:33 ; Colossians 3:12 ; 2 Timothy 2:10 ; Titus 1:1 ; 1 Peter 1:1 ; 2:9 (as a spiritual race); Matthew 20:16 ; 22:14 ; Revelation 17:14 , "chosen;" individual believers are so mentioned in Romans 16:13 ; 2 John 1:1,13
Save, Saving - , Matthew 8:25 ; Mark 13:20 ; Luke 23:35 ; John 12:27 ; 1 Timothy 2:15 ; 2 Timothy 4:18 (AV, "preserve"); Jude 1:5 ; from sickness, Matthew 9:22 , "made
Follow, Follower - The noun "follower" is seldom used in Scripture for the people of God, possibly due to its frequent references to idol worshipers (Deuteronomy 18:9 ; 1 Kings 18:18 ) or those following evil desires (Ephesians 2:2-3 ; Jude 16-18 )
Build up - ... Jude uses this word to encourage believers to build themselves up in their faith (v
Transfiguration - Jude,’ Edinburgh, 1901, pp
Love Feast - While the only explicit New Testament reference to the agape meal is found (agapai in Greek) in Jude 1:12 , allusions to the practice may be seen in other New Testament texts
Judas - He was the author of the Short Epistle of Jude ( i
Hair - Jude, 1901, p
Enoch - Jude was either traditionally handed down, or had been specially communicated to that Apostle
Apostle - " These twelve were arranged in three groups, Simon Peter and his brother Andrew, with James and John, the two sons of Zebedee; then Philip, Bartholomew, Thomas, and Matthew; and, lastly, James, the son of Alpheus, Lebbeus (called Thaddeus, Judas, and Jude), Simon Zelotes or the Canaanite, and Judas Iscariot
Love Feast - While the only explicit New Testament reference to the agape meal is found (agapai in Greek) in Jude 1:12 , allusions to the practice may be seen in other New Testament texts
Walk - 1, is used in the Middle Voice and rendered "to walk" in Luke 1:6 , of the general activities of life; so in Luke 13:33 , AV, "walk" (RV, "go on My way"); Acts 9:31 ; 14:16 ; 1 Peter 4:3 ; 2 Peter 2:10 ; Jude, 1:16,18
Faith - , Matthew 23:23 ; Romans 3:3 , RV, "the faithfulness of God;" Galatians 5:22 (RV, "faithfulness"); Titus 2:10 , "fidelity;" (c) by metonymy, what is believed, the contents of belief, the "faith," Acts 6:7 ; 14:22 ; Galatians 1:23 ; 3:25 [contrast Galatians 3:23 , under (a)]; Galatians 6:10 ; Philippians 1:27 ; 1 Thessalonians 3:10 ; Jude 1:3,20 (and perhaps 2 Thessalonians 3:2 ); (d) a ground for "faith," an assurance, Acts 17:31 (not as in AV, marg
Authority - , Matthew 28:18 ; John 17:2 ; Jude 1:25 ; Revelation 12:10 ; 17:13 ; more specifically of apostolic "authority," 2 Corinthians 10:8 ; 13:10 ; the "power" of judicial decision, John 19:10 ; of "managing domestic affairs," Mark 13:34
Understand, Understood - ... A — 4: ἐπίσταμαι (Strong's #1987 — Verb — epistamai — ep-is'-tam-ahee ) "to know well," is rendered "to understand" in Mark 14:68 ; Jude 1:10 , RV, 2nd clause (AV, "know")
Commentary - Reynolds; Jude, Mr. Peter, and that of Jude, by Mr. ... Jude: ... Jenkins, Manton, Otes
Sanctification - That God the Father is the author and giver of it, is plain from what the apostles Paul and Jude have said. (Jude 1:1:1) And that God the Son is no less the author of sanctification is evident, because the very purpose for which he gave himself for his church was that he might sactify and cleanse it
Merciful, Mercy - When God brings His salvation to its issue at the Coming of Christ, His people will obtain His mercy, 2 Timothy 1:16 ; Jude 1:21 ; (b) of men; for since God is merciful to them, He would have them show mercy to one another, Matthew 9:13 ; 12:7 ; 23:23 ; Luke 10:37 ; James 2:13 . , Matthew 9:27 ; 15:22 ; 17:15 ; 18:33 ; 20:30,31 (three times in Mark, four in Luke); Romans 9:15,16,18 ; 11:32 ; 12:8 ; Philippians 2:27 ; Jude 1:22,23 ; (b) in the Passive Voice, "to have pity or mercy shown one, to obtain mercy," Matthew 5:7 ; Romans 11:30,31 ; 1 Corinthians 7:25 ; 2 Corinthians 4:1 ; 1 Timothy 1:13,16 ; 1 Peter 2:10
Keep, Keeping - "the keeping (ones);" it is used of the "keeping" power of God the Father and Christ, exercised over His people, John 17:11,12,15 ; 1 Thessalonians 5:23 , "preserved;" 1 John 5:18 , where "He that was begotten of God," RV, is said of Christ as the Keeper ("keepeth him," RV, for AV, "keepeth himself"); Jude 1:1 , RV, "kept for Jesus Christ" (AV, "preserved in Jesus Christ"); Revelation 3:10 ; of their inheritance, 1 Peter 1:4 ("reserved"); of judicial reservation by God in view of future doom, 2 Peter 2:4,9,17 ; 3:7 ; Jude 1:6,13 ; of "keeping" the faith, 2 Timothy 4:7 ; the unity of the Spirit, Ephesians 4:3 ; oneself, 2 Corinthians 11:9 ; 1 Timothy 5:22 ; James 1:27 ; figuratively, one's garments, Revelation 16:15 ; (b) "to observe, to give heed to," as of keeping commandments, etc
Command, Commandment - Bauckham, Jude, 2Peter ; D
Doubt, Doubtful, Doubting - 2; in Acts 11:12 , AV, "nothing doubting," RV, "making no distinction;" in Jude 1:22 , RV, "who are in doubt" (AV, "making a difference," RV, marg
Canon (1) - John; and others, concerning which doubts were entertained, but which were afterwards received as genuine; such are the Epistle to the Hebrews, that of James, the second of Peter, the second and third of John, that of Jude, and the Revelation
Blameless - God's power and protection ensure that the believer maintains a blameless status until the final judgment (1 Corinthians 1:8 ; Jude 24 )
Vine - Jude,’ Edinburgh, 1901, p
Way - unto life," Matthew 7:14 ; of peace, Luke 1:79 ; Romans 3:17 ; of Paul's "ways" in Christ, 1 Corinthians 1:17 (plural); "more excellent" (of love), 1 Corinthians 12:31 ; of truth, 2 Peter 2:2 ; of the right "way," 2 Peter 2:15 ; of Balaam (id); of Cain, Jude 1:11 ; of a "way" consisting in what is from God, e
Philosophy - ... The Epistles of Jude (Judges 1:4; Judges 1:7; Judges 1:10; Judges 1:19) and 2 Peter (2 Peter 2:2; 2 Peter 2:10; 2 Peter 2:21-22) denounce a specially obnoxious type of antinomianism
Apostle - But in Luke and Acts Simon Zelotes precedes Jude (Thaddaeus) the brother of James. ... In the first division stand Peter and John, New Testament writers, in the second Matthew, in the third James and Jude
Corrupt, Verb And Adjective. Corruption, Corruptible, Incorruption, Incorruptible - Titus 1:11 ; 2 Peter 2:3,14,15 ; Jude 1:11,16 ; Ezekiel 13:19 ); accordingly "hucksterizing" would be the most appropriate rendering in this passage, while "handling deceitfully" is the right meaning in 2 Corinthians 4:2 . ); of the effects of the work of false and abominable teachers upon themselves, 2 Peter 2:12 (some texts have kataphtheiro; AV, "shall utterly perish"), and Jude 1:10 (AV, "corrupt themselves
Peter, First, Theology of - Bauckham, Jude, 2Peter ; P. Kistemaker, Peter and Jude ; G
Holiness, Holy, Holily - ; also in 2 Timothy 1:14 ; Titus 3:5 ; 1 Peter 1:12 ; 2 Peter 1:21 ; Jude 1:20 . plural), see SANCTUARY; of the city of Jerusalem, Revelation 11:2 ; its temple, Acts 6:13 ; of the faith, Jude 1:20 ; of the greetings of saints, 1 Corinthians 16:20 ; of angels, e
Peter - In many passages it resembles the Epistle of Jude
Die, Dead, Dying - , Matthew 9:24 ; Romans 7:2 ; by reason of descent from Adam, 1 Corinthians 15:22 ; or of violent "death," whether of men or animals; with regard to the latter it is once translated "perished," Matthew 8:32 ; of vegetation, Jude 1:12 ; of seeds, John 12:24 ; 1 Corinthians 15:36 ; it is used of "death" as a punishment in Israel under the Law, in Hebrews 10:28 ; (b) of the separation of man from God; all who are decended from Adam not only "die" physically, owing to sin, see (a) above, but are naturally in the state of separation from God, 2 Corinthians 5:14
Speak - ... 10: προλέγω (Strong's #4302 — Verb — proeipon — prol-eg'-o ) "to speak or say before" (a 2nd aorist tense from an absolete present), is rendered "to speak before" in Acts 1:16 ; 2 Peter 3:2 ; Jude 1:17
Servant - , Romans 1:1 ; 1 Corinthians 7:22 (2nd part); Galatians 1:10 ; Ephesians 6:6 ; Philippians 1:1 ; Colossians 4:12 ; James 1:1 ; 2 Peter 1:1 ; Jude 1:1 ; (3) of sin, John 8:34 (RV, "bondservants"); Romans 6:17,20 ; (4) of corruption, 2 Peter 2:19 (RV, "bondservants"); cp
Enter, Entering, Entrance - pareisduo (or, duno), Jude 4 , "crept in privily
Diligence, Diligent, Diligently - 11, AV, "business" (RV, "diligence"); in 2 Corinthians 8:7 , AV, "diligence," RV, "earnestness;" both have "diligence" in Hebrews 6:11 ; 2 Peter 1:5 ; Jude 1:3 ; in 2 Corinthians 7:11,12 , RV, "earnest care," AV, "carefulness," and "care
Epistle - Fourteen, including Hebrew, are by Paul; three by John; two by Peter; one by James; one by Jude
Age, Ages - "... Ages as Epochs of Time Both Testaments speak of "ages" as undefined periods of history over which God rules ( Psalm 90:2 ; 1 Timothy 1:17 ; Jude 25 )
Dream - and Jude [International Critical Commentary , 1901]), following von Soden and Spitta, to be to the attempt of the false teachers to support their doctrines by revelations
Apostasy - Yet God is able to keep the believer from falling (Jude 1:24 )
Like, Liken - , Matthew 11:16 ; 13:52 ; Luke 6:47,48,49 ; 7:31,32 ; 12:36 ; John 8:55 ; Jude 1:7
Peace, Spiritual - It is associated with receptiveness to God's salvation (Matthew 10:13 ), freedom from distress and fear (John 14:27 ; John 16:33 ), security (1 Thessalonians 5:9-10 ), mercy (Galatians 6:16 ; 1 Timothy 1:2 ), joy (Romans 14:17 ; Romans 15:13 ), grace (Philippians 1:2 ; Revelation 1:4 ), love (2 Corinthians 13:11 ; Jude 1:2 ), life (Romans 8:6 ), and righteousness (Romans 14:17 ; Hebrews 12:11 ; James 3:18 )
Oil (Olive) - Jude, p
Enoch - The language "Enoch prophesied, saying," favors tradition rather than the Book of Enoch being the source from whence Jude drew
Hand - To defend themselves from political suspicion as descendants of David, the grandchildren of Jude showed their horny hands of toil to the Emperor Domitian (Eus
Hesychius (25), Presbyter of Jerusalem - Peter, and Jude
Ashamed, Shame - 1, signifies (a) subjectively, the confusion of one who is "ashamed" of anything, a sense of "shame," Luke 14:9 ; those things which "shame" conceals, 2 Corinthians 4:2 ; (b) objectively, ignominy, that which is visited on a person by the wicked, Hebrews 12:2 ; that which should arise from guilt, Philippians 3:19 ; (c) concretely, a thing to be "ashamed" of, Revelation 3:18 ; Jude 1:13 , where the word is in the plural, lit
Clouds - A metaphorical meaning occurs in Jude 1:12 ; 2 Peter 2:17 , Hebrews 12:1 (using a distinct Greek word)
Hand - To defend themselves from political suspicion as descendants of David, the grandchildren of Jude showed their horny hands of toil to the Emperor Domitian (Eus
Advent, Second - 1 Thessalonians 4:15-18 speaks of Christ coming for His saints to their everlasting joy; and Jude 14,15 speaks of Christ coming to execute judgement on His enemies
Judas - Jude, JUDAS... There were two of this name well known in the Scriptures of the New Testament, the one an apostle of Christ, called in Matthew's gospel, (Matthew 10:3) Lebbeus, whose surname was Thaddeus, and by Luke, the brother of James; and he is again noticed by the persons who thought slight of our Lord and his doctrine, as his brother, Matthew 13:55. This was the Judas which spake to Christ in the midst of our Lord's sermon, and said, "Lord, how is it that thou wilt manifest thyself unto us, and not unto the world?" (John 14:22) He is the Jude to whom, under the Holy Ghost, we are indebted for that precious morsel of gospel truth which is contained in the Epistle that bears his name. The other Jude or Judas is he who was surnamed Barsabas, (see Acts 15:22) and who was commissioned by the apostles to go to the church at Antioch
Bethlehem - For "Ephratah," now become obsolete, he substitutes" in the land of Jude"; furthermore he implies, "though thou art little in a worldly point of view, thou art the reverse of least among Jude's princes, in the spiritual glory of being Messiah's birthplace" (1 Corinthians 1:27-28)
Even, Even as, Even so - ... 4: ὡς (Strong's #5613 — Adverb — hos — hoce ) "as," in comparative sentences, is sometimes translated "even as," Matthew 15:28 ; Mark 4:36 ; Ephesians 5:33 ; 1 Peter 3:6 (AV only); Jude 1:7
Remember, Remembrance, Reminded - in mind;" 3 John 1:10 , RV, "I will bring to remembrance" (AV, "I will remember"); Jude 1:5 , "to put
Eternal Punishment - "... Jude speaks of hell in terms of fire when he cites Sodom and Gomorrah as an earthly example of "those who suffer the punishment of eternal fire" (v
New Testament - The dates of the Epistles of Peter, James, John, and Jude are according to the A
Archangel - Jude, where the title of archangel is coupled with the name of ‘Michael the archangel
Accusation, Accuse - " ... Note: Krisis, which has been translated "accusation," in the AV of 2 Peter 2:11 ; Jude 1:9 (RV, "judgement"), does not come under this category
Before, Beforetime - 9, signifies "right over against, opposite;" (a) of place, Jude 1:24 ; (b) before God as Judge, Ephesians 1:4 ; Colossians 1:22
Feasts - " Feasts of love, Jude 1:12 , were public banquets of a frugal kind, instituted by the primitive Christians, and connected by them with the celebration of the Lord's supper
Eternal Life, Eternality, Everlasting Life - It may have been in the same general span of time late in the apostolic era that Jude encouraged his readers, "Keep yourselves in God's love as you wait for the mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ to bring you to eternal life" (Jude 21 ). ... If in Jude eternal life seems to be a future possession, many other references speak of it as a present reality. The ultimate outcome of rejection of Jesus Christ is "eternal fire" (Matthew 18:8 ; 25:41 ; Jude 7 ), "eternal punishment" (Matthew 25:46 ) and "eternal [NIV: "everlasting"; the Greek word is aion [ αἰών ]] destruction
Feasting - The letters to Pergamos and Thyatira meet it with forcible denunciation and threatening (see such articles as Balaam, Jezebel, Nicolaitans), and in 2 Peter and Jude we have an attitude similar to that of St. That there was some ground for the charge of immorality, even Peter and Jude bear witness, but they testify also to the stern morality of true Christianity
Sod'om - ( Mark 8:11 ; 2 Peter 2:6 ; Jude 1:4-7 )
Faith - ... The faith=the gospel (Acts 6:7 ; Romans 1:5 ; Galatians 1:23 ; 1 Timothy 3:9 ; Jude 1:3 )
Condemnation - Unless they repent they face the irrevocable finalization of this condemnation at the resurrection and judgment (Matthew 25:46 ; John 5:28-29 ; Acts 17:30-31 ; 24:15 ; Romans 2:5-16 ; 2 Thessalonians 1:5-10 ; 2:9-12 ; 1 Peter 4:4-5,17 ; 2 Peter 2:1-10 ; Jude 4-9 ; Revelation 20:7-14 ; 21:6-8 ; 22:12-17 )
Say - , Romans 9:29 ; "to tell before," Matthew 24:25 ; Mark 13:23 ; "were spoken before," 2 Peter 3:2 ; Jude 1:17 ; (b) of "saying" before, 2 Corinthians 7:3 ; 13:2 , RV (AV, "to tell before" and "foretell"); Galatians 1:9 ; 5:21 ; in 1 Thessalonians 4:6 , "we forewarned," RV
Age - , of God, Romans 16:26 , His power, 1 Timothy 6:16 , His glory, 1 Peter 5:10 , the Holy Spirit, Hebrews 9:14 , redemption, Hebrews 9:12 , salvation, 5:9, life in Christ, John 3:16 , the resurrection body, 2 Corinthians 5:1 , the future rule of Christ, 2 Peter 1:11 , which is declared to be without end, Luke 1:33 , of sin that never has forgiveness, Mark 3:29 , the judgment of God, Hebrews 6:2 , and of fire, one of its instruments, Matthew 18:8 ; 25:41 ; Jude 1:7
Word - , John 3:34 ; 8:20 ; Acts 2:14 ; 6:11,13 ; 11:14 ; 13:42 ; 26:25 ; Romans 10:18 ; 2 Peter 3:2 ; Jude 1:17 ; it is used of the Gospel in Romans 10:8 (twice),17, RV, "the word of Christ" (i
Junilius, Quaestor of the Sacred Palace - , Jude, II
Suffer - ... A — 9: ὑπέχω (Strong's #5254 — Verb — hupecho — hoop-ekh'-o ) "to hold under" (hupo, "under," echo, "to have or hold"), is used metaphorically in Jude 1:7 of "suffering" punishment
Angel - They are also spoken of as of different ranks in dignity and power (Zechariah 1:9,11 ; Daniel 10:13 ; 12:1 ; 1 Thessalonians 4:16 ; Jude 1:9 ; Ephesians 1:21 ; Colossians 1:16 )
Slave/Servant - Paul referred to himself as a slave or servant of Jesus Christ (Romans 1:1 ; Galatians 1:10 ; Philippians 1:1 ), as did James (Philippians 1:1 ), Peter (2 Peter 1:1 ), and Jude (1)
Turn - ... 9: μετατίθημι (Strong's #3346 — Verb — metatithemi — met-at-ith'-ay-mee ) "to change," is translated "turning (the grace of God)" in Jude 1:4
Polycarpus, Moyses of Aghel - John, and Jude) not included in the Peshitto though printed with it in the Polyglotts and in most Syriac New Testaments—first published by Pococke (1630) from a MS
Mercy, Merciful - In Christ the mercy of God brings new life (1 Peter 1:3 ) and undergirds the hope of life to come (Jude 1:21 ). This is why mercy is often an element in New Testament greetings and benedictions (1 Timothy 1:2 ; 2 Timothy 1:2 ; Galatians 6:16 ; 2 John 1:3 ; Jude 1:2 )
Master - ... A — 3: δεσπότης (Strong's #1203 — Noun Masculine — despotes — des-pot'-ace ) one who has "absolute ownership and uncontrolled power," is translated "masters" in 1 Timothy 6:1,2 ; Titus 2:9 ; 1 Peter 2:18 ; of Christ, 2 Timothy 2:21 ; 2 Peter 2:1 , RV (for AV, "Lord"); in Jude 1:4 , RV, it is applied to Christ "(our only) Master (and Lord, Jesus Christ)," AV "(the only) Lord (God);" in Revelation 6:10 , RV, in an address to God, "O Master" (AV, "O Lord")
Fear, Fearful, Fearfulness - 1), and is said of serving the Lord, Luke 1:74 ; of being among the Lord's people as His servant, 1 Corinthians 16:10 ; of ministering the Word of God, Philippians 1:14 ; of the evil of false spiritual shepherds, Jude 1:12
Epistle - ... Among the ‘epistles’ of the Apostolic Age the present writer would include the following: James, 1 Peter, Jude, Hebrews, 1 John, and Barnabas. Wendland, Die hellenistischrömische Kultur in ihren Beziehungen zu Judentum und Christentum, ‘Die urchristliche Literaturformen,’ Tübingen, 1912, pp
Devil, Satan, Evil, Demonic - 2 Peter 2:4 speaks of the “angels that sinned” and Jude 1:6 of the “angels which kept not their first estate
Amen - ... Several other New Testament epistles follow Paul by praising God and/or calling on him to bestow the grace the readers need (Hebrews 13:20-21 ; 1 Peter 4:11 ; 5:10-11 ; 2 Peter 3:17-18 ; Jude 24-25 ; Revelation 22:21 )
Letter - The two Letters of Peter and the Letter of Jude follow the familiar first-century form of letters
Home - Jude [International Critical Commentary , 1901], 173; cf
James, the Lord's Brother - of Jude is content to describe himself as the ‘brother of James
Love-Feasts - Jude mentions certain persons, who were spots in the feasts of charity, εν ταις αγαπαις , 1 Corinthians 11:12 , he means in the Christian love- feasts; though Dr
Old - ... C — 1: πάλαι (Strong's #3819 — Adverb — palai — pal'-ahee ) denotes "long ago, of old," Hebrews 1:1 , RV, "of old time" (AV, "in time past"); in Jude 1:4 , "of old;" it is used as an adjective in 2 Peter 1:9 , "(his) old (sins)," lit
Bring, Bringing, Brought - ... A — 6: ἐπιφέρω (Strong's #2018 — Verb — epiphero — ep-ee-fer'-o ) signifies (a) "to bring upon, or to bring against," Jude 1:9 ; (b) "to impose, inflict, visit upon," Romans 3:5
Work, Wrought - , Matthew 23:3,5 ; John 7:7 ; Acts 7:41 (for idols); Romans 13:12 ; Ephesians 5:11 ; Colossians 1:21 ; Titus 1:16 (1st part); 1 John 3:12 ; Jude 1:15 , RV; Revelation 2:6 , RV; of those who seek justification by works, e
Angel - ... The angelology of 2Peter and Jude reflects some of the intertestamental Jewish traditions concerning "wicked angels. The second were imprisoned (2 Peter 2:4 ; Jude 6 ) spirits because they forsook their original positions in heaven
Mercy - It is this kind of imprint on the heart that made mercy a common wish and blessing of one believer to another (2 Timothy 1:16,18 ), and in some cases the opening greetings of letters included the wish for mercy (1 Timothy 1:2 ; 2 Timothy 1:2 ; 2 John 3 ; Jude 2 ; cf. ... In this awareness of God's past, present, and future (Jude 21 ) mercy toward us, an element of our response to God takes on a new force in the New Testament
Glory - To this the term δόξα is frequently applied-at Bethlehem (Luke 2:9), and at the Transfiguration (2 Peter 1:17); the ‘glory’ of God is the light of the New Jerusalem; Stephen looking up saw the ‘glory of God’ (Acts 7:55); and the redeemed are at last presented faultless before the presence of His glory (Judges 1:24; Jude cf. Mayor On James (31910), Jude, and Second Peter (1907); articles ‘Glory’ in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols)
James - The Authorized Version translation is derived from the Latin of Beza, and is due to a confusion of this Judas with a quite different person, Judas (Jude) the ‘brother of James’ (Judges 1:1, Matthew 13:55). The names of the four brothers, James, Joseph, Simon (= Simeon), and Jude (= Judah), are those of patriarchs
Fire - Most commonly, fire is associated with the judgment of hell (Matthew 3:12 ; 5:22 ; 18:8-9 ; Mark 9:43,48 ; Luke 3:17 ; 16:24 ; James 3:6 ; Jude 7 ; Revelation 20:14-15 ), or with the destruction of the old heavens and earth in preparation for the new (2 Peter 3:10,12 )
Hatred - The writer of Revelation does not conceal his loathing of pagan Rome, calling it ‘a hold of unclean and hateful birds’ (Revelation 18:2), and Jude (Judges 1:23) bids evangelists who snatch brands from the burning ‘have mercy with fear, hating even the garment spotted by the flesh
Lebbaeus - Simon and Jude App
Cainites - Whether the reference in Judges 1:11 is to the Cainites must be regarded as very doubtful (see Jude)
Angel - Jude... 6
Leave, Left - ... 4: ἀπολείπω (Strong's #620 — Verb — apoleipo — ap-ol-ipe'-o ) "to leave behind" (apo, "from") is used (a) in the Active Voice, of "leaving" behind a cloak, 2 Timothy 4:13 ; a person, 2 Timothy 4:20 ; of "abandoning" a principality (by angels), Jude 1:6 , RV; (b) in the Passive Voice, "to be reserved, to remain," Hebrews 4:6,9 ; 10:26
Arise, Arose, Arouse, Raise, Rise, Rouse - , 1,2, 3John, and Jude); (2) of Christ's "raising" the dead, Matthew 11:5 ; Mark 5:41 ; Luke 7:14 ; John 12:1,9,17 ; (3) of the act of the disciples, Matthew 10:8 ; (4) of the resurrection of believers, Matthew 27:52 ; John 5:21 ; 1 Corinthians 15:15,16,29,32,35,42-44,52 ; 2 Corinthians 1:9 ; 4:14 ; of unbelievers, Matthew 12:42 (cp
Prison - _ These are probably to be identified with ‘the angels which kept not their first estate,’ declared in Jude (Judges 1:6) to be ‘reserved in everlasting chains under darkness to the judgment of the great day,’ and with ‘the angels that sinned,’ who are ‘consigned to Tartarus’ (2 Peter 2:4, ταρταρώσας), as distinguished from Gehenna, ‘to be reserved unto judgment
Desire, Desirous - 6) the deliberate exercise of the will; it is translated "to desire" in the RV of the following: Acts 22:30 ; 23:38 ; 27:43 ; 28:18 ; 1 Timothy 2:8 ; 5:14 ; 6:9 ; Jude 1:5
Peter, Second, Theology of - Bauckham, Jude, 2Peter ; D
Didymus, Head of the Catechetical School - In the notes on Jude he says that Christ is called the only Sovereign because He is the only true God
Bear - 2, with peri, "about," signifies "to carry about, or bear about," and is used literally, of carrying the sick, Mark 6:55 , or of physical sufferings endured in fellowship with Christ, 2 Corinthians 4:10 ; metaphorically, of being "carried" about by different evil doctrines, Ephesians 4:14 ; Hebrews 13:9 ; Jude 1:12
Bear - 2, with peri, "about," signifies "to carry about, or bear about," and is used literally, of carrying the sick, Mark 6:55 , or of physical sufferings endured in fellowship with Christ, 2 Corinthians 4:10 ; metaphorically, of being "carried" about by different evil doctrines, Ephesians 4:14 ; Hebrews 13:9 ; Jude 1:12
Clothing, Cloths, Clothes, Cloke, Coat - In Jude 1:23 , "the garment spotted by the flesh" is the chiton, the metaphor of the undergarment being appropriate; for it would be that which was brought into touch with the pollution of the flesh
Compassion - Christians need to show compassion to those who waver or doubt (Jude 1:22 )
Muratorian Fragment - The epistle of Jude however and two epistles bearing the name of John are received in the Catholic [church] (or are reckoned among the Catholic [epistles])
Love - Jude urges his readers to keep themselves in God's love (v
Hades - The unrighteous are held in punishment and wicked angels are imprisoned in Tartarus, a Greek term designating the lowest part of Hades (1 Peter 3:19 ; 2 Peter 2:4,9 ; Jude 6 )
Call, Called, Calling - ... C — 1: κλητός (Strong's #2822 — Adjective — kletos — klay-tos' ) "called, invited," is used, (a) "of the call of the Gospel," Matthew 20:16 ; 22:14 , not there "an effectual call," as in the Epistles, Romans 1:1,6,7 ; 8:28 ; 1 Corinthians 1:2,24 ; Jude 1:1 ; Revelation 17:14 ; in Romans 1:7 ; 1 Corinthians 1:2 the meaning is "saints by calling;" (b) of "an appointment to apostleship," Romans 1:1 ; 1 Corinthians 1:1
Mediator - Jude, and St. Jude and of St. Jude and the Second of St
Angels - There are frequent references to the subject in Hebrews, and occasional ones in the Pauline and Petrine Epistles and in Jude. The words in Jude are certainly to be understood of the angels, and this makes the similar interpretation of 1 Thessalonians 3:13 more likely
Peter, Second Epistle of - ... ( e ) Jude . One of these Epistles must have been used by the author of the other, but there is great diversity of opinion as to the priority, the prevailing view at present being apparently in favour of the priority of Jude, though Zahn and Bigg are strong advocates of 2Peter
False Prophet - ... As was characteristic of false prophets in the Old Testament, their New Testament counterparts were also motivated by greed (2 Peter 2:3,13 ), exhibited arrogance (2 Peter 2:18 ), lived immoral lives (2 Peter 2:2,10-13 ), and generally could be described as ungodly persons (Jude 4 )
Fall, Fallen, Falling, Fell - " (6) In Jude 1:24 the adjective aptaistos, "without stumbling, sure footed" (a, negative, and ptaio, "to stumble"), is translated "from stumbling," RV, for AV, "from falling
Pseudepigrapha - Early Christian writers state that Jude 1:9 was to be found in the Assumption of Moses known to them
Mark (John) - Attempts have been made to assign to him various books of the NT-Hebrews, the Apocalypse, Jude-but on quite inadequate grounds
Moses - Jude 9
Angel - “army”) must have order and that references to archangels (1 Thessalonians 4:16 ; Jude 1:9 ) and a special class of angels which has intimate fellowship with God such as the seraphim of Isaiah 6:2-6 , indicate that angels are organized in a rigidly fixed rank system
Church, the - Jude 12 ). Third, worship is actualized by the power of the Holy Spirit (Romans 2:28-29 ; 8:26-27 ; Ephesians 2:18 ; Philippians 3:3 ; Jude 20 ; etc
Church Government - Yet even in the Apostolic age prophecy ( 1 Thessalonians 5:20 ) is beginning to fall into discredit, and false prophets are flourishing (1 John, 2 Peter, Jude)
Devil - It does talk of “angels that sinned” (2 Peter 2:4 ) and “angels which kept not their first estate” (Jude 1:6 )
Timothy, the First Epistle to - The universal epistles of John (1 John 2:18-23; 1 John 4:1; 1 John 4:3; 2 John 1:7; 2 John 1:11; 3 John 1:9-10), Jude, and Peter (2 Peter 2:1-22), and to the Hebrew (Hebrews 6:4-8) present the same features
Grace - , Jude, 2 Jn
Prophets, the - 2 Timothy 3:1-9 ; 2 Timothy 4:3,4 ; 2 Peter 2:1-3 ; Jude 3,4,11 ; Revelation 17:1-6,16
Apostles - Jude 1:17 echoes this
Thessalonians, Second Epistle to the - and Jude, 1 John 2:18 ; 1 John 2:22 ; 1 John 4:3 , 2 John 1:7
Moses - ... In Jude 1:9 mention is made of a contention between Michael and the devil about the body of Moses
Trinity - Other representative passages in this category (2 Thessalonians 2:13-15 ; Titus 3:4-6 ; and Jude 1:20-21 ) portray each member of the Trinity in relation to a particular redemptive function
Self- Denial - It is because this moral indifferentism was associated with intellectual error concerning Christ that John, Jude, Peter, and Paul (Col
Marks Stigmata - , Jude, ‘showing that as the Apostolic Age progressed the assumption of the title became established on a broad basis’ (Sanday-Headlam, International Critical Commentary , ‘Romans’5, Edinburgh, 1902, p
Fire - Jude and Second Ep. Mayor, ‘The General Epistle of Jude,’ in Expositor’s Greek Testament , 1910, p
Fire - Jude and Second Ep. Mayor, ‘The General Epistle of Jude,’ in Expositor’s Greek Testament , 1910, p
Sea - Jude uses a similar figure when he describes the ungodly and libertines as ‘wild waves of the sea’ (κύματα ἄγρια θαλάσσης, James 1:13) foaming out their own lawlessness and shame (cf
Faith - Colossians 1:19 ; Jude 1:3 )
Judgment, Day of - Indeed, it may be called "the great Day" (Jude 6 ), or simply "the Day" (Hebrews 10:25 ; 2 Peter 1:19 )
Feasts - )... In the New Testament Jude (Judges 1:12, "feasts of charity"; also 2 Peter 2:13, mentions the Christian lovefeasts which often preceded the Lord's supper (1 Corinthians 11 end) just as the Passover preceded it in Christ's institution
Angel - ... Though all the angels were created alike good, yet Jude informs us, verse Judges 1:6 , that some of them "kept not their first estate, but left their own habitation," and these God hath "reserved in everlasting chains under darkness, unto the judgment of the great day
Second Coming of Christ - And Jude adds the thought that "you wait for the mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ to bring you to eternal life" (v. There is, of course, a sense in which believers already have eternal life, but Jude is referring to the sense in which the consummation will be reached only when Jesus returns
Gnosticism - ... (c) Peter and Jude. -The gross errorists denounced in 2 Peter 2 and Jude show close affinity with the Ophite sect, the Cainites (q
Canon of the New Testament - 330) mentions (3:25) all the 27 books of the New Testament, dividing them into the universally acknowledged and the debated; the latter the epistles of James, Jude, 2 Peter, 2 John, and 3 John, and Apocalypse, "received by the majority," and at last received by all the churches when the evidence had been more fully tested
Bible, Canon of the - It designates the exclusive collection of documents in the Judeo-Christian tradition that have come to be regarded as Scripture. Although some books of the Old Testament were discussed in Judea at the Pharisaic Council of Jamnia in a. ... Eusebius distinguishes four groups of books: (1) accepted (most of our twenty-seven), (2) disputed (James, Jude, 2Peter, 2,3John), (3) rejected (various apocryphal New Testament books), and (4) heretical (primarily pseudepigraphical books)
Salutations - James, 2 Peter, 1 John, and Jude omit greetings at the end
Majesty (2) - ’ The word for ‘Majesty’ in these two cases is μεγαλωσύνη, a term that does not occur again in the NT except in the doxology at the end of Jude (Judges 1:25)
Sea - The vale of Siddim was once a smiling plain, well-watered, and like a garden of the Lord, Genesis 13:10 ; it is now, and for all future ages, a monument of his just indignation, Deuteronomy 29:23 , and an awful warning to reckless sinners that the day of the Lord will come upon them also suddenly and without remedy, Matthew 10:15 11:22-24 2 Peter 2:4-9 Jude 1:7
mo'Ses - (Acts 7:24-28 ; 35 ) In (Jude 1:9 ) is an allusion to an altercation between Michael and Satan over the body of Moses
Children of God, Sons of God - The conception of sonship does not occur in James , 2 or 3 John, 2 Peter, or in Jude, for the phrase ‘God the Father’ in 2 Peter 1:17, 2 John 1:3, and Judges 1:1 seems to have reference rather to the relationship between God and Christ than to that between God and men
Apocrypha - Some New Testament authors were familiar with various non-canonical works, and the Epistle of Jude made specific reference to at least one of these books
Praise - ’ Enlargement of the ascription is found in Jude, and above all in the central vision of the Apocalypse when the sevenfold theme marks the highest range of praise
Clement of Alexandria - Peter Jude and I. It has generally been supposed in spite of the difference of range (James for Jude) that these Latin notes are the version of Cassiodorus
James, Epistle of - So Jude writes merely as ‘the brother of James
Apocrypha - Of apocalyptical and prophetical works, there are the Book of Enoch , quoted in Jude, the Assumption of Moses , the Apocalypse of Baruch , the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs
Christ - ... God in common with the Father and the Holy Ghost, John 1:1; Romans 9:5; 1 Timothy 3:16; 1 John 5:20; Jude 1:1:25
Apostle - Their names were, Simon Peter; Andrew, his brother; James the greater, the son of Zebedee; and John his brother, who was the beloved disciple; Philip of Bethsaida; Bartholomew; Thomas, called Didymus, as having a twin brother; Matthew or Levi, who had been a publican; James, the son of Alpheus, called James the less; Lebbeus, surnamed Thaddeus, and who was also called Judas or Jude, the brother of James; Simon, the Canaanite, so called, as some have thought, because he was a native of Cana, or, as Dr. ... After the resurrection of our Saviour, and not long before his ascension, the place of Judas the traitor was supplied by Matthias, supposed by some to have been Nathaniel of Galilee, to whom our Lord had given the distinguishing character of an "Israelite indeed, in whom there was no guile;" and the twelve Apostles, whose number was now completed, received a new commission, of a more extensive nature than the first, to preach the Gospel to all nations, and to be witnesses of Christ, not only in Jerusalem, in all Judea, and in Samaria, but unto the uttermost parts of the earth; and they were qualified for the execution of their office by a plenteous effusion of miraculous powers and spiritual gifts, and particularly the gift of tongues. Stephen, several of the leading men among the Christians were dispersed; some of them travelled through the regions of Judea and Samaria, and others to Damascus, Phoenicia, the Island of Cyprus, and various parts of Syria; but the twelve Apostles remained, with undaunted firmness, at Jerusalem, avowing their attachment to the persecuted interest of Christ, and consulting how they might best provide for the emergencies of the church, in its infant and oppressed state. After the Christian religion had been planted in Jerusalem, Judea, and Samaria, and sent into Ethiopia, one of the uttermost parts of the earth, Acts 1:8 ; and after it had been preached about eight years to the Jews only, God, in his wise and merciful providence, disposed things for the preaching of it among the Gentiles. They had both been born in Gentile countries; and therefore may be supposed to have had more respect and affection for the Gentiles than most of the Jews, who were natives of Judea. Paul, who fully preached the Gospel of Christ, from Jerusalem to Illyricum, and at last died a martyr at Rome, in the time of Nero?" From this passage we may conclude, that at the beginning, of the fourth century, there were not any certain and well attested accounts of the places out of Judea, in which several of the Apostles of Christ preached; for if there had, Eusebius must have been acquainted with them
Incarnation - The conception of Christ prominent in the earliest Apostolic age, and emphasized in the first part of the Acts and in the Epistles of 1Peter , James, and Jude, regards Him primarily as the Messiah, the glory of whose Person and mission has been proved by the Resurrection, who has been exalted to God’s right hand, and who will be judge of quick and dead
Homosexuality - Thus the modern supposition of a tolerant pagan society subsequently oppressed by Judeo-Christian taboos is a complete myth. References to the city later become common extrabiblical Jewish euphemisms for sexual perversion in general and homosexual practices in particular (in the New Testament, see 2 Peter 2:6-7 ; and Jude 7 )
Immorality, Sexual - An emphatic form of the verb, ekporneuo [ ], "indulging in sexual immorality, " occurs in Jude 7
Saviour (2) - In Jude also God is once called ‘our Saviour through Jesus Christ’ (v
Unity (2) - Jude (Judges 1:19), who speaks of some as ἀποδιορίζοντες, ‘marking themselves off’ from their fellows; but apparently only in tone and conduct—there was no interruption of formal fellowship: the murmurers still ‘feasted’ with the Church, and were present at its ἀγάπαι
Christian Life - These include, in addition to the Pastoral Epistles and the Epistle to the Ephesians (now widely regarded as sub-Pauline), the Epistle to the Hebrews, 1 Peter, the Johannine writings, Revelation, James, and Jude
Balaam - And then, the apostle Jude, in denouncing certain evil men who had crept into the ministry and into the membership of the church of his day, says, Woe unto them! For they have run greedily after the error of Balaam
Heaven - ... The Pastorals, James and Jude add nothing of importance for the study of this particular conception
Eschatology - Then Jesus will return to defeat antichrist, bind Satan, and establish a Judeo-centric millennial kingdom. Romans 5:10 ; 1 Thessalonians 1:10 ) as do other New Testament writings (2 Peter 3:7 ; Jude 1:14-15 ; Revelation 20:11-15 )
Roman Law in the nt - Jude,’ Edinburgh, 1901, p
Jesus Christ, Name And Titles of - The name occurs also in the Petrine Epistles (1 Peter 1:13 ; 3:15 ; 2 Peter 1:1-2,16 ; 3:18 ), as well as those of James (1:1; 2:1) and Jude (1,17, 21,25)
Sanctification - Sanctification, therefore, is exclusively the work of God in grace (Leviticus 21:8 ; Ezekiel 20:12 ; Hebrews 2:11 ; Jude 1 )
Holy Spirit - He is the characteristic mark of Christians (Jude 19 ) who pray in him (v
Assumption of Moses - Jude’s Epistle, we find quotations from both works in close juxtaposition. Jude’s words as a quotation from ‘Moyseos Assumptio’ or Ἀνάληψις Μωυσέως. Jude, in Acta Synodi Nicaen
Hell - Bousset, Die Religion des Judentums, Berlin, 1903, p. documents as Jude and 2 Peter
Lust - So we read in Jude not only ‘their own desires,’ but also (Judges 1:18) ‘their own desires of impieties,’ i
Abstinence - Jude, nor St
Hell - Bousset, Die Religion des Judentums, Berlin, 1903, p. documents as Jude and 2 Peter
Sacrifice - No direct mention of the sacrifice of Christ is made by James or Jude; but their silence may be accounted for by the fact that the subject was foreign to the purpose for which they wrote
Wandering Stars - The Epistle of Jude is an earnest warning against false teachers with a strong denunciation of them
Bible - John, Jude, Revelation
Heaven - ... The Pastorals, James and Jude add nothing of importance for the study of this particular conception
Dream (2) - There is no reference to dreams elsewhere in the NT except in a citation from the OT in Acts 2:17 and in an obscure verse in Jude (Judges 1:8)
English Versions - Paul, to which were subsequently added 2 and 3 John, Jude, Acts, and Matthew 1:1 to Matthew 6:8
Prophet, Prophetess, Prophecy - Samuel was not the first person to prophesy, however, for "Enoch, the seventh from Adam, prophesied" ( Jude 14 )
Text of the New Testament - , Jude, Barnabas, Apoc [Note: poc Apocalypse, Apocalyptic
Incarnation (2) - Jude and 2 Peter
Enoch Book of - Jude quotes a passage from it as an authentic prophecy of Enoch
Apostles - The Apostle who bears a triple name is commonly known as Jude. That there were two Judes among the Apostles is plain from the language of John 14:22, where ‘Judas not Iscariot’ is mentioned
Clemens Romanus of Rome - John, and Jude, from the Philoxenian version, and then, without any break, these letters, with the titles: "The first epistle of the blessed Clement, the disciple of Peter the apostle," and "The second epistle of the same Clement
Bible - His personal ministry was confined to the land of Judea; and, by means of his miracles and discourses, together with those of his disciples, the attention of men, in that country, was sufficiently directed to his doctrine. After their doctrine had every where attracted attention, and, in spite of the most violent opposition, had forced its way through the civilized world; and when churches or societies of Christians were collected, not only in Judea, but in the most celebrated cities of Italy, Greece, and Asia Minor, the scriptures of the New Testament were written by the Apostles, and other inspired men, and intrusted to the keeping of these churches. Owing to this circumstance, and to that of a few of the books being addressed to individual believers, or to their not having the names of their writers affixed, or the designation of Apostle added, a doubt for a time existed among some respecting the genuineness of the Epistle to the Hebrews, the Epistle of James, the second Epistle of Peter, the second and third Epistles of John, the Epistle of Jude, and the book of Revelation