Character Study on Nahum

Character Study on Nahum

Nahum 1: The burden of Nineveh. The book of the vision of Nahum the Elkoshite.

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Dictionary

People's Dictionary of the Bible - Nahum
Nahum (Nâ'hum), consolation. One of the twelve minor prophets. In Nahum 1:1 he is called an Elkoshite. Some refer this name to a place in Galilee, others to a village on the Tigris. The intimate acquaintance the book shows with Syrian affairs makes it probable that Nahum lived an exile in Assyria, and perhaps at the village on the Tigris. Nahum prophesied before the destruction of Nineveh, which he predicts, and probably in the reign of Hezekiah.

Book of. It is a poem of great sublimity, and admirable for the elegance of its imagery. It describes with much beauty and poetic force the siege and destruction of Nineveh as a punishment for her wickedness. Nah. chaps. 2 and 3.

1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Nahum, Book of
A book of the Old Testament, written between 666 or 662 B.C., when Assurbanipal took Thebes, and the fall of Ninive (606). The author calls himself the Elcesite. The suggestion (since the 16th century) that Elcese, or Elcesai, was in Assyria, as well as the older theory that it was in Galilee are not very probable. The prophet was probably a Judean, living under Manasses. Israel was already destroyed, Juda humbled, Manasses probably a prisoner in Assyria (2Par., 33). To console his people he foretells the fall of Ninive, hence the title, "Burden of Ninive," a book of vision. It is a poetical masterpiece.

Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Nahum (2)
"consolation" and "vengeance", to Israel and Israel's foe respectively. The two themes alternate in Nahum 1; as the prophecy advances, vengeance on Assyria predominates.

Country. "The Elkoshite" (Nahum 1:1), from Elkosh or Elkesi a village of Galilee pointed out to Jerome (Preface in Nahum). Capernaum, "village of Nahum," seemingly takes its name from Nahum having resided in the neighbourhood, though born in Elkosh. The allusions in Nahum indicate local acquaintance with Palestine (Nahum 1:4; Nahum 1:15; Nahum 2:2) and only general knowledge of Nineveh (Nahum 2:4-6; Nahum 3:2-3). This confutes the notion that the Alkush (resembling the name Elkosh), E. of the Tigris and N. of Mosul, is Nahum's place of birth and of burial, though Jewish pilgrims visit it as such.

DATE. Hezekiah's time was that in which trust in Jehovah and the observance of the temple feasts prevailed as they did not before or after. So in Nahum 1:7; Nahum 1:15, "Jehovah is a stronghold in the day of trouble; and He knoweth (with approval) them that trust in Him ... O Judah, keep thy solemn feasts." Moreover Nahum has none of the reproofs for national apostasy which abound in the other prophets. Nahum in Elkosh of Galilee was probably among those of northern Israel, after the deportation of the ten tribes, who accepted Hezekiah's earnest invitation to keep the Passover at Jerusalem (2 Chronicles 30). His graphic description of Sennacherib and his army (2 Chronicles 1:9-12) makes it likely he was near or in Jerusalem at the time.

Hence, the number of phrases corresponding to those of Isaiah (Nahum 1:8-9, compare Isaiah 8:8; Isaiah 10:23; Nahum 2:10 with Isaiah 24:1; Isaiah 21:3; Nahum 1:15 with Isaiah 52:7). The prophecy in Nahum 1:14, "I will make it (namely, 'the house of thy gods,' i.e. Nisroch) thy grave," foretells Sennacherib's murder 20 years after his return from Palestine, "as he was worshipping in the house of Nisroch his god" (Isaiah 37:38). He writes while Assyria's power was yet unbroken (Nahum 1:12; Nahum 2:11-13; Nahum 3:1, "the bloody city, full of lies ... the prey departeth not": Nahum 3:15-17). The correspondence of sentiments in Nahum with those of Isaiah and Hezekiah implies he wrote when Sennacherib was still besieging and demanding the surrender of Jerusalem (Nahum 1:2 ff, with 2 Kings 19:14-15; Nahum 1:7 with 2 Kings 18:22; 2 Kings 19:19; 2 Kings 19:31; 2 Chronicles 32:7-8; Nahum 1:9; Nahum 1:11 with 2 Kings 19:22; 2 Kings 19:27-28; Nahum 1:14 with 2 Kings 19:6-7; Nahum 1:15 and Nahum 2:1-2 with 2 Kings 19:32-33; Nahum 2:13, "the voice of thy messengers shall no more be heard," namely, Rabshakeh the bearer of Sennacherib's haughty message, with 2 Kings 19:22-23).

The historical facts presupposed in Nahum are Judah's and Israel's humiliation by Assyria (Nahum 2:2); the invasion of Judah (Nahum 1:9-11); the conquest of No-Amon or Thebes in Upper Egypt, probably by Sargon (Isaiah 20) who, fearing lest Egypt should join Palestine against him, undertook an expedition against it, 717-715 B.C. (Nahum 3:8-10). Tiglath Pileser and Shalmaneser had carried away Israel. Judah was harassed by Syria, and oppressed by Ahaz's payments to Tiglath Pileser (2 Chronicles 28; Isaiah 8-9). As Nahum refers in part prophetically to Sennacherib's (Sargon's successor) last attempt on Judah ending in his host's destruction, in part as matter of history (Nahum 1:9-13; Nahum 2:13), he must have prophesied about 713-710 B.C., 100 years before the event foretold, namely, the overthrow of Nineveh by the joint forces of Cyaxares and Nabopolassar in the reign of Chyniladanus, 625 or else 603 B.C.

The name "Huzzab" (Nahum 2:7) answers to Adiabene, from the Zab or Diab river on which that region lay; a personification of Assyria, and seems to be an Assyrian word. So the original words, minzaraik , taphsarika , for "crowned" or "princes" (Nahum 3:17) and "captains" or "satraps " (also in Jeremiah 51:27); contact with Assyria brought in these words. Nahum 2:18, "the faces gather blackness," corresponds to Isaiah 13:8; Joel 2:6; Joel is probably the original. Nahum 1:6 with Joel 2:7; Amos 2:14; Nahum 1:3 with Joel 2:13; the mourning dove, Nahum 2:7, with Isaiah 38:14; the first ripe figs, Nahum 3:12, with Isaiah 28:4; Nahum 3:13 with Isaiah 19:16; Nahum 3:4 with Isaiah 23:15; Nahum 2:4-5; Nahum 2:14 with Isaiah 22:7; Isaiah 36:9; Micah 1:13; Micah 5:10.

The Assyrians, by just retribution, in turn should experience themselves what they caused to Israel and Judah (compare also Nahum 1:3 with Jonah 4:2; Nahum 1:13 with Isaiah 10:26-27; Nahum 1:8 with Isaiah 10:21-22; Isaiah 8:8; Nahum 1:9; Nahum 1:11 with Isaiah 37:23; Nahum 3:10 with Isaiah 13:16; Nahum 2:2 with Isaiah 24:1; Nahum 3:5 with Isaiah 47:2-3; Nahum 3:7 with Isaiah 51:19). Plainly, Nahum is the last of the prophets of the Assyrian period. Jeremiah borrows from, and so stamps with inspiration, Nahum (Jeremiah 10:19 compare Nahum 3:19; Jeremiah 13:26 compare Nahum 3:5; Jeremiah 50:37; Jeremiah 51:30, compare Nahum 3:13). Nahum is seventh in position in the canon, and seventh in date.

Subject matter. "The burden of Nineveh." The three chapters form one consecutive whole, remarkable for unity of aim. Nahum encourages his countrymen with the assurance that, alarming as their position seemed, assailed by the mighty foe which had already carried captive the ten tribes, yet that not only should the Assyrian fail against Jerusalem, but Nineveh and his own empire should fall; and this not by chance, but by Jehovah's judgment for their iniquities.

STYLE. Clear and forcible. Several phases of an idea are presented in the briefest sentences; as in the sublime description of God in the beginning, the overthrow of Nineveh, and that of No Amon. Melting softness and delicacy alternate with rhythmical, sonorous, and majestic diction, according as the subject requires; the very sound of the words conveys to the ear the sense (Nahum 2:4; Nahum 3:3). Paronomasia or verbal assonance is another feature of likeness to Isaiah, besides those already mentioned (Nahum 1:3; Nahum 1:6; Nahum 1:10; Nahum 2:2-3; Nahum 2:11; Nahum 3:2).

Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Nahum, the Book of
(See NAHUM (2).)

Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Nahum (1)
1 Chronicles 4:19.

Easton's Bible Dictionary - Nahum, Book of
Nahum prophesied, according to some, in the beginning of the reign of Ahaz (B.C. 743). Others, however, think that his prophecies are to be referred to the latter half of the reign of Hezekiah (about B.C. 709). This is the more probable opinion, internal evidences leading to that conclusion. Probably the book was written in Jerusalem (soon after B.C. 709), where he witnessed the invasion of Sennacherib and the destruction of his host (2 Kings 19:35 ). The subject of this prophecy is the approaching complete and final destruction of Nineveh, the capital of the great and at that time flourishing Assyrian empire. Assur-bani-pal was at the height of his glory. Nineveh was a city of vast extent, and was then the centre of the civilzation and commerce of the world, a "bloody city all full of lies and robbery" (Nahum 3:1 ), for it had robbed and plundered all the neighbouring nations. It was strongly fortified on every side, bidding defiance to every enemy; yet it was to be utterly destroyed as a punishment for the great wickedness of its inhabitants.

Jonah had already uttered his message of warning, and Nahum was followed by Zephaniah, who also predicted (Zephaniah 2:4-15 ) the destruction of the city, predictions which were remarkably fulfilled (B.C. 625) when Nineveh was destroyed apparently by fire, and the Assyrian empire came to an end, an event which changed the face of Asia. (See NINEVEH .)

Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Nahum
NAHUM

I. The Man. The word Nahum means ‘full of comfort’ and is probably a contraction of e longer Heb. term meaning ‘God is a comforter.’ Of the man so named nothing is certainly known. He is called’ the Elkoshite ,’ but the exact meaning of the term cannot at present be determined. It is made in the Targum a kind of patronymic, recording the assumed descent of the prophet from an unknown ancestor Koshi It is more likely to preserve the name of the prophet’s birthplace or place of residence, of which the identification is still lacking. Three or four conjectures have been made.

(1) The prophet’s tomb is shown at Elkosh , 24 miles to the N. of Nineveh; and accordingly he is said to have lived there, a descendant of a member of the ten tribes who was deported in b.c. 721. But the tradition that buries Nahum there is not met with before the 16th cent., and is sufficiently accounted for by the interest in the city shewn by the prophet.

(2) Capernaum is really a transliteration of Heb. words which mean ‘village of Nahum.’ But a Galilæn origin for our prophet is unlikely ( John 7:52 ), and is not supported by any allusions in the prophecy.

(3) The same objection applies to Jerome’s identification of Elkosh with a village Elkozeh in N. Galilee, which on other grounds is precarious.

(4) The most probable tradition associates Nahum with Elkosh ‘of the tribe of Simeon,’ and locates the hamlet near Beth-Gabre , the modern Beit-Jibrîn , about half-way between Jerusalem and Gaza. The tradition occurs in a Syriac version of the biographies of the prophets, ascribed to Epiphanius, bishop of Salamis in Cyprus towards the close of the 4th cent., but probably of much later date.

II. The Book

1. Analysis of contents. In the analysis of the book, a line of division can be best drawn at the close of Nahum 2:2 . The latter section is the actual prophecy or oracle. It is preceded by a psalm or proem consisting of two parts, of which the one is general in its assertion of God’s universal judgment, the other particular in its specific messages to Judah and to Assyria. Jehovah as the jealous Avenger is the opening theme. This fact holds good of His administration ( Nahum 1:3 ); and as He passes on to the overthrow of the wicked, physical proofs of His power become evident everywhere ( Nahum 1:4-6 ). Tenderness towards those who wait upon Him, but an overwhelming flood upon His enemies ( Nahum 1:7-10 ), are the two great characteristics of His rule. ‘What think ye of Jehovah?’ ( Nahum 1:9 , where RV [Note: Revised Version.] does not preserve the sequence of thought) is the point of passage to the section dealing with His particular acts, in which section either the text is corrupt through the displacement of some of the verses, or the two messages, of deliverance to Judah ( Nahum 1:13 ; Nahum 1:15 , Nahum 2:2 ) and of vengeance upon Israel ( Nahum 1:11 f., Nahum 1:14 , Nahum 2:1 , were meaot to be entangled in repeated antitheses. Already the bearer of the good news is speeding over the hills ( Nahum 1:15 ; cf. Isaiah 52:7 , Romans 10:15 ).

The oracle proper consists also of two sections, corresponding with the division into chapters. The second chapter is a swift and vivid description of the siege of Nineveh, its capture and sack, with the complete desolation that followed.

A second oracle is contained in the third chapter, which there is no need to regard as compacted of several prophecies, but of which the unity in theme and sequence of thought is conspicuous. The mention of the city of blood, full of lies and rapine, is followed by one of the most vivid battle-pictures in Heb. literature (Nahum 3:2 f.). The cause of destruction is to be found in the diplomatic barlotry, whereby nations and races had been lured and sold; and so richly merited will be the woe, that none will be left or disposed to pity or bemoan Nineveh ( Nahum 3:7 ). The analogy of No-amon (Thebes) makes it certain that a similar fate is awaiting the Assyrian city ( Nahum 3:8 ff.). Her outposts and defences are already falling before the invader, just as the first-ripe figs fall at the mere shaking of a fig-tree; and her people have become women ( Nahum 3:12 f.). The time to prepare for the siege is past, adds the prophet, with his sarcastic appeal, ‘Tread the mortar, lay hold of the brick-mould.’ The swarming merchants, the ‘crowned ones’ (floating foreign population, according to Wellhausen; more probably the princes and prosperous men, cf. Isaiah 10:8 ), the ‘marshals’ or high officials, are like locusts or grasshoppers, that camp in the hedges and walls, but vanish with the sunrise. Finally, the prophet addresses the king himself, and on the eve of the destruction of the city proclaims her disappearance from history amidst the joy of all who had suffered under her tyranny: ‘There is no assuaging of thy hurt … all that hear the bruit of thee clap the hands over thee.’

2. Authenticity of the first chapter . That Nahum was the author of the two oracles is hardly open to question, but of late years some doubt has been thrown upon the authenticity of the prologue. Against Nahum’s authorship the plea is of a technical character, that the first chapter is really, in Heb., an alphabetic poem, and that its right metrical division yields, with a few alterations and transpositions, a series of stanzas, of which the first words commence with the letters of the Heb. alphabet in order. This plea is followed by the statement that such a literary form points to a late origin; and consequently the prologue is held to have been composed or constructed in the post-exilic period, and prefixed as an appropriate Introduction to the oracle of Nahum on account of its expression of the general principle of God’s avenging justice, of which the drama of Nineveh was supposed to afford a striking illustration.

On the other side, the re-arrangements necessary to restore an alphabetical form are difficult, though perhaps possible as far as Nahum 1:9 , after which resort has to be had to processes that are scientifically indefensible. The order of the verses and of the words within the verses has to be altered, words are omitted or introduced with freedom, and on the whole A. B. Davidson’s verdict stands that the attempt to restore the alphabetical form ‘can never be more than an academical exercise.’

Even if an alphabetical form be conceded, a necessary lateness of date cannot be successfully inferred. Instances of the use of such a form occur, e.g ., in Psalms 9:10 , where the tone and teaching are distinctly pre-exilic; and history would allow of the appearance of such a form, or at least of tentative efforts at its construction, at a comparatively early period in the development of a literature. The language and atmosphere of the prologue are those of the succeeding oracles. Alleged parallels with the post-exilic psalms are in reality parallels with earlier writings, which possibly supplied both Nahum and the writers of the psalms in question with their common phrases. Vividness and force, severity towards sin, fervent confidence in God, are features of all three chapters, which are further knit together by their theme, the first setting up God’s throne of judgment and announcing His sentence on Nineveh, the others portraying the execution of that sentence. And the attempts to destroy the unity of the book, able as they have been and full of valuable contributions to its exegesis and to Biblical science generally, must be regarded as having so far failed.

3. Date . The question of the authenticity of the first chapter does not seriously affect the further question of the date at which Nahum composed the two oracles by general consent ascribed to him. Two points may be fixed at once; and in the period between them the actual date must be found. Nahum prophesied after the capture of No-amon or Thebes ( Nahum 3:8-10 ) by Ashurbanipal in b.c. 664 663, but before the fall of Nineveh in b.c. 606. The interval, within which the exact date must be sought, may be shortened with great probability. Ashurbanipal’s brilliant reign terminated in b.c. 626, and before that date there cannot be said to have been any great decline in the strength of Assyria. The Medes and the Scythians were beginning to threaten the empire, but its most serious difficulties arose from dynastic rivalries and the revolt of Ashurbanipal’s brother. Had that revolt been the occasion of Nahum’s prophecy, he would have directed his words against the king in person and not against the city. After the death of Ashurbanipal the Medes rapidly grew in strength, and laid siege to Nineveh, but were called away by an invasion of their own country; and the city was spared for nearly twenty years. The right date for Nahum seems to be a little after the death of Ashurbanipal, when the signs of Assyrian weakness were multiplying, and the outlying parts of the empire had already recovered their independence or been appropriated by other powers. At a later date the language of a prophet in Judah would be likely to be affected by the Deuteronomic style, of which there are no traces in Nahum; an earlier date would fail to supply the historic conditions, which are always an essential feature of Jewish prophecy. About 623 or 624 Nahum would need no great discernment to see the approaching fall of Assyria, and in the equipment and quick movements of the Medes and Scythians he would find the imagery which he uses to such good effect in his oracles.

4. Literary character and religious value . Picturesqueness and force have been described as the most prominent characteristics of Nahum’s poety. Compact thought, vivid description ( Nahum 2:3-5 , Nahum 3:2 f.), effective imagery ( Nahum 2:11 f., Nahum 3:17 f.) separate him sufficiently from the prophets of the Chaldæan period, and give him a position not far behind that of Isaiah. Obscurity is sometimes met with ( e.g . Nahum 1:10 , Nahum 2:8 ), but the cause is probably quite as often the high specific gravity of the sentence as an error in transcription. Findlay says ( Books of the Prophets , II. 191) that Nahum is neglected by the Bible-reader, as though the story of Nineveh had little connexion with the progress of the Kingdom of God, and were merely a complete and isolated fact of the past with no relation to present needs. Yet if Nahum is not a religious teacher like Micah or Isaiah, he focuses the truth of God’s moral government of the world, concentrating the light upon a single typical instance; and he does not fail to defend confidence in God as the eventual Avenger of wrong and the perpetual defence of those who love Him. Where he differs chiefly from the other prophets is in the complete outwardness of his gaze. He has no eye for the shortcoming or sin of Judah, and no revelation to make of the inner history or moral character of his own generation. In this respect he contrasts especially with his contemporary Zephaniah, who also looked for the collapse of the Assyrian kingdom, but saw clearly a similar fate about to overtake the sinners of Israel. For Nahum, Nineveh fills up the whole canvas. The prophecy is a stern song of war, a shout of triumph over the conquered and slain; and though thereby it stands in contrast with the kindlier temper and spirit of the NT, in which no citation from the book occurs, it accords well with the traditions of its own age. And its great lesson, from which attention is not allowed to be diverted, is that the mills of God grind ‘exceeding small,’ and for nations as for individuals ‘sin, when it is full grown, bringeth forth death’ ( James 1:15 ).

R. W. Moss.

Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Nahum
At the time of Nahum’s prophecy, Assyria had passed the peak of its power and was heading for inevitable conquest by the rising power of Babylon. Nahum, as God’s spokesman, announced a fitting judgment on Assyria, enlivening his message with graphic descriptions of the destruction of Assyria’s capital, Nineveh.

Background to the book

About one hundred years previously, Assyria had conquered the northern kingdom Israel and taken its people into captivity (722 BC; 2 Kings 17:6). It then applied pressure to the southern kingdom Judah. Through the reign of one Judean king after another, tension and conflict existed between Judah and Assyria (2 Kings 16:7-20; 2 Kings 18:7-37; 2 Kings 19; 2 Chronicles 28:20-21; 2 Chronicles 30:6; 2 Chronicles 33:11).

By the time Josiah became king of Judah (640 BC), Assyria had weakened sufficiently for Josiah to carry out extensive political and religious reforms in Judah. Nahum was most likely one of those prophets who began to preach in Judah during the revival of prophetic activity that occurred during Josiah’s reign.

Most nations of the region had at some time suffered from the brutality of Assyria (Nahum 3:19). Nahum, who had been deeply stirred over Assyria’s injustice and cruelty, had a feeling of satisfaction that at last a fitting divine judgment was to fall upon the ruthless oppressor (Nahum 2:10; Nahum 2:13; Nahum 3:5-7; Nahum 3:19). Nineveh was conquered by the armies of Babylon in 612 BC.

Summary of the book

Nahum opens his book with striking word-pictures showing that God takes vengeance on those who fight against him, though he protects those who trust in him (1:1-15). The prophet then describes the coming attack on Nineveh (2:1-9), which is to be punished because of the fierce cruelty with which it destroyed its victims (2:10-13). A third poem gives a further description of Nineveh’s overthrow. The reason given this time is the nation’s unrestrained greed for wealth and power (3:1-19).

Chabad Knowledge Base - Nahum
(a) (6th century BCE) A contemporary of Joel and Habakkuk, he prophesied during the reign of King Manasseh. (b) A common Jewish first name.

Nahum, the book of: The book of Tanach containing Nahum's prophecies, foretelling the downfall of the Assyrian empire.

Chabad Knowledge Base - Nahum ish gamzu
(early 2century CE) Mishnaic sage, resident of Gimzo, teacher of Rabbi Akiba. He was called "Ish Gamzu" (literally, the man of "gam zu") because of his motto, Gam zu letovah (�This, too, is for the best�). He suffered great poverty and illness, yet always remained joyous.

Holman Bible Dictionary - Nahum
(nay' huhm) Personal name meaning, “comfort, encourage.” Hebrew prophet and the Old Testament book that contains some of his messages. Very little biographical information is known about the prophet Nahum. He is called an Elkoshite (Nahum 1:1 ), but the location of Elkosh is—unknown.

The date of the prophet's ministry can be placed between 600,700 B.C. by two events mentioned in his book. Nahum 3:8 refers to the destruction of the Egyptian capital, No-amon or Thebes, in 663 B.C. and indicates that the prophet was active after this time. In Nahum 2:1 , he looked forward to the destruction of Nineveh which took place in 612 B.C. Nahum, therefore, prophesied after 650 B.C., probably close to the time of the fall of Nineveh.

Historical Background Since about 730 B.C., Israel and Judah had been Assyrian vassals. Almost a century later, the Assyrian Empire began its decline. Many vassal nations revolted along with Josiah of Judah (2 Kings 22-23 ). A coalition of Medes, Babylonians, and Scythians attacked Assyrians and in 612 B.C. destroyed the capital, Nineveh. The Assyrians formed a coalition with the Egyptians, but in 605 B.C., they were defeated. See 2 Kings 22-23 .

The Prophet's Message The Assyrian oppression created a troubling question. How could God allow such inhumanity to go unanswered? Nahum responded to Assyrian tyranny with a message marked by its vivid language. Assyria's might had been heavy upon Judah, but Nahum announced that God would destroy them.

The book opens with an affirmation of God as an avenging God. The fierceness of His wrath is pictured in terms of the destruction of nature. For over a century, the Assyrians seemed to have had an uncontrolled reign, but now God was responding. His judgment is likened to an approaching storm. Perhaps the people of Judah doubted God's justness since Assyria seemed to have no restraints. Nahum, however, sought to dispel this notion.

The second chapter graphically portrays the future fall of Assyria's capital, Nineveh. Such an event must have been hard for the people to imagine. Nineveh was a massive city with a defensive wall that measured eight miles in circumference and ranged in height from 25 to 60 feet. A moat also surrounded it. Yet, Nahum, poetically affirmed the city's fall. The enemy would rush upon the city with their chariots (Nahum 2:4 ), and the gates would be unable to keep them out (Nahum 2:5 ). The great city would be plundered (Nahum 2:7-10 ).

The Book of Nahum closes with more threats against Nineveh. Ironically, as Assyria had destroyed Thebes in 663 B.C., so the same fate would befall Nineveh (Nahum 3:8-11 ). Preparations for a siege on the city are alluded to in Nahum 3:14 . Water would be stored and fortifications strengthened by the addition of more mud bricks. Yet, these preparations would not keep away God's devastating judgment.

While the Book of Nahum is harsh and deals with the unpleasantness of war, it served to give hope to the people of Judah. They had been subjected to the cruel domination of Assyria for over a century, but now their faith in God to act on their behalf could be bolstered through God's response. God's justness was reaffirmed.

Outline

I. The Sovereign God Makes Himself Known (Nahum 1:1-11 )

A. The jealous, patient Lord takes vengeance on His adversaries (Nahum 1:1-3 ).

B. The earth quakes at the arrival of God (Nahum 1:4-5 ).

C. Who can endure the heat of God's anger? (Nahum 1:6 ).

D. The good Lord is a refuge for His troubled, trusting people (Nahum 1:7 ).

E. God protects those who seek Him but will destroy the enemy (Nahum 1:8-9 ).

F. The enemy must drink the cup of God's wrath (Nahum 1:10-11 ).

II. In the Enemy's Fall, God Offers Hope for His Oppressed People (Nahum 1:12-15 ).

A. God can defeat the enemies no matter how strong and numerous they are (Nahum 1:12-13 ).

B. God judges the enemy because of its false gods (Nahum 1:14 ).

C. God calls His delivered people to grateful worship (Nahum 1:15 ).

III. God Will Bring Judgment Upon His Wicked Enemy (Nahum 2:1-3:19 ).

A. The enemy will fall, but God's people will be restored (Nahum 2:1-2 ).

B. Armies and wealth cannot prevent God's judgment (Nahum 2:3-12 ).

C. When God declares war, the enemy is helpless (Nahum 2:13 ).

D. God humiliates wicked peoples (Nahum 3:1-19 ).

Scott Langston



Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Nahum, Theology of
Nahum is a biblical book that Christians find easy to avoid. In the first place, it is among the shortest of the Minor Prophets and is overshadowed by Micah, which precedes it and contains some well-known messianic prophecies. The Book of Nahum can be off-putting and even revolting to Christians who know Jesus' teaching about turning the other cheek (Matthew 5:39 ) and putting a sword back in its place (Matthew 26:52 ). After all, the prophet exults in the violent downfall of the city of Nineveh and the death of its inhabitants. The book's structure works hand-in-hand, however, with its content to present a theological message of lasting value that can stir the Christian to deeper faith and obedience today.

In Its Old Testament Setting . Nahum must have been written after 663 b.c. because it mentions the fall of Thebes (3:8), which took place at that time. If taken seriously as a prophecy, the book's message must have been presented to the people before 612 b.c., the year Nineveh fell to the invading army made up of Babylonians and Medes. Perhaps it is significant for dating that Assyria is called "intact" in 1:12. This description may point to a date before 626 b.c. when Assyria's vulnerable position became public.

Thus, the historical context of the book may be described at least in broad outline. By the mid-seventh century b.c., Assyria had been the dominant power in the Near East for centuries. Nahum's obvious anger may be understood against the background of the cruel Assyrian oppression that God's people, as well as other nations, had suffered.

The book begins with a hymn of praise to God the divine warrior. This hymn is similar in several ways to the hymns of victory identified in the Psalter (Psalm 24,68 , 96,98 ). It praises the Lord, who brings judgment against his enemies (1:2-6) and salvation to h is people (1:7-8). At this point in the book God's enemies and people are not specifically named, but are only generally described.

The themes of salvation and judgment continue into the next major section of the prophecy (1:9-2:2), where the writer magnificently interweaves oracles of judgment and salvation. The objects of salvation and judgment are still not named (with the exception of Judah in 1:15); rather, the second-person pronoun occurs throughout the section. This delay of precise identification causes the reader to be more attentive and also produces a dramatic sense of suspense. Salvation-oracles occur in 1:12-13,15, and 2:2; judgment-oracles are found in 1:9-11,14, and 2:1.

The interweaving judgment- and salvation-oracles are followed by a prophetic vision in which Nahum describes the future downfall of the city as if he were there. He sees the invading chariots (2:4), the advancing troops (v. 5), the collapse of the gates and palace (v. 6), and the plundering of the city (v. 9).

This representation of the fall of the city evokes a series of taunts and woes directed toward Nineveh. The once proud lion of city is now without prey (2:11-13). It is likened to a whore who has been caught and now faces public ridicule (3:4-6). Between these two metaphorical taunts stands a woe-oracle (3:1-3). This oracle finds its origin in a funeral ritual, but here no sympathy or sense of loss is expressed. The only intention is to threaten and curse. Nineveh is as "good as dead."

The metaphorical taunts are followed by a historical taunt. Nineveh feels invulnerable, but then so did Thebes and look what happened to that bastion of Egyptian strength (3:8-10).

Insult follows insult in the next section (3:11-15c). Nineveh's fortresses are "ripe figs" about to be eaten and her troops are like women. Nahum closes the long series of taunts by comparing Assyria to a locust horde (3:15d-17). In the Bible, locusts are agents of destruction and are used to depict a devastating army (see Joel 1:2-12 ; 2:1-11 ). Here another characteristic of locusts is highlighted: their tendency to fly away.

Appropriately, the book closes with a dirge (3:18-19). The frenzy of staccato visions, of war and sharp insults gives way to calm, mournful expression. As with the woe-oracle, the dirge has its origin in funerary mourning. It is relief and joy, however, not sadness and compassion that are felt at this funeral.

Nahum brought his generation a message from God about his relationship with his people: God is a warrior who is coming to free his people from the oppressive dominance of wicked Assyria. At another time, God had shown compassion toward that city, but now is the time for the judgment of God's enemies and the salvation of his people.

From a New Testament Perspective . The theological value of this book for the Christian church has often been overlooked. The prophecy seems narrow. Nahum speaks an oracle of doom against Assyria, a nation that existed in the distant past. The book's releance for today is difficult to grasp.

Close attention to the literary structure of the book will draw our attention back to its beginning. Before specific application is made to Judah and Assyria, Nahum presents us with a hymn that focuses on God as the saving and judging divine warrior (1:2-8). This picture of God is applicable for all times—he is the warrior who judges evil.

The Book of Nahum thus fits into an unfolding drama of God's warring activity as it is described from Exodus to Revelation. By the time of Nahum, the Israelites were well aware of God as the divine warrior. He had rescued their forefathers from bondage and judged the Egyptians at the Red Sea. He had also turned against his people in righteous judgment at the time of Samuel's youth and the exile of the northern kingdom.

The divine warrior theme in the New Testament grows out of the motif as we have seen it in the Old. At the end of the Old Testament period the prophets looked forward to the coming of a mighty warlike deliverer (Zechariah 14 ) who would deliver the people of Israel out of their oppression. John the Baptist expected the imminent arrival of such a Messiah: "You brood of vipers! Who warned you to flee from the coming wrath? Produce fruit in keeping with repentance. And do not think you can say to yourselves, We have Abraham as our father.' I tell you that out of these stones God can raise up children for Abraham. The ax is already at the root of the trees, and every tree that does not produce good fruit will be cut down and thrown into the fire" (Matthew 3:7-10 ). When Jesus appeared, however, he did not match John's expectations. Instead of bringing an immediate and violent judgment, Jesus healed the sick and exorcised demons. Later, when John was in prison, he began to doubt Jesus' identity; so John sent two of his followers to question Jesus (Matthew 11:1-19 ). Jesus responded with more healings and exorcisms. By his actions, Jesus was letting John know that he was the divine warrior whom John expected. The warfare, however, was more intense than John had imagined. Jesus waged holy war, not against the flesh-and-blood enemies of Israel, but against Satan himself. This warfare culminated in the crucifixion, resurrection, and ascension (Ephesians 4:7-13 ; Colossians 2:13-16 ), at which time Jesus defeated Satan.

While the victory was won on the cross, the warfare will not be complete until the end of time. Thus, the church struggles even today against Satan and evil. As the Old Testament people were commanded to wage war against the Canaanites, so our mandate is to resist the devil (Ephesians 6:10-20 ).

Nahum reveals God as a warrior who fights for his people. As New Testament Christians, we recognize that Jesus Christ empowers the church to fight evil today. When we read the Book of Nahum in conjunction with the Book of Revelation, we are reminded that Jesus Christ is coming again at the end of time to put an end to all evil, whether spiritual or human (Revelation 19:11-21 ).

Tremper Longman III

See also Israel ; Prophet, Prophetess, Prophecy

Bibliography . D. W. Baker, Nahum, Habakkuk, and Zephaniah: An Introduction and Commentary ; K. J. Cathcart, Biblical Studies in Contemporary Thought: The Tenth AnNIVersary Commemorative Volume of the Trinity College Bible Institute 1966-1975, pp. 68-76; idem, CBQ 35 (1973): 179-87; T. H. Glasson, ExpT 81 (1969-70): 54-55; W. C. Graham, AJSL 44 (1927-28): 37-48; D. R. Hillers, Treaty-Curses and the Old Testament Prophets ; W. Janzen, Mourning Cry and Woe Oracle ; B. O. Long, JBL 95 (1976): 230-54; T. Longman III, WTJ 44 (1982): 290-307; idem, JETS 27 (1984): 267-74; idem, Reformed Theological Journal 1 (1985): 13-24; idem, The Minor Prophets, vol. 2; J. M. P. Smith, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Books of Micah, Zephaniah, and Nahum .



Morrish Bible Dictionary - Nahum
Nothing is known of the personal history of this prophet: he is called 'the Elkoshite,' which is supposed to refer to a place named Elkosh in Galilee. There is no reference to dates in the prophecy, but it is generally placed at about B.C. 714, when Sennacherib invaded Judaea. 2 Kings 18:13 . The prophecy is against Nineveh, and foretells its destruction, though, like other prophecies, it has an application to the future, when 'Assyria' will again be the open enemy of Israel.

The prophecy opens with the character of Jehovah in government. He is slow to anger, but He is jealous, and His revenge is furious. He is good, and a safe refuge in the day of trouble for those that trust in Him; but, as to His enemies, with an overflowing flood He will make an utter end of their place. Not only is the destruction of Nineveh foretold, but the Assyrian nation also should come to a full end.

One who had come out to oppress Israel, was a wicked counsellor, who imagined evil, not only against Judah, but against Jehovah: he should be cut off. Compare the insulting language of Rab-shakeh, the general of the king of Assyria: at first he said that Jehovah had sent him, and then treated the God of Israel as no better than the heathen gods, who had not been able to protect their worshippers. 2 Kings 18:25,32,33 . But there was good news for Judah; God would break the yoke of Assyria off their necks. They might keep their solemn feasts. The enemy should no more pass through. What took place in Hezekiah's day was but a type of the latter-day fulfilment of this chapter: cf. Nahum 1:10 and 2 Kings 19:35 ; and in this way we see the scope of prophecy and not simply the immediate events that gave rise to it.

Nahum 2 concerns the city of Nineveh directly. God had allowed Jacob to be disciplined and 'emptied out;' but now Nineveh must be dealt with. It is exhorted to make good its defence, yet the gates of the rivers should be opened, and the palace should be dissolved. Here it is not the 'gates of the city,' as when Babylon was taken, but 'the gates of the rivers.' This may refer to the Tigris and the canals that watered the city. The overflowing river, it is said, caused a breach in the sun-dried brick walls.

"Huzzab shall be led away captive." Nahum 2:7 . This name is supposed by some to be symbolical of Nineveh, the one 'established,' or 'held to be impregnable,' as in the margin ; others, however, believe it refers to the reigning queen, who should be led captive with her maids. The spoil which had been taken in many wars was great, but should now enrich others. The reference to the lions, and the strangling, and the filling the dens with ravin, possibly applied to the cruelties which the Assyrians inflicted on their prisoners, and which are depicted by themselves on their monuments. Truly, as said in Nahum 3 , it was a 'bloody city.' The following verses, as also Nahum 2:3,4 , show that it was a warlike nation, ever seeking to enrich itself by the spoil of other nations, among which were Israel and Judah. It should not only be brought down, but should be made vile and a gazing-stock. Nahum 3:8-10 show that as 'populous No' (the renowned Thebes, with its hundred gates), had been brought to nought (probably by Sargon, king of Assyria), so should Nineveh fall. The gates of the land should be left open for their enemies, and as the cankerworm, the locust, and the grasshopper destroy vegetation, so should be their desolation. Fire is spoken of several times, and the explorations that have been made at the ruins of Nineveh abundantly prove that fire did its destructive work. The denunciations close with, "There is no healing of thy bruise; thy wound is grievous: all that hear the bruit of thee shall clap the hands over thee: for upon whom hath not thy wickedness passed continually?" The ruins show how complete and lasting was God's judgement on the guilty city. See NINEVEH.

Hitchcock's Bible Names - Nahum
Comforter; penitent
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Nahum
is supposed to have been a native of Elcosh or Elcosha, a village in Galilee, and to have been of the tribe of Simeon. There is great uncertainty about the exact period in which he lived; but it is generally allowed that he delivered his predictions between the Assyrian and Babylonian captivities, and probably about B.C. 715. They relate solely to the destruction of Nineveh by the Babylonians and Medes, and are introduced by an animated display of the attributes of God. Of all the minor prophets, says Bishop Lowth, none seems to equal Nahum in sublimity, ardour, and boldness. His prophecy forms an entire and regular poem. The exordium is magnificent and truly August. The preparation for the destruction of Nineveh, and the description of that destruction, are expressed in the most glowing colours; and at the same time the prophet writes with a perspicuity and elegance which have a just claim to our highest admiration.

The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Nahum
One of the lesser prophets. He was a native of Elkoshai, a village in Galilee. His name signifies comforter. See his prophecy. (Nahum 1:1-15)

American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Nahum
Consolation, the seventh of the twelve minor prophets. The circumstances of Nahum's life are unknown, except that he was a native of Elkosh, which probably was a village in Galilee. His prophecy consists of three chapters, which form one discourse, in which he foretells the destruction of Nineveh in so powerful and vivid a manner, that he might seem to have been on the very spot. The native elegance, fire, and sublimity of his style are universally admired.

Opinions are divided as to the time in which Nahum prophesied. The best interpreters adopt Jerome's opinion, that he foretold the destruction of Nineveh in the time of Hezekiah, after the war of Sennacherib in Egypt mentioned by Berosus. Compare Isaiah 20:6 Nahum 3:8 . Nahum speaks of the taking of shakeh, and of the defeat of Sennacherib, as things that were past. He implies that the tribe of Judah was still in their own country, and that they there celebrated their festivals. He notices also the captivity and dispersion of the ten tribes.

Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Nahum
NAHUM.—An ancestor of Jesus, Luke 3:25.

Sentence search

Nahum (2) - The two themes alternate in Nahum 1; as the prophecy advances, vengeance on Assyria predominates. "The Elkoshite" (Nahum 1:1), from Elkosh or Elkesi a village of Galilee pointed out to Jerome (Preface in Nahum). Capernaum, "village of Nahum," seemingly takes its name from Nahum having resided in the neighbourhood, though born in Elkosh. The allusions in Nahum indicate local acquaintance with Palestine (Nahum 1:4; Nahum 1:15; Nahum 2:2) and only general knowledge of Nineveh (Nahum 2:4-6; Nahum 3:2-3). of Mosul, is Nahum's place of birth and of burial, though Jewish pilgrims visit it as such. So in Nahum 1:7; Nahum 1:15, "Jehovah is a stronghold in the day of trouble; and He knoweth (with approval) them that trust in Him . " Moreover Nahum has none of the reproofs for national apostasy which abound in the other prophets. Nahum in Elkosh of Galilee was probably among those of northern Israel, after the deportation of the ten tribes, who accepted Hezekiah's earnest invitation to keep the Passover at Jerusalem (2 Chronicles 30). ... Hence, the number of phrases corresponding to those of Isaiah (Nahum 1:8-9, compare Isaiah 8:8; Isaiah 10:23; Nahum 2:10 with Isaiah 24:1; Isaiah 21:3; Nahum 1:15 with Isaiah 52:7). The prophecy in Nahum 1:14, "I will make it (namely, 'the house of thy gods,' i. He writes while Assyria's power was yet unbroken (Nahum 1:12; Nahum 2:11-13; Nahum 3:1, "the bloody city, full of lies . the prey departeth not": Nahum 3:15-17). The correspondence of sentiments in Nahum with those of Isaiah and Hezekiah implies he wrote when Sennacherib was still besieging and demanding the surrender of Jerusalem (Nahum 1:2 ff, with 2 Kings 19:14-15; Nahum 1:7 with 2 Kings 18:22; 2 Kings 19:19; 2 Kings 19:31; 2 Chronicles 32:7-8; Nahum 1:9; Nahum 1:11 with 2 Kings 19:22; 2 Kings 19:27-28; Nahum 1:14 with 2 Kings 19:6-7; Nahum 1:15 and Nahum 2:1-2 with 2 Kings 19:32-33; Nahum 2:13, "the voice of thy messengers shall no more be heard," namely, Rabshakeh the bearer of Sennacherib's haughty message, with 2 Kings 19:22-23). ... The historical facts presupposed in Nahum are Judah's and Israel's humiliation by Assyria (Nahum 2:2); the invasion of Judah (Nahum 1:9-11); the conquest of No-Amon or Thebes in Upper Egypt, probably by Sargon (Isaiah 20) who, fearing lest Egypt should join Palestine against him, undertook an expedition against it, 717-715 B. (Nahum 3:8-10). As Nahum refers in part prophetically to Sennacherib's (Sargon's successor) last attempt on Judah ending in his host's destruction, in part as matter of history (Nahum 1:9-13; Nahum 2:13), he must have prophesied about 713-710 B. ... The name "Huzzab" (Nahum 2:7) answers to Adiabene, from the Zab or Diab river on which that region lay; a personification of Assyria, and seems to be an Assyrian word. So the original words, minzaraik , taphsarika , for "crowned" or "princes" (Nahum 3:17) and "captains" or "satraps " (also in Jeremiah 51:27); contact with Assyria brought in these words. Nahum 2:18, "the faces gather blackness," corresponds to Isaiah 13:8; Joel 2:6; Joel is probably the original. Nahum 1:6 with Joel 2:7; Amos 2:14; Nahum 1:3 with Joel 2:13; the mourning dove, Nahum 2:7, with Isaiah 38:14; the first ripe figs, Nahum 3:12, with Isaiah 28:4; Nahum 3:13 with Isaiah 19:16; Nahum 3:4 with Isaiah 23:15; Nahum 2:4-5; Nahum 2:14 with Isaiah 22:7; Isaiah 36:9; Micah 1:13; Micah 5:10. ... The Assyrians, by just retribution, in turn should experience themselves what they caused to Israel and Judah (compare also Nahum 1:3 with Jonah 4:2; Nahum 1:13 with Isaiah 10:26-27; Nahum 1:8 with Isaiah 10:21-22; Isaiah 8:8; Nahum 1:9; Nahum 1:11 with Isaiah 37:23; Nahum 3:10 with Isaiah 13:16; Nahum 2:2 with Isaiah 24:1; Nahum 3:5 with Isaiah 47:2-3; Nahum 3:7 with Isaiah 51:19). Plainly, Nahum is the last of the prophets of the Assyrian period. Jeremiah borrows from, and so stamps with inspiration, Nahum (Jeremiah 10:19 compare Nahum 3:19; Jeremiah 13:26 compare Nahum 3:5; Jeremiah 50:37; Jeremiah 51:30, compare Nahum 3:13). Nahum is seventh in position in the canon, and seventh in date. Nahum encourages his countrymen with the assurance that, alarming as their position seemed, assailed by the mighty foe which had already carried captive the ten tribes, yet that not only should the Assyrian fail against Jerusalem, but Nineveh and his own empire should fall; and this not by chance, but by Jehovah's judgment for their iniquities. Melting softness and delicacy alternate with rhythmical, sonorous, and majestic diction, according as the subject requires; the very sound of the words conveys to the ear the sense (Nahum 2:4; Nahum 3:3). Paronomasia or verbal assonance is another feature of likeness to Isaiah, besides those already mentioned (Nahum 1:3; Nahum 1:6; Nahum 1:10; Nahum 2:2-3; Nahum 2:11; Nahum 3:2)
Elkoshite - Designation of Nahum the prophet. Nahum 1:1
Nahum - Very little biographical information is known about the prophet Nahum. He is called an Elkoshite (Nahum 1:1 ), but the location of Elkosh is—unknown. Nahum 3:8 refers to the destruction of the Egyptian capital, No-amon or Thebes, in 663 B. In Nahum 2:1 , he looked forward to the destruction of Nineveh which took place in 612 B. Nahum, therefore, prophesied after 650 B. How could God allow such inhumanity to go unanswered? Nahum responded to Assyrian tyranny with a message marked by its vivid language. Assyria's might had been heavy upon Judah, but Nahum announced that God would destroy them. Nahum, however, sought to dispel this notion. Yet, Nahum, poetically affirmed the city's fall. The enemy would rush upon the city with their chariots (Nahum 2:4 ), and the gates would be unable to keep them out (Nahum 2:5 ). The great city would be plundered (Nahum 2:7-10 ). ... The Book of Nahum closes with more threats against Nineveh. , so the same fate would befall Nineveh (Nahum 3:8-11 ). Preparations for a siege on the city are alluded to in Nahum 3:14 . ... While the Book of Nahum is harsh and deals with the unpleasantness of war, it served to give hope to the people of Judah. The Sovereign God Makes Himself Known (Nahum 1:1-11 )... A. The jealous, patient Lord takes vengeance on His adversaries (Nahum 1:1-3 ). The earth quakes at the arrival of God (Nahum 1:4-5 ). Who can endure the heat of God's anger? (Nahum 1:6 ). The good Lord is a refuge for His troubled, trusting people (Nahum 1:7 ). God protects those who seek Him but will destroy the enemy (Nahum 1:8-9 ). The enemy must drink the cup of God's wrath (Nahum 1:10-11 ). In the Enemy's Fall, God Offers Hope for His Oppressed People (Nahum 1:12-15 ). God can defeat the enemies no matter how strong and numerous they are (Nahum 1:12-13 ). God judges the enemy because of its false gods (Nahum 1:14 ). God calls His delivered people to grateful worship (Nahum 1:15 ). God Will Bring Judgment Upon His Wicked Enemy (Nahum 2:1-3:19 ). The enemy will fall, but God's people will be restored (Nahum 2:1-2 ). Armies and wealth cannot prevent God's judgment (Nahum 2:3-12 ). When God declares war, the enemy is helpless (Nahum 2:13 ). God humiliates wicked peoples (Nahum 3:1-19 )
Elkosh - God my bow, the birth-place of Nahum the prophet (Nahum 1:1 )
Nineveh - The prophets of God assured them of a fitting divine punishment (Isaiah 10:5; Isaiah 10:12-16; Nahum 1:1; Nahum 3:1-7; Zephaniah 2:13; see Nahum). This judgment fell in 612 BC, when the besieging Babylonians overcame Nineveh’s defences by bursting open the water gates, breaking through the wall and flooding the city (Nahum 2:6-8). It was never rebuilt (Nahum 2:9-10; Nahum 3:1; Nahum 3:7; Zephaniah 2:13-15)
Elkosh - Nahum's birthplace. of Mosul, believed by Jewish pilgrims to be Nahum's birthplace and burial place, is less probable, as his prophecies show only a general acquaintance with Assyria but a particular knowledge of Palestine (Nahum 1:4; Nahum 2:4-6; Nahum 3:2-3)
na'Hum - Nahum, called "the Elkoshite," is the seventh in order of the minor prophets. On the other hand, the imagery of his prophecy is such lie would be natural to an inhabitant of Palestine, ( Nahum 1:4 ) to whom the rich pastures of Bashan the vineyards of Carmel and the blossoms of Lebanon were emblems of all that was luxuriant and fertile. (Nahum 1:15 ; 2:2 ) is appropriate to one who wrote for his countrymen in their native land. (McClintock and Strong come to the conclusion that Nahum was a native of Galilee that at the captivity of the ten tribes he escaped into Judah, and prophesied in the reign of Hezekiah, 726-698. ) Prophecy of Nahum . --The date of Nahum a prophecy can be determined with as little precision as his birthplace. ( Nahum 1:12 ; 2:8,13 ; 3:16-17 ) It is most probable that Nahum flourished in the latter half of the return of Hezekiah, and wrote his prophecy either in Jerusalem or its neighborhood. As a poet Nahum occupies a high place in the first rank of Hebrew literature. (Nahum 2:4 ; 3:3 )
No - We read in the prophet Nahum of populous No. (Nahum 3:8) And Jeremiah and Ezekiel both speak of this city
Elkosh - The home of Nahum the prophet (Nahum 1:1 )
Nahum, the Book of - (See Nahum (2)
Elkoshite - See Nahum
Naum - Same as Nahum
Nahum - Nahum (Nâ'hum), consolation. In Nahum 1:1 he is called an Elkoshite. The intimate acquaintance the book shows with Syrian affairs makes it probable that Nahum lived an exile in Assyria, and perhaps at the village on the Tigris. Nahum prophesied before the destruction of Nineveh, which he predicts, and probably in the reign of Hezekiah
el'Kosh - (God my bow ), the birthplace of the prophet Nahum, hence called "the Elkoshite. " ( Nahum 1:1 ) This place is located at the modern Alkush , a village on the east bank of the Tigris, about two miles north of Mosul
Nahum - At the time of Nahum’s prophecy, Assyria had passed the peak of its power and was heading for inevitable conquest by the rising power of Babylon. Nahum, as God’s spokesman, announced a fitting judgment on Assyria, enlivening his message with graphic descriptions of the destruction of Assyria’s capital, Nineveh. Nahum was most likely one of those prophets who began to preach in Judah during the revival of prophetic activity that occurred during Josiah’s reign. ... Most nations of the region had at some time suffered from the brutality of Assyria (Nahum 3:19). Nahum, who had been deeply stirred over Assyria’s injustice and cruelty, had a feeling of satisfaction that at last a fitting divine judgment was to fall upon the ruthless oppressor (Nahum 2:10; Nahum 2:13; Nahum 3:5-7; Nahum 3:19). ... Summary of the book... Nahum opens his book with striking word-pictures showing that God takes vengeance on those who fight against him, though he protects those who trust in him (1:1-15)
Put - (1 Chronicles 1:8 ; Nahum 3:9 ) [PHUT ]
Nahum - Nahum
Bruit - Rumor or report, Jeremiah 10:22 Nahum 3:19
Tabering - KJV term meaning, “beating” (Nahum 2:7 )
Munition - Isaiah 29:7 ; Isaiah 33:16 ; Nahum 2:1
Bruit - A rumour or report (Jeremiah 10:22 , RSV "rumour;" Nahum 3:19 )
Naum - (Naw um) KJV form of Nahum, an ancestor of Christ (Luke 3:25 )
Nahum - Nahum... I. The word Nahum means ‘full of comfort’ and is probably a contraction of e longer Heb. But the tradition that buries Nahum there is not met with before the 16th cent. words which mean ‘village of Nahum. ... (4) The most probable tradition associates Nahum with Elkosh ‘of the tribe of Simeon,’ and locates the hamlet near Beth-Gabre , the modern Beit-Jibrîn , about half-way between Jerusalem and Gaza. In the analysis of the book, a line of division can be best drawn at the close of Nahum 2:2 . This fact holds good of His administration ( Nahum 1:3 ); and as He passes on to the overthrow of the wicked, physical proofs of His power become evident everywhere ( Nahum 1:4-6 ). Tenderness towards those who wait upon Him, but an overwhelming flood upon His enemies ( Nahum 1:7-10 ), are the two great characteristics of His rule. ‘What think ye of Jehovah?’ ( Nahum 1:9 , where RV [Note: Revised Version. ] does not preserve the sequence of thought) is the point of passage to the section dealing with His particular acts, in which section either the text is corrupt through the displacement of some of the verses, or the two messages, of deliverance to Judah ( Nahum 1:13 ; Nahum 1:15 , Nahum 2:2 ) and of vengeance upon Israel ( Nahum 1:11 f. , Nahum 1:14 , Nahum 2:1 , were meaot to be entangled in repeated antitheses. Already the bearer of the good news is speeding over the hills ( Nahum 1:15 ; cf. literature (Nahum 3:2 f. The cause of destruction is to be found in the diplomatic barlotry, whereby nations and races had been lured and sold; and so richly merited will be the woe, that none will be left or disposed to pity or bemoan Nineveh ( Nahum 3:7 ). The analogy of No-amon (Thebes) makes it certain that a similar fate is awaiting the Assyrian city ( Nahum 3:8 ff. Her outposts and defences are already falling before the invader, just as the first-ripe figs fall at the mere shaking of a fig-tree; and her people have become women ( Nahum 3:12 f. That Nahum was the author of the two oracles is hardly open to question, but of late years some doubt has been thrown upon the authenticity of the prologue. Against Nahum’s authorship the plea is of a technical character, that the first chapter is really, in Heb. This plea is followed by the statement that such a literary form points to a late origin; and consequently the prologue is held to have been composed or constructed in the post-exilic period, and prefixed as an appropriate Introduction to the oracle of Nahum on account of its expression of the general principle of God’s avenging justice, of which the drama of Nineveh was supposed to afford a striking illustration. ... On the other side, the re-arrangements necessary to restore an alphabetical form are difficult, though perhaps possible as far as Nahum 1:9 , after which resort has to be had to processes that are scientifically indefensible. Alleged parallels with the post-exilic psalms are in reality parallels with earlier writings, which possibly supplied both Nahum and the writers of the psalms in question with their common phrases. The question of the authenticity of the first chapter does not seriously affect the further question of the date at which Nahum composed the two oracles by general consent ascribed to him. Nahum prophesied after the capture of No-amon or Thebes ( Nahum 3:8-10 ) by Ashurbanipal in b. Had that revolt been the occasion of Nahum’s prophecy, he would have directed his words against the king in person and not against the city. The right date for Nahum seems to be a little after the death of Ashurbanipal, when the signs of Assyrian weakness were multiplying, and the outlying parts of the empire had already recovered their independence or been appropriated by other powers. At a later date the language of a prophet in Judah would be likely to be affected by the Deuteronomic style, of which there are no traces in Nahum; an earlier date would fail to supply the historic conditions, which are always an essential feature of Jewish prophecy. About 623 or 624 Nahum would need no great discernment to see the approaching fall of Assyria, and in the equipment and quick movements of the Medes and Scythians he would find the imagery which he uses to such good effect in his oracles. Picturesqueness and force have been described as the most prominent characteristics of Nahum’s poety. Compact thought, vivid description ( Nahum 2:3-5 , Nahum 3:2 f. ), effective imagery ( Nahum 2:11 f. , Nahum 3:17 f. Nahum 1:10 , Nahum 2:8 ), but the cause is probably quite as often the high specific gravity of the sentence as an error in transcription. 191) that Nahum is neglected by the Bible-reader, as though the story of Nineveh had little connexion with the progress of the Kingdom of God, and were merely a complete and isolated fact of the past with no relation to present needs. Yet if Nahum is not a religious teacher like Micah or Isaiah, he focuses the truth of God’s moral government of the world, concentrating the light upon a single typical instance; and he does not fail to defend confidence in God as the eventual Avenger of wrong and the perpetual defence of those who love Him. For Nahum, Nineveh fills up the whole canvas
Rattling - Nahum 3
Canker-Worm - In our English Bible, put where the Hebrew means a species of locust, Joel 1:4 Nahum 3:15,16
Huzzab - (Nahum 2:7). Gesenius connects it with Nahum 2:6, "the palace shall be dissolved, and shall flow away" (Henderson) "
Whelp - A lion's cub, used figuratively in the Old Testament (see Genesis 49:9 ; Jeremiah 51:38 ; Nahum 2:11 )
Brick-Kiln - 2 Samuel 12:31 ; Jeremiah 43:9 ; Nahum 3:14
Huz'Zab - (fixed ), according to the general opinion of the Jews, was the queen of Nineveh at the time when Nahum delivered his prophecy. ( Nahum 2:7 ) (B
Tabering - Nahum 2:7
Cankerworm - KJV translation in Joel 1:4 ; Joel 2:25 ; Nahum 3:15-16
Nahum - (Nahum 1:1-15)...
Taber - The word is used in Nahum 2:7 of women beating their breasts in sign of grief
Tabering - In Nahum 2:7 , where alone it occurs, it means beating on the breast, as players beat on the tabret
Taber, to - Nahum 2:7
lu'Bim - (dwellers in a thirsty land ),a nation mentioned as contributing, together with Cushites and Sukkiim, to Shishak's army, ( 2 Chronicles 12:3 ) and apparently as forming with Cushites the bulk of Zerah's army, (2 Chronicles 16:8 ) spoken of by Nahum, (Nahum 3:9 ) with Put or Phut, as helping No-amon (Thebes), of which Cush and Egypt were the strength
Huzzab - Nahum 2:7
Tabering - Nahum 2:7; Nineveh's maids "tabering upon their breasts," i
Nahum - The circumstances of Nahum's life are unknown, except that he was a native of Elkosh, which probably was a village in Galilee. ... Opinions are divided as to the time in which Nahum prophesied. Compare Isaiah 20:6 Nahum 3:8 . Nahum speaks of the taking of shakeh, and of the defeat of Sennacherib, as things that were past
Capharnaum - (Hebrew: Kaphar Nahum, village of Nahum) ... Town, Galilee, closely associated with Our Lord, and frequently mentioned in the Gospels
Blade - Applied to the glittering point of a spear (Job 39:23 ) or sword (Nahum 3:3 ), the blade of a dagger (Judges 3:22 ); the "shoulder blade" (Job 31:22 ); the "blade" of cereals (Matthew 13:26 )
Drunkard - Nahum 1:10 (a) The Lord is informing us that He will completely conquer and destroy those who have filled their lives with hatred for Him and love for the wines of iniquity
Bruit - ... Nahum 3:19 (b) Here is a graphic description of the howling, wailing, and crying of Nineveh in her judgment
Chabakkuk - (6th century BCE) A contemporary of Joel and Nahum, he began prophesying during the reign of King Manasseh
Nahum - ... Nahum, the book of: The book of Tanach containing Nahum's prophecies, foretelling the downfall of the Assyrian empire
Habakkuk - (6th century BCE) A contemporary of Joel and Nahum, he began prophesying during the reign of King Manasseh
Habakkuk (2) - (6th century BCE) A contemporary of Joel and Nahum, he began prophesying during the reign of King Manasseh
Bruit - Thus 2Ma 4:39 ‘the bruit of his manliness was spread everywhere’; Nahum 3:19 ‘all that hear the bruit of thee shall clap the hands over thee
Pul (1) - Phut ought to be read for Pal; compare Nahum 3:9
Raven, Ravin - KJV used ravin both as a verb meaning, “to prowl for food” ( Genesis 49:27 ), and as a noun meaning, “something taken as prey” (Nahum 2:12 )
a'Mon, or a'Men - ( Nahum 3:8 ) Amen was one of the eight gods of the first order and chief of the triad of Thebes
Thebes - Its Hebrew name was No, and its god was Amon (Jeremiah 46:25; Nahum 3:8). But these defences were not able to withstand the Assyrians, who in 663 BC plundered and destroyed the city (Ezekiel 30:14-16; Nahum 3:8-10)
Maul - (Nahum 2:1
Tabor - Nahum 2 ... 1
Belial (Beliar) - 2 Samuel 22:5 ) Psalms 41:8 and Nahum 1:11 ; Nahum 1:15 (note in Nahum 1:15 independent use, ‘man’ understood; RV [Note: Revised Version
Canker Worm - ... ... Nahum 3:15 (c) It represents any evil calamity that may be sent by GOD to punish His people as individuals or as a company
Charger(s) - Horses used in battle to charge or attack ( Nahum 2:3 NRSV; compare TEV, REB based on early Greek translations; compare Isaiah 31:1 ,Isaiah 31:1,31:3 ; Jeremiah 8:6 ; Revelation 6:2 )
Cankerworm - Joel 1:4; Joel 2:25; Nahum 3:15-16
Hammer - ) Compare Nahum 2:1 margin...
Nahum, Book of - Nahum prophesied, according to some, in the beginning of the reign of Ahaz (B. Nineveh was a city of vast extent, and was then the centre of the civilzation and commerce of the world, a "bloody city all full of lies and robbery" (Nahum 3:1 ), for it had robbed and plundered all the neighbouring nations. ... Jonah had already uttered his message of warning, and Nahum was followed by Zephaniah, who also predicted (Zephaniah 2:4-15 ) the destruction of the city, predictions which were remarkably fulfilled (B
Lightning - Frequently referred to by the sacred writers (Nahum 1:3-6 )
Lehabim - They served in the Egyptian armies (2 Chronicles 12:3; 2 Chronicles 16:8; Nahum 3:9; Daniel 11:43)
Witch, Witchcraft - Exodus 22:18 ; Deuteronomy 18:10 ; 2 Kings 9:22 ; 2 Chronicles 33:6 ; Micah 5:12 ; Nahum 3:4
Cub - Nahum 3:9 , where Lybians are mentioned along with Cush (Ethiopia), Egypt, and Put, as here; also 2Ch 12:3 ; 2 Chronicles 16:8
Cankerworm, - Nahum 3:15,16 ; Joel 1:4 ; Joel 2:25
Cankerworm - Nahum 3:16; "spoileth," rather "the cankerworm puts off (the envelope of its wings) and fleeth away," so shall thy merchants flee
Phut or Put - A son of Ham, Genesis 10:6 , whose posterity are named with Cush and Ludim as serving in Egyptian armies, and as part of the host of Gog, Jeremiah 46:9 Ezekiel 27:10 30:5 38:5 Nahum 3:9
Shield - Nahum. ( Nahum 2:3 ) The surface of the shield was kept bright by the application of oil as implied in (Isaiah 21:5 ) The shield was worn on the left arm, to which it was attached by a strap
Skirt - Several references to Jerusalem use this word figuratively to show her sin ( Jeremiah 13:22 ,Jeremiah 13:22,13:26 ; Lamentations 1:9 ; Nahum 3:5 ). The lifting of the skirt brought shame because the nakedness of a person was seen (Isaiah 47:1-3 ; Nahum 3:5 )
Tabering, - an obsolete English word used in the Authorized Version of (Nahum 2:7 ) The Hebrew word connects itself with toph , "a timbrel
Lubim - Allies or tributaries of Egypt (2 Chronicles 12:3; 2 Chronicles 16:8; Nahum 3:9; Daniel 11:23)
Bar - A bar for a door was of iron (Isaiah 45:2 ), brass (Psalm 107:16 ), or wood (Nahum 3:13 )
Huzzab - A word occurring in Nahum 2:7
Wound - (See also Jeremiah 15:18; Jeremiah 30:12; Micah 1:9; Nahum 3:19)
Infinite - Nahum 3:8,9
Nahum, Theology of - Nahum is a biblical book that Christians find easy to avoid. The Book of Nahum can be off-putting and even revolting to Christians who know Jesus' teaching about turning the other cheek (Matthew 5:39 ) and putting a sword back in its place (Matthew 26:52 ). Nahum must have been written after 663 b. Nahum's obvious anger may be understood against the background of the cruel Assyrian oppression that God's people, as well as other nations, had suffered. ... The interweaving judgment- and salvation-oracles are followed by a prophetic vision in which Nahum describes the future downfall of the city as if he were there. Nahum closes the long series of taunts by comparing Assyria to a locust horde (3:15d-17). ... Nahum brought his generation a message from God about his relationship with his people: God is a warrior who is coming to free his people from the oppressive dominance of wicked Assyria. Nahum speaks an oracle of doom against Assyria, a nation that existed in the distant past. Before specific application is made to Judah and Assyria, Nahum presents us with a hymn that focuses on God as the saving and judging divine warrior (1:2-8). ... The Book of Nahum thus fits into an unfolding drama of God's warring activity as it is described from Exodus to Revelation. By the time of Nahum, the Israelites were well aware of God as the divine warrior. ... Nahum reveals God as a warrior who fights for his people. When we read the Book of Nahum in conjunction with the Book of Revelation, we are reminded that Jesus Christ is coming again at the end of time to put an end to all evil, whether spiritual or human (Revelation 19:11-21 ). Baker, Nahum, Habakkuk, and Zephaniah: An Introduction and Commentary ; K. Smith, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Books of Micah, Zephaniah, and Nahum
Brickkiln - Some Bible students believe that sun-dried bricks were used in Palestine; they would translate the word as “brick-mold” (see Nahum 3:14 NRSV, NAS, TEV)
Joel - (a) (6th century BCE) A student of Micah and a contemporary of Nahum and Habakkuk, he prophesied during the reign of King Manasseh
Libya, Libyans - The same district is called LUBIM in Nahum 3:9 , and its inhabitants LUBIMS in 2 Chronicles 12:3 ; 2Chr
Bricks - They were usually dried in the sun, though also sometimes in kilns (2 Samuel 12:31 ; Jeremiah 43:9 ; Nahum 3:14 )
Cankerworm - "It spoileth and fleeth away" (Nahum 3:16 ), or as some read the passage, "The cankerworm putteth off [i
Harlot - An abandoned woman, Proverbs 29:3 ; a type of idolatrous nations and cities, Isaiah 1:21 Ezekiel 16:1-63 Nahum 3:4
Munition - ’ The word is retained in Nahum 2:1 , where, however, Amer
Nahum - Nahum 1:10 and 2 Kings 19:35 ; and in this way we see the scope of prophecy and not simply the immediate events that gave rise to it. ... Nahum 2 concerns the city of Nineveh directly. " Nahum 2:7 . Truly, as said in Nahum 3 , it was a 'bloody city. ' The following verses, as also Nahum 2:3,4 , show that it was a warlike nation, ever seeking to enrich itself by the spoil of other nations, among which were Israel and Judah. Nahum 3:8-10 show that as 'populous No' (the renowned Thebes, with its hundred gates), had been brought to nought (probably by Sargon, king of Assyria), so should Nineveh fall
ti'Gris - It appears, indeed, under the name of Hiddekel, among the rivers of Eden, ( Genesis 2:14 ) and is there correctly described as "running eastward to Assyria;" but after this we hear no more of it, if we accept one doubtful allusion in Nahum (Nahum 2:6 ) until the captivity, when it becomes well known to the prophet Daniel
Canker-Worm - ילק , Psalms 105:34 ; Jeremiah 51:27 , where it is rendered caterpillar; Joel 1:4 ; Joel 2:25 ; Nahum 3:15 , canker-worm. It certainly cannot be the canker-worm, as our version renders it; for in Nahum, it is expressly said to have wings and fly, to camp in the hedges by day, and commit its depredations in the night
Nineveh - So Nahum 3:13; Nahum 3:15, "fire shall devour thy bars. Nahum (Nahum 2) and Zephaniah (Zephaniah 2:13-15) foretold its doom; and Ezekiel (Ezekiel 31) shortly after attests the completeness of its overthrow, as a warning of the fatal issue of pride, Isaiah 10:7-14; Diodorus (ii. So Nahum (Nahum 1:8; Nahum 2:6; Nahum 2:8) foretold "with an over running flood He will make an utter end of the place;" "the gates of the rivers shall be opened and the palace shall be dissolved," namely, by the inundation; "Nineveh is of old like a pool of water (though of old defended by water around), yet (its inhabitants) shall flee. Nahum (Nahum 1:10; Nahum 3:11) accords with Diodorus Siculus that the final assault was made during a drinking bout of king and courtiers: "while they are drunken as drunkards, they shall be devoured as stubble fully dry . The treasures accumulated by many kings were rifled, as Nahum foretells; "take ye the spoil of silver . gold, for there is none end of the store;" the people were "scattered upon the mountains" (Nahum 3:18). ... He calls it "the city of bloods," truly (Nahum 3:1); the wall carvings represent the king in the act of putting out his captives' eyes, and dragging others by a hook through the lips and a cord. Other cities have revived, but Nahum foretells "there is no healing of thy bruise" (Nahum 3:19). In Nahum 2:3 translated "the chariots (shall be furnished) with fire flashing scythes," literally, "with the fire of scythes" or "iron weapons. " The "red shield" (Nahum 2:3) accords with the red painting of the shields and dresses in the sculptures. "Witchcrafts" and "whoredoms" in connection with Nineveh's worship are denounced by Nahum 3:4. Silk, blue clothes, and embroidered work were traded in by Nineveh's merchants (Ezekiel 27:23-24; Nahum 3:16)
Burst - (See also Jeremiah 30:8; Nahum 1:13)
Africa - Other African nations mentioned in the Bible are Libya (2 Chronicles 12:3; 2 Chronicles 16:8; Daniel 11:43), Put (Jeremiah 46:9; Ezekiel 30:5; Ezekiel 38:5; Nahum 3:9), and Lud (Jeremiah 46:9; Ezekiel 30:5)
Taber - Only in Nahum 2:7 ‘her handmaids mourn as with the voice of doves, tabering (Amer
Mortar - homer), cement of lime and sand (Genesis 11:3 ; Exodus 1:14 ); also potter's clay (Isaiah 41:25 ; Nahum 3:14 )
Scarlet - It is also mentioned in various other connections (Joshua 2:18 ; 2 Samuel 1:24 ; Lamentations 4:5 ; Nahum 2:3 )
Dazzling - , Ezekiel 1:4,7 ; Nahum 3:3
Put - Designation for a region of Africa bordering Egypt (Jeremiah 46:9 ; Ezekiel 27:10 ; Ezekiel 30:5 ; Ezekiel 38:5 ; Nahum 3:9 ; and, by emendation, Isaiah 66:19 )
Adversary - Nahum 1
Phut, Put - (Isaiah 66:19 ; Jeremiah 46:9 ; Ezekiel 27:10 ; 30:5 ; 38:5 ; Nahum 3:9 ) Some identify it with Libya, in the northern part Africa near the Mediterranean Sea; others, as Mr
Ammon, or no-Ammon, or no - The name of the city is properly No-Ammon, that is, the seat or dwelling of the god Ammon, Nahum 3:8 , in the Hebrew. In Ezekiel 30:14-16 , it is called simply No; and in Nahum 3:8 Jeremiah 46:25 , the English version has also only No
no, no-Amon - Jeremiah ( Jeremiah 46:25 ), Ezekiel (Jeremiah 30:14-15 ,Jeremiah 30:14-15,30:16 ), and Nahum (Jeremiah 3:8 ) were well aware of its prominence. As Nahum indicated, Thebes was not invincible
no - Its position is alluded to in Nahum 3:8-10 , where the Nile is called 'the sea,' and 'the rivers' refer to the canals. ... The passage in Nahum refers to some past desolation
no-a'Mon - (temple of Amon ) ( Nahum 3:8 ) No, (Jeremiah 46:25 ; Ezekiel 30:14,16 ) a city of Egypt, better known under the name of Thebes or Diospolis Magna, the ancient and splendid metropolis of upper Egypt The second part of the first form as the name of Amen , the chief divinity of Thebes, mentioned or alluded to in connection with this place in Jeremiah. It seems most reasonable to suppose that No is a Shemitic name and that Amen is added in Nahum (l
no-Amon - Nahum 3:8-10. It is evident from the words of Nahum that Thebes fell earlier than Nineveh. Nahum 1:1
Phut - " Jeremiah 46:9; Ezekiel 27:10; Ezekiel 30:5; Ezekiel 38:5; Nahum 3:9, A V
Huzzab - (huhz' zab) KJV transliteration of Hebrew word whose meaning in the context of Nahum 2:7 is not clear
Hold - Occasionally other terms are used in place of hold: fortress (2 Samuel 24:7 NIV, NRSV); hill ( Micah 4:8 NRSV, perhaps in the sense of citadel); fortified cities ( Habakkuk 1:10 NIV); refuge ( Nahum 1:7 NIV)
Massa - The Hebrew term is used in the special sense of oracle, especially at the beginning of prophecies of judgment (for example, Isaiah 13:1 ; Nahum 1:1 ; Habakkuk 1:1 )
Ethiopia - Nahum 3:9
Raven - Nahum 2
No - Nç : also No-amon , Nahum 3:8 , Amon (Ammon) being the god of the city. Nahum seems to imagine Thebes as resembling the cities of the less remote Delta surrounded by canals, which were their chief protection; in reality it lay on both banks of the Nile, with desert bounding it on either side, and water probably played little part in its defence. 666), referred to in Nahum
Shield - Used in defensive warfare, varying at different times and under different circumstances in size, form, and material (1 Samuel 17:7 ; 2 Samuel 1:21 ; 1 Kings 10:17 ; 1 Chronicles 12:8,24,34 ; Isaiah 22:6 ; Ezekiel 39:9 ; Nahum 2:3 )
Witchcraft - (1 Samuel 15:23 ; 2 Kings 9:22 ; 2 Chronicles 33:6 ; Micah 5:12 ; Nahum 3:4 ; Galatians 5:20 )
Lubim - ] for the Libyans in Nahum 3:9 , 2Ch 12:3 ; 2 Chronicles 16:8 , and replaced by the word ‘Libyans’ itself in Daniel 11:43
Belial - In Nahum 1:15 , where the King James Version translates it as “the wicked,” Belial appears to be the name of some specific malevolent power
Amon (1) - (Nahum 3:8)
Phut - Nahum 3:9 , reckons this people in the number of those who ought to come to the assistance of No-Ammon, or Diospolis
Akiba ben joseph - At the age of 40, at the insistence of his wife, he began studying Torah,under Eliezer ben Hyrcanus, Joshua ben Hananiah, and Nahum Ish Gamzu ultimately attracting 24,000 students including Rabbi Simeon ben Yohai, Rabbi Meir and Rabbi Judah ben Ilai
Earthquake - Mentioned among the extraordinary phenomena of Palestine (Psalm 18:7 ; Compare Habakkuk 3:6 ; Nahum 1:5 ; Isaiah 5:25 )
Mightily - Nahum 2 ... 6
Amos - A son of Nahum, R
Nineveh - 606) is referred to by Nahum and Zephaniah ( Nahum 2:13 )
Lightning - Ezekiel 21:10 , Nahum 3:3 , Habakkuk 3:11 ), and for the glittering weapon itself ( Job 20:25 ). It is suggested, either by the flash of polished metal, or by the speed of the chariot ( Nahum 2:4 )
Lebanon - In the latter, Mount Hermon reaches the height of 9300 feet Lebanon is often mentioned poetically in the Old Testament (Osee 14; Nahum 1), and is noted for its abundance of wood, especially the cedar (Zachariah 11; 1 Esdras 3), which was used by Solomon in building the Temple (3Kings 5)
Libanus - In the latter, Mount Hermon reaches the height of 9300 feet Lebanon is often mentioned poetically in the Old Testament (Osee 14; Nahum 1), and is noted for its abundance of wood, especially the cedar (Zachariah 11; 1 Esdras 3), which was used by Solomon in building the Temple (3Kings 5)
Mountain, White - In the latter, Mount Hermon reaches the height of 9300 feet Lebanon is often mentioned poetically in the Old Testament (Osee 14; Nahum 1), and is noted for its abundance of wood, especially the cedar (Zachariah 11; 1 Esdras 3), which was used by Solomon in building the Temple (3Kings 5)
Helpmeet - Elsewhere the term is used of God as Helper (1 Chronicles 12:18 ; Psalm 30:10 ; Psalm 54:4 ; Psalm 121:1 ) or of military allies (Jeremiah 47:4 ; Nahum 3:9 )
Torches - (Nahum 2:3 , "torches," Revised Version, "steel," probably should be "scythes" for war-chariots
Mortar - A building material, usually clay (Exodus 1:14 ; Isaiah 41:25 ; Nahum 3:14 ), though sometimes bitumen (Genesis 11:3 ; KJV “slime”), used to secure joints in brick or stone
Captive - When a city was taken by assault, all the men were slain, and the women and children carried away captive and sold as slaves (Isaiah 20 ; 47:3 ; 2 Chronicles 28:9-15 ; Psalm 44:12 ; Joel 3:3 ), and exposed to the most cruel treatment (Nahum 3:10 ; Zechariah 14:2 ; Esther 3:13 ; 2 Kings 8:12 ; Isaiah 13:16,18 )
White Mountain - In the latter, Mount Hermon reaches the height of 9300 feet Lebanon is often mentioned poetically in the Old Testament (Osee 14; Nahum 1), and is noted for its abundance of wood, especially the cedar (Zachariah 11; 1 Esdras 3), which was used by Solomon in building the Temple (3Kings 5)
Flood - ... Nahum 1:8 (a) Thus is described the power of the invading army that conquered the city of Nineveh. About seventy-five years later Nahum wrote his prophecy of the destruction of Nineveh because they had returned to their wicked ways
Nineveh - The prophecy of Nahum is especially devoted to this. In the prophecy of Nahum it is said, "with an overrunning flood he will make an utter end of the place"; "the gates of the rivers shall be opened, and the palace shall be dissolved. " Nahum 1:8 ; Nahum 2:6 . Nahum 3:1,19 . " Nahum 2:9
Marshal - ’ In Jeremiah 51:27 and Nahum 3:17 it denotes a military officer of high rank (AV [Note: Authorized Version
Bond - Used figuratively to speak of the bonds of wickedness or sin (Isaiah 58:6 ; Luke 13:16 ; Acts 8:23 ), of affliction and judgment (Isaiah 28:22 ; Isaiah 52:2 ; Jeremiah 30:8 ; Nahum 1:13 ), the authority of kings (Job 12:18 ; Psalm 2:3 ), the obligation to keep the covenant (Jeremiah 2:20 ; Jeremiah 5:5 ; see Colossians 2:14 ), the bonds of peace and love (Ephesians 4:3 ; Colossians 3:14 ), and the bonds of an evil woman (Ecclesiastes 7:26 )
Libya - The people who inhabited the territory in biblical days are referred to variously as Chub (Ezekiel 30:5 ), Put (1 Chronicles 1:8 ; Nahum 3:9 ), Phut (Genesis 10:6 ; Ezekiel 27:10 ), and Libyans (Ezekiel 30:5 ; Ezekiel 38:5 ; Acts 2:10 )
Kiln - The term “brickkiln” is used in Nahum 3:14 , but this should probably read “brick mold” (NRSV, NAS) or “brick work” (NIV, REB), as the bricks in Palestine were usually sun dried
Whirlwinds - Were very frequent in the deserts of Arabia, Job 37:9 38:1 Nahum 1:3 , and travelers in the East have encountered many
Dove - The dove's rapidity of flight is alluded to in (Psalm 55:6 ) the beauty of its plumage in (Psalm 68:13 ) its dwelling int he rocks and valleys in (Jeremiah 48:28 ) and Ezekiel 7:16 Its mournful voice in ( Isaiah 38:14 ; 59:11 ; Nahum 2:7 ) its harmlessness in (Matthew 10:16 ) its simplicity in (Hosea 7:11 ) and its amativeness in (Song of Solomon 1:15 ; 2:14 ) Doves are kept in a domesticated state in many parts of the East
Siege - Preparing for siege, a city stored water inside the city walls and repaired the walls ( Nahum 3:14 )
Clay - This word is used of sediment found in pits or in streets (Isaiah 57:20 ; Jeremiah 38:60 ), of dust mixed with spittle (John 9:6 ), and of potter's clay (Isaiah 41:25 ; Nahum 3:14 ; Jeremiah 18:1-6 ; Romans 9:21 )
Gold - (Genesis 43:21 ) Gold was extremely abundant in ancient times, (1 Chronicles 22:14 ; 2 Chronicles 1:15 ; 9:9 ; Daniel 3:1 ; Nahum 2:9 ) but this did not depreciate its value, because of the enormous quantities consumed by the wealthy in furniture, etc
Lions - They had their lairs in the forests (Jeremiah 5:6 ; 12:8 ; Amos 3:4 ), in the caves of the mountains (Song of Solomon 4:8 ; Nahum 2:12 ), and in the canebrakes on the banks of the Jordan (Jeremiah 49:19 ; 50:44 ; Zechariah 11:3 ). ... Labi , From a root meaning "to roar," a grown lion or lioness ( Genesis 49:9 ; Numbers 23:24 ; 24:9 ; Ezekiel 19:2 ; Nahum 2:11 )
Crimson - ) Crimson or scarlet thread (Genesis 38:28 ,Genesis 38:28,38:30 ), cord (Joshua 2:18 ,Joshua 2:18,2:21 ), and cloth (Leviticus 14:4 ; Numbers 4:8 ; 2 Samuel 1:24 ; 2Chronicles 2:7,2 Chronicles 2:14 ; 2 Chronicles 3:14 ; Proverbs 31:21 ; Jeremiah 4:30 ; Nahum 2:3 ) are mentioned in the Bible
Fir - Its wood was used in making musical instruments and doors of houses, and for ceilings (2 Chronicles 3:5 ), the decks of ships (Ezekiel 27:5 ), floorings and spear-shafts (Nahum 2:3 , RSV)
Bricks - Were usually made of clay, dried and hardened in the sun, Genesis 11:3 , though brick-kilns were sometimes used, 2 Samuel 12:31 Nahum 3:14
Carmel - The mountains had good forests and pasture lands (Isaiah 33:9; Isaiah 35:2; Jeremiah 50:19; Amos 1:2; Amos 9:3; Nahum 1:4)
Nineveh - ... The book of Nahum was avowedly prophetic of the destruction of Nineveh; and it is there foretold that "the gates of the river shall be opened, and the palace shall be dissolved. Nineveh of old, like a pool of water, with an overflowing flood he will make an utter end of the place thereof,"... Nahum 2:6 ; Nahum 1:8-9 . The words of the prophet were hereby verified: "While they be folden together as thorns, and while they are drunken as drunkards, they shall be devoured as stubble fully dry," Nahum 1:10 . The prophet promised much spoil to the enemy: "Take the spoil of silver, take the spoil of gold; for there is no end of the store and glory out of all the pleasant furniture," Nahum 2:9 . According to Nahum 3:15 , the city was not only to be destroyed by an overflowing flood, but the fire, also, was to devour it; and, as Diodorus relates, partly by water, partly by fire, it was destroyed. Affliction shall not rise up the second time, She is empty, void, and waste,"... Nahum 1:8-9 ; Nahum 2:10 ; Nahum 3:17-19 . In contrasting the then existing great and increasing population, and the accumulating wealth of the proud inhabitants of the mighty Nineveh, with the utter ruin that awaited it, the word of God by the Prophet Nahum, was, "Make thyself many as the canker worm, make thyself many as the locusts
Steel - There is, however, a word in hebrew, paldah , which occurs only in ( Nahum 2:3 ) (4) and is there rendered "torches," but which most probably denotes steel or hardened iron, and refers to the flashing scythes of the Assyrian chariots
Herdsman - The herdsmen lived in tents (Isaiah 38:12 ; Jeremiah 6:3 ); and there were folds for the cattle (Numbers 32:16 ), and watch-towers for the herdsmen, that he might therefrom observe any coming danger (Micah 4:8 ; Nahum 3:8 )
Fuel - Numerous types of fuel are mentioned in Scripture: wood (Isaiah 44:14-16 ); charcoal (Jeremiah 36:22 ; John 18:18 ); shrubs (Psalm 120:4 ); thorn bushes (Ecclesiastes 7:6 ; Nahum 1:10 ); grass (Matthew 6:30 ); weeds (Matthew 13:40 ); vines (Ezekiel 15:4 ,Ezekiel 15:4,15:6 ); branch trimmings (John 15:6 ); animal or even human dung (Ezekiel 4:12 ); and the blood-stained clothing of fallen warriors (Isaiah 9:5 )
Morter - Nahum 3:14
Tear (Verb) - ... Nahum 2:12 (b) In this way we learn of the wrath of Nineveh and Assyria against the people of Israel
Vows - Numbers 30:2-14 ; Deuteronomy 23:21-23 ; Psalm 1:14 ; Ecclesiastes 5:4,5 ; Nahum 1:15 ; etc
Nahum - Of all the minor prophets, says Bishop Lowth, none seems to equal Nahum in sublimity, ardour, and boldness
Amon - Amon (â'mon), an Egyptian divinity, whose name occurs in mat of No-amon, Nahum 3:8 R
Sea - , "flood;" Nahum 3:8; Ezekiel 32:2; Jeremiah 51:36
Libya - They were also allies of ancient Thebes, Nahum 3:9
Put, Phut - A people counted amongst the sons of Ham ( Genesis 10:6 , 1 Chronicles 1:8 ), and frequently mentioned in the prophets as an ally of Egypt ( Jeremiah 46:9 , Ezekiel 27:10 ; Ezekiel 30:5 ; Ezekiel 38:5 , Nahum 3:9 )
Vengeance - Nahum 1
Flowers - Because of this the Bible sometimes refers to them as symbols of the brevity and impermanence of life (Job 14:2; Nahum 1:4; James 1:10-11; 1 Peter 1:24)
Nineveh - The prophecies of the books of Jonah and Nahum are chiefly directed against this city. " Nahum 2:8; Nahum 3:7; Nahum 3:18, R
Acrostic - In Psalms 111:1-10 ; Psalms 112:1-10 this interval is one line; in Psalms 25:1-22 ; Psalms 34:1-22 ; Psalms 145:1-21 , Proverbs 31:10-31 , Sir 51:13-30 , and in the fragment, which does not clearly extend beyond the thirteenth letter, contained in Nahum 1:1-15 , the interval Isaiah 2 lines; in Lamentations 4:1-22 it Isaiah 2 longer lines, in chs. Occasionally lines have been inserted, as, apparently, in more than one place in Psalms 37:1-40 , and in Nahum 1:2 . , Nahum 1:1-15 , and Sir 51:13-30 . Smith]; for Nahum 1:1-15 , Expositor , 1898 (Sept
No - NO or No Amon (margin, Nahum 3:8), rather than "populous No. ) Nahum describes Thebes as "situate among the rivers" (including the canals watering the city) on both sides of the Nile, which no other town of ancient Egypt is. ... "The monuments represent Sargon warring with Egypt and imposing tribute on the Pharaoh of the time, also Egypt as in that close connection with Ethiopia which Isaiah and Nahum imply" (G. Nahum (Nahum 3:8; Nahum 3:10) in the latter part of that reign speaks of her being already "carried away into captivity, her young children dashed in pieces at the top of all the streets, lots cast for her honourable men, and all her great men bound in chains," notwithstanding her having Ethiopia, Egypt, Put, and Lubim as "her strength and it was infinite," and makes her a warning to Nineveh
Locust - The image of the locust plague was also used to symbolize being overwhelmed by a large and powerful army (Judges 6:5 ; Isaiah 33:4 ; Jeremiah 46:23 ; Jeremiah 51:27 ; Joel 2:20 ; Nahum 3:15 )
Flowers - ] ‘blossom,’ Nahum 1:4
Jealousy - The conception of idolatry as adultery and of Jehovah as the Husband of Israel led the OT writers frequently to speak of Him as a jealous God ( Exodus 20:5 , Deuteronomy 5:9 , Joshua 24:19 , 1 Kings 14:22 , Psalms 78:58 , Ezekiel 36:6 , Nahum 1:2 )
Loins - The Old Testament sometimes uses loins as the seat of physical strength (Nahum 2:1 )
Ripe - ... Nahum 3:12 (b) The figure used in this case describes the wickedness of Nineveh which made her ready for the judgment of GOD
Interesting Facts About the Bible - ... Micah and Nahum... Middle chapter of... Job 29:1-25
Brick - Suitable clay is thoroughly moistened, and reduced to a uniform consistency by tramping and kneading ( Nahum 3:14 RV [Note: Revised Version. The brickkiln of 2 Samuel 12:31 , Nahum 3:14 is really the brick-mould (so RVm [Note: Revised Version margin
Capernaum - (cuh puhr' nay um; village of Nahum ) On the northwest shore of the Sea of Galilee about 2 1/2 miles west of the entrance of the Jordan is located the New Testament town of Capernaum. The origin of the name, Kefar Nahum, indicates a relationship to someone named Nahum
Hole - Isaiah 11Ezek 8 Nahum 2; Matthew 8 ... 2
Belial - There may be an indication of this in Nahum 1:15 , where the word translated "the wicked one" is Belial
Earthquake - The Bible writers often refer to earthquakes as evidence of God’s mighty power (Judges 5:4; Psalms 18:7; Isaiah 29:6; Joel 2:10; Joel 3:16; Nahum 1:5; Habakkuk 3:6; Matthew 24:7; Revelation 6:12; Revelation 8:5; Revelation 11:13; Revelation 16:18)
Prophecy - ... There is in like manner a large number of prophecies relating to those nations with which the Jews came into contact, as Tyre (Ezekiel 26:3-5,14-21 ), Egypt (Ezekiel 29:10,15 ; 30:6,12,13 ), Ethiopia (Nahum 3:8-10 ), Nineveh (Nahum 1:10 ; 2:8-13 ; 3:17-19 ), Babylon (Isaiah 13:4 ; Jeremiah 51:7 ; Isaiah 44:27 ; Jeremiah 50:38 ; 51:36,39,57 ), the land of the Philistines (Jeremiah 47:4-7 ; Ezekiel 25:15-17 ; Amos 1:6-8 ; Zephaniah 2:4-7 ; Zechariah 9:5-8 ), and of the four great monarchies (Daniel 2:39,40 ; 7:17-24 ; 8:9 )
Caterpillar - They multiplied quickly and ate up all in front of them before flying away to attack another land (Nahum 3:15-16 ). Their wandering and swarming resembled that of an army (Judges 6:5 ; Judges 7:12 ; Proverbs 30:27 ; Jeremiah 46:23 ; Nahum 3:17 )
Bible, Books of the - According to the Council of Trent, there are three groups in the Old Testament, embracing 46 books: ...
21 historical books:

Genesis

Exodus

Leviticus

Numbers

Deuteronomy

Josue

Judges

Ruth

1,2Kings (1,2Samuel)

3,4Kings (1,2Kings)

1,2Paralipomenon (1,2Chronicles)

Esdras

Nehemiah

Tobias

Judith

Esther

1,2Machabees

7 didactical books:

Job

Psalms

Proverbs

Ecclesiastes

Canticle of Canticles (Song of Solomon)

Wisdom and

Ecclesiasticus (Sirach)

18 prophetical books:

Isaias

Jeremias (with Lamentations)

the major prophets

Baruch

Ezechiel

Daniel

the minor prophets

Osee

Joel

Amos

Abdias or Obadiah

Jonas

Micah

Nahum

Habacuc

Sophonias or Zephaniah

Aggeus or Haggai

Zacharias

Malachias
The difference between the Jewish and Catholic counting is due to the fact that the Catholics accept also the so-called deuterocanonical books
Ethiopia - ... Ethiopia is spoken of in prophecy (Psalm 68:31 ; 87:4 ; Isaiah 45:14 ; Ezekiel 30:4-9 ; Daniel 11:43 ; Nahum 3:8-10 ; Habakkuk 3:7 ; Zephaniah 2:12 )
Devour - Nahum 2
Nineveh - In the books of Jonah, and Nahum it is described as an immense city, three days' journey in circuit, containing more than one hundred and twenty thousand young children, or probably six hundred thousand souls. , the period of the foundation of Rome, it was taken by the Medes under Arbaces; and nearly a century and a half later, according to the predictions of Nahum, Nahum 1:1-3:19 , and Zephaniah 2:13 , it was a second time taken by Cyaraxes and Nabopolassar; after which it no more recovered its former splendor. The mounds which were the "grave" of its ruins, Nahum 1:14 , were covered with soil as to seem like natural hills
Gold - It was very abundant (1 Chronicles 22:14 ; Nahum 2:9 ; Daniel 3:1 )
Rasshopper - ... Nahum 3:17 (a) The great men of Nineveh flourished in times of prosperity and peace
Pain (And Forms) - (See also Micah 4:10; Nahum 2:10)
Whelp - ... Nahum 2:11 (b) This type represents the generals of the Assyrian army who lived and are called "old lions
Fig, Fig-Tree - ' Nahum 3:12 ; Revelation 6:13
Table of Kings And Prophets in Israel And Judah - ... 730... Hoshea,... 726... Hezekiah,... Nahum
Rage - Nahum 2
Lion - See also Nahum 2:11,12
Cush - Nahum used this historical example to pronounce doom on Nineveh, the capital of Assyria (Nahum 3:9 )
Ethiopia - Thus Ethiopia and Egypt are said (Nahum 3:9) to be the "strength" of "populous No" or Thebes. ... The monuments confirm Isaiah 20:4; Nahum 3:5; Nahum 3:8-9, by representing Sargon as warring with Egypt and making the Pharaoh tributary; they also make Ethiopia closely united to Egypt
Nin'Eveh - Nahum (? B. (Nahum 3:18 ) In (2 Kings 19:36 ) and Isai 37:37 The city is first distinctly mentioned as the residence of the monarch. These are exclusively contained in the books of Nahum and Zephaniah. Nahum threatens the entire destruction of the city, so that it shall not rise again from its ruins. ( Nahum 3:13,16 ) The gateway in the northern wall of the Kouyunjik enclosure had been destroyed by fire as well as the palaces. The population was to be surprised when unprepared: "while they are drunk as drunkards they shall be devoured as stubble fully dry " (Nahum 1:10 ) Diodorus states that the last and fatal assault was made when they were overcome with wine. (Nahum 3:18 ) The fullest and the most vivid and poetical picture of Nineveh's ruined and deserted condition is that given by Zephaniah, who probably lived to see its fall
Storm - ... Nahum 1:3 (b) This is an assurance to our hearts that when difficulties arise and the problems of life increase, the GOD of Heaven will control every event and make all the difficulties to bow to His will according to His plan
Apparel - Generals of armies usually wore scarlet robes (Judges 8:26 ; Nahum 2:3 )
Hedge - , maliciously pulling down his neighbour's hedge wall he brings on himself his own punishment; Deuteronomy 19:14; Amos 5:19), and of locusts in cold weather (Nahum 3:17), "which camp in the hedges in the cold day (the cold taking away their power of flight), but when the sun ariseth
Charm - Charm is used in cases like the harlot of Nahum 3:4
Fiery - ... Nahum 2:3 (Marg)
Hide - ... Nahum 3:11 (b) Probably this figure indicates that Nineveh was to be so completely destroyed that no one would ever be able to find her and to rebuild her as a city
Amon - Nahum 3:8 )
Phut - advancing northwards, Cush (Ethiopia), Mizraim, Phut (a dependency of Egypt), Canaan (Jeremiah 46:9; Ezekiel 30:5; Nahum 3:9; Isaiah 66:9 where "Phut" should be read for "Pul")
Shepherd - This word is used figuratively to represent the relation of rulers to their subjects and of God to his people (Psalm 23:1 ; 80:1 ; Isaiah 40:11 ; 44:28 ; Jeremiah 25:34,35 ; Nahum 3:18 ; John 10:11,14 ; Hebrews 13:20 ; 1 Peter 2:25 ; 5:4 )
Wheel - It was used on wagons, carts, and chariots, and the word wheel could be a synonym for any of these vehicles ( Ezekiel 23:24 ; Ezekiel 26:10 ; Nahum 3:2 )
Empty - Nahum 2 ... 14
Shield - In Nahum 2:3, "the shield
Fir Tree - ברוש , occurs 2 Samuel 6:5 ; 1 Kings 5:8 ; 1 Kings 5:10 ; 1 Kings 6:15 ; 1 Kings 6:34 ; 1 Kings 9:11 ; 2 Kings 19:23 ; 2 Chronicles 2:8 ; 2 Chronicles 3:5 ; Psalms 104:17 ; Isaiah 14:8 ; Isaiah 37:24 ; Isaiah 41:19 ; Isaiah 55:13 ; Isaiah 60:13 ; Ezekiel 27:5 ; Ezekiel 31:8 ; Hosea 14:8 ; Nahum 2:3 ; Zechariah 11:2
Caper'Naum - (village of Nahum ) was on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee
Fig - ... People ate figs either fresh or dried and often made them into cakes (1 Samuel 25:18; 1 Chronicles 12:40; Nahum 3:12)
Sargon - (See Nahum. ) Then, according to the inscriptions, he invaded Egypt and Ethiopia, and received tribute from a Pharaoh of Egypt, besides destroying in part the Ethiopian No-Amon or Thebes (Nahum 3:8); confirming Isaiah 20:2-4, "as Isaiah hath walked naked and barefoot three years for a sign and wonder upon Egypt and upon Ethiopia, so shall the king of Assyria lead away the Egyptians and the Ethiopians captives, young and old, naked and barefoot," etc
Locust - ] ‘green worms’; gôbai , Nahum 3:17 , AV [Note: Authorized Version. Their voracious onslaught is referred to in Isaiah 33:4 , and their sudden disappearance when they rise in clouds to seek new fields for destruction is mentioned in Nahum 3:17
Fir (Tree) - ... Nahum 2:3 (b) By this figure is indicated that the great men of Israel, the leaders of their worship and service, were to be humbled and defeated by GOD's command
Scarlet - A glaring, gorgeous color (Nahum 2:3); that of the spiritual whore or corrupt church, conformed to that of the beast or God-opposed world power on which she rides (Revelation 17; 18)
Capernaum - Capernaum (ka-per'na-um), image of Nahum
Cloud - God came to His people, riding on the clouds (Nahum 1:3 ; compare 1 Samuel 22:10 ; Isaiah 19:1 ; Revelation 1:7 )
Rephan - The Hebrew has Chiun, which may have been read as Kewan, and changed into Rephan, a similar change of כ to ר in Septuagint occurring in Nahum 1:6
Cloud - ... Nahum 1:3 (b) This indicates the presence of GOD when sorrows and difficulties appear in our lives
Hezekiah - The prophecies of Hosea and Micah were delivered partly in his reign; compare Jeremiah 26:17-19; and Nahum was perhaps his contemporary
Jealousy - Thus God's jealousy includes avenging Israel (Ezekiel 36:6 ; Ezekiel 39:25 ; Nahum 1:2 ; Zechariah 1:14 ; Zechariah 8:2 )
Egypt, Land of - CUSH, or ETHIOPIA,extended much farther south, but is often mentioned in scripture along with Egypt: Psalm 68:31 ; Isaiah 11:11 ; Isaiah 20:4 ; Isaiah 43:3 ; Isaiah 45:14 ; Nahum 3:9
Jealousy - Jealousy may therefore include the idea of zeal for all that is right and opposition to all that is wrong (Numbers 25:11-13; Deuteronomy 4:24; Nahum 1:2; John 2:17; 2 Corinthians 7:11)
Nineveh - ... The final biblical references are from Nahum, who prophesied the overthrow of the “bloody city” by the attack of the allied Medes and Chaldeans in 612 B. the prophet's words (Nahum 3:7 ) “Nineveh is laid waste” were echoed by the Greek historian Herodotus who spoke of the Tigris as “the river on which the town of Nineveh formerly stood
How the Prophetic Gift Was Received - --Of the sixteen prophets, four are usually called the great prophets, namely, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel and Daniel, and twelve the Minor prophets, namely, Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakuk,Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah and Malachi. They may be divided into four groups: the prophets of the northern kingdom --Hosea, Amos, Joel, Jonah; the prophets of the southern kingdom --Isaiah, Jeremiah, Obadiah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah; the prophets of the captivity --Ezekiel and Daniel; the prophets of the return --Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi. They may be arranged in the following chronological order, namely, Joel, Jonah, Hoses, Amos, Isaiah, Micah, Nahum, Zephaniah, Habakkuk, Obadiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi
Immorality - In addition, the sinfulness of Tyre (Isaiah 23:17 ) and Nineveh (Nahum 3:4 ) are portrayed in this manner
No - In Nahum 3:8 the "populous No" of the Authorized Version is in the Revised Version correctly rendered "No-Amon
Locust - Nahum 3:17; "the great grasshoppers (Hebrew: "the locust of locusts") which camp in the hedges in the cold day, but when the sun ariseth flee away," etc. "... Locusts appear in swarms extending many miles and darkening the sunlight (Joel 2:10); like horses, so that the Italians call them "cavaletta ", "little horse" (Joel 2:4-5; Revelation 9:7; Revelation 9:9); with a fearful noise; having no king (Proverbs 30:27); impossible to withstand in their progress; entering dwellings (Exodus 10:6; Joel 2:8-10); not flying by night (Nahum 3:17; Exodus 10:13 "morning"
Lion - ... Nineveh is compared to a lion's den, full of remains of its prey, appropriately, as lion figures abounded in the Assyrian palaces, Nahum 2:11-12, "where is," etc. God will so destroy it that its site will be hard to find; fulfilled to the letter (Nahum 1:8)
Zephaniah, Theology of - Achtemeier, Nahum-Malachi ; D. Baker, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah ; J. Roberts, Nahum, Habakkuk, and Zephaniah
Habakkuk, Theology of - Baker, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah ; R. Patterson, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah ; J. Roberts, Nahum, Habakkuk, and Zephaniah ; R. Watts, The Books of Joel, Obadiah, Jonah, Nahum, Habakkuk and Zephaniah
Fig - ... The fig-tree of Palestine (Ficus carica) produces two and sometimes three crops of figs in a year, (1) the bikkurah, or "early-ripe fig" (Micah 7:1 ; Isaiah 28:4 ; Hosea 9:10 , RSV), which is ripe about the end of June, dropping off as soon as it is ripe (Nahum 3:12 ); (2) the kermus, or "summer fig," then begins to be formed, and is ripe about August; and (3) the pag (plural "green figs," Song of Solomon 2:13 ; Gr
Media - 625), thus putting an end to the Assyrian monarchy (Nahum 1:8 ; 2:5,6 ; 3:13,14 )
Horse - The appearance of the war-horse seems to have made a deep impression ( Job 39:19-25 , Jeremiah 47:3 , Nahum 3:2 etc
City - But Nineveh's admitted of chariots passing, and had large parks and gardens within (Nahum 2:4)
Bruise - ... Nahum 3:19 (b) This word is used to describe the permanent and deep-seated wickedness in the hearts of the men of Nineveh which caused GOD to utterly destroy the city
Ethiopia - Among other prophecies in respect to Ethiopia are Psalms 68:31; Psalms 87:4; Isaiah 45:14; Ezekiel 30:4-9; Daniel 11:43; Habakkuk 3:7; Zephaniah 2:12; Nahum 3:8-10
Locust - Nahum 3:17
Ethiopia - It even challenged Assyria, which was the leading power of the time (2 Kings 19:8-9; Nahum 3:8-9)
Jonah - Even the Assyrians' later destruction of Israel (2 Kings 17:1 ) and their tyrannical imperialism (2 Kings 18:22-24 ; Nahum 3:1-4 , Nahum 3:19 ), which the book appears to presuppose, could not debar them from God's loving concern for their survival
Shame And Honor - Shame is also used as a euphemism for nakedness (Jeremiah 13:26 ; Nahum 3:5 ; Habakkuk 2:15 )
Caphtor - the maritime or even the river bordering coast) of Caphtor" is mentioned, implying their neighborhood to either the sea (the Philistines' position) or to the Nile (whose waters are called "the sea," Nahum 3:8)
Prostitution - They ignored God’s standards and defied his authority (Isaiah 23:17; Nahum 3:4)
Zephaniah - Among the prophets who followed him were Jeremiah, Nahum and Habakkuk
Naked (And Forms) - (See Ezekiel 16:36; Ezekiel 23:10; Nahum 3:5; Habakkuk 2:15)
Assyria - Accordingly, in the prophecies of Nahum and Zephaniah, we find denunciations predicting the entire downfall of this haughty power. Nahum 1:1-15; Nahum 2:1-13; Nahum 3:1-19; Zephaniah 2:13-15
Ninevites - Their cruelty is alluded to in Nahum 2:12 ; "The lion did tear in pieces enough for his whelps, and strangled for his lionesses, and filled his holes with prey, and his dens with ravin
Idol - ... ... Shikkuts, "filth;" "impurity" (Ezekiel 37:23 ; Nahum 3:6 )
Ethiopia - , driving the Ethiopian pharaohs southward and eventually sacking the Egyptian capital Thebes (biblical No-Amon; Nahum 3:8 ) in 664 B
Galilee - " This saying of theirs was "not historically true, for two prophets at least had arisen from Galilee, Jonah of Gath-hepher, and the greatest of all the prophets, Elijah of Thisbe, and perhaps also Nahum and Hosea
Hedge - (See Nahum 3:17)
Fig - The early fig was especially prized, Isaiah 28:4 Jeremiah 24:2 Nahum 3:12 , though the summer fig is most abundant, 2 Kings 20:7 Isaiah 38:21
Locust - These are (1) אַרְבֶּה ’arbch, Exodus 10:4; Exodus 10:12-14; Exodus 10:19, Leviticus 11:22, Deuteronomy 28:38, Judges 6:5; Judges 7:12, 1 Kings 8:37, 2 Chronicles 6:28, Job 39:20, Psalms 78:46; Psalms 105:34; Psalms 109:23, Proverbs 30:27, Jeremiah 46:23, Joel 1:4; Joel 2:25, Nahum 3:15; Nahum 3:17. (5) יָלָק yelek, Psalms 105:34, Jeremiah 51:14; Jeremiah 51:27, Joel 1:4; Joel 2:25, Nahum 3:15 f. (8) נֵּב, נּוֹב, נּוֹבַי gçb, gôb, gôbai, Isaiah 33:4, Amos 7:1, Nahum 3:17. ... We must also avoid the error of thinking that the various terms employed, for example, by Joel and Nahum refer to locusts at various stages in their development. Particularly forcible, vivid, and picturesque descriptions of the destructive power of the locust are given in the passages quoted above from Exodus, Joel, Amos, and Nahum
Locust - These are (1) אַרְבֶּה ’arbch, Exodus 10:4; Exodus 10:12-14; Exodus 10:19, Leviticus 11:22, Deuteronomy 28:38, Judges 6:5; Judges 7:12, 1 Kings 8:37, 2 Chronicles 6:28, Job 39:20, Psalms 78:46; Psalms 105:34; Psalms 109:23, Proverbs 30:27, Jeremiah 46:23, Joel 1:4; Joel 2:25, Nahum 3:15; Nahum 3:17. (5) יָלָק yelek, Psalms 105:34, Jeremiah 51:14; Jeremiah 51:27, Joel 1:4; Joel 2:25, Nahum 3:15 f. (8) נֵּב, נּוֹב, נּוֹבַי gçb, gôb, gôbai, Isaiah 33:4, Amos 7:1, Nahum 3:17. ... We must also avoid the error of thinking that the various terms employed, for example, by Joel and Nahum refer to locusts at various stages in their development. Particularly forcible, vivid, and picturesque descriptions of the destructive power of the locust are given in the passages quoted above from Exodus, Joel, Amos, and Nahum
Dead Sea Scrolls - ... Contents They comprise three main kinds of literature: (1) copies of Old Testament books, the oldest we now possess; (2) some non-biblical Jewish books known from elsewhere (such as 1Enoch and Jubilees), probably written by the Essenes; (3) the community's own compositions, including: biblical commentaries (for example, on Habakkuk and Nahum), which interpret biblical prophecies as applying to the community and its times; rules of community conduct; and liturgical writings such as prayers and hymns
Sea - ... Nahum 1:4 (c) GOD is assuring us He has power to rebuke all peoples and to restrain their fury
Locust, - (Nahum 3:17 ) The sea destroys the greater number
Tigris - The Tigris is rarely mentioned in the Bible, though it features as the river on which Assyria’s capital, Nineveh, was built (Nahum 2:6-8; cf. Nahum 3:8; see NINEVEH)
Prophecy - ... Jonah... 856-784... Amos... 810-785... Hosea... 810-725... Isaiah... 810-698... Joel... 810-660... Micah... 758-699... Nahum... 720-698... Zephaniah... 640-609... Jeremiah... 628-586... Habakkuk... 612-598... Daniel... 606-534... Obadiah... 588-583... Ezekiel... 595-536... Haggai... 520-518... Zechariah... 520-518... Malachi... 436-420...
Animals - ... Many different animals lived in the forest and semi-desert regions of Palestine: lions (1 Samuel 17:34; Psalms 7:2; Isaiah 31:4; Jeremiah 5:6; Nahum 2:11-12), bears (1 Samuel 17:34; 2 Kings 2:24; Amos 5:19), foxes (Judges 15:4; Matthew 8:20), wolves (Jeremiah 5:6; John 10:12), hyenas (Isaiah 13:22), jackals (Isaiah 34:13; Isaiah 43:20), wild asses (Job 39:5-8; Jeremiah 14:6), wild oxen (Job 39:9; Psalms 22:21), wild boars (Psalms 80:13), and deadly snakes (Numbers 21:6; Isaiah 30:6; see SNAKE)
Long-Suffering - phrase ’erek ’aph (אָדָךְ אַף) is found frequently in the books that follow, and Joel (Joel 2:13), Jonah (Jonah 4:2), and Nahum (Nahum 1:3) specially dwell upon this element in God’s character
Nile - In August it overflows its banks, and reaches its highest point early in September; and the country is then mostly covered with its waters, Amos 8:8 9:5 Nahum 3:8 . ... The Hebrews sometimes gave both to the Euphrates and the Nile the name of "sea," Isaiah 19:5 Nahum 3:8
Atonement - , if man is to be saved, there is no other way than this which God has devised and carried out (Exodus 34:7 ; Joshua 24:19 ; Psalm 5:4 ; 7:11 ; Nahum 1:2,6 ; Romans 3:5 )
Earthquake - Many times God's judgment or visitation is described using the imagery of an earthquake (Psalm 18:7 ; Isaiah 29:6 ; Nahum 1:5 ; Revelation 6:12 ; Revelation 8:5 ; Revelation 11:13 ; Revelation 16:18 ) and is often seen as a sign of the end of time (Matthew 24:7 ,Matthew 24:7,24:29 )
Belial, Beliar - Again, in Nahum 1:15 we read that Belial shall no more pass through Judah; he is utterly cut off
Nineveh - The book of the prophet Nahum is almost exclusively taken up with prophetic denunciations against this city. "After having ruled for more than six hundred years with hideous tyranny and violence, from the Caucasus and the Caspian to the Persian Gulf, and from beyond the Tigris to Asia Minor and Egypt, it vanished like a dream" (Nahum 2:6-11 )
Metals - Thus explaining, we solve Henderson's difficulty that KJV makes iron not so hard as brass, and we need not transl, as he does "can one break iron, even northern iron, and brass?"... In Nahum 2:3, "the chariots will be with flaming torches," translated rather "with fire flashing scythes," literally, "with the fire (glitter) of scythes" or steel weapons fixed at right angles to the axles, and turned down, or parallel, inserted into the felly of the wheel
Torch - , Job 41:19, Isaiah 62:1, Ezekiel 1:13, Daniel 10:6, Nahum 2:4, Zechariah 12:6
Burden - (See also Hosea 8:10; Nahum 1:1; Zechariah 12:1; Malachi 1:1)
Breast - ... Nahum 2:7 (b) Here we find revealed that in the day of GOD's judgments many will be calling for help and will cry out for relief when none is available
Feet - ... Nahum 1:3 (a) This is a figure from country life. ... Nahum 1:15 (c) This indicates that the pathway of the Gospel messenger was blessed of GOD to bring joy to many hearts
Thorns, Thistles, Etc - sîrîm ( Ecclesiastes 7:6 , Isaiah 34:13 , Hosea 2:6 , Nahum 1:10 ‘thorn’)
Consolation - Nahum 3:7 )
Thebes - ( Jeremiah 46:25 ; Nahum 3:8 ) Ezekiel uses No simply to designate the Egyptian seat of Amon
Prophet - , Isaiah, Jeremiah, Obadiah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah
Thorn - Thorns were often used for fuel (Ecclesiastes 7:6), their "crackling" answers to the fool's loud merriment which hurries on his doom; dried cow dung was the common fuel; its slowness of burning contrasts with the quickness with which the thorns blaze to their end (Nahum 1:10)
Anger (Wrath) of God - God is ‘slow to anger’ ( Psalms 103:8 ; Psalms 145:8 , Joel 2:13 , Jonah 4:2 , Nahum 1:3 ), and His anger passes away ( Psalms 30:6 , Isaiah 12:1 , Jeremiah 3:12 , Micah 7:18 )
Peace, Spiritual - Spiritual peace may be equated with salvation (Isaiah 52:7 ; Nahum 1:15 )
Freedom - They should see that God wants people to have freedom from sin and all its evil consequences: freedom from disease and suffering (Mark 5:1-6; Mark 5:18-19; Luke 13:16; Acts 10:38); freedom from hunger and poverty (Deuteronomy 15:1-11; Deuteronomy 24:19-22; Matthew 25:37-40; Acts 11:27-29); freedom from the domination of foreign nations and oppressive rulers (Exodus 6:6; Nahum 3:18-19; Zephaniah 3:19; Revelation 19:20); freedom from human slavery and social injustice (Exodus 22:21-27; Deuteronomy 23:15-16; Luke 4:17-19; James 5:4-6); in fact, freedom from every kind of bondage, even the bondage in the world of nature (Romans 8:21-24)
Insects - Many references point to the great numbers in which the swarms would come (Judges 6:5 ; Judges 7:12 ; Jeremiah 46:23 ; Nahum 3:15 ). This truth is reflected in Job 39:20 ; Psalm 109:23 ; Nahum 3:17 . ... The yeleq is called the cankerworm in Joel 1:4 ; Joel 2:25 ; Nahum 3:15 ,Nahum 3:15,3:16
War - The victorious siege often ended with senseless butchery, rape, plunder and destruction (2 Kings 25:4-17; Psalms 74:4-8; Psalms 79:1-3; Lamentations 5:11-12; Nahum 2:5-9; Nahum 3:1-3)
Lion - גור , a little lion, a lion's whelp, Deuteronomy 33:22 ; Jeremiah 51:38 ; Ezekiel 19:2 ; Nahum 2:13 . ארי , a grown and vigorous lion, having whelps, eager in pursuit of prey for them, Nahum 2:12 ; valiant, 2 Samuel 17:10 ; arrogantly opposing himself, Numbers 23:24
Book - Nahum’s prophecy begins with this introduction: “The burden of Nineveh. The book of the vision of Nahum the Elkoshite” (1:1)
Shepherd - ... The shepherds kept watches (plural in Greek, Luke 2:8, not "slumbering," Nahum 3:18) by turns at night, not on duty both night and day as Jacob (Genesis 31:40)
Lot - In the division of the spoil, after victory, lots were likewise cast, to give every man his portion, Obadiah 1:11 ; Nahum 3:10 , &c
Assyria, History And Religion of - This time Ashurbanipal destroyed Thebes, also called No-Amon (Nahum 3:8 , NAS). For upon whom has not come your unceasing evil? (Nahum 3:7 ,Nahum 3:7,3:19 )
Obsolete or Obscure Words in the English av Bible - ... Munition, Nahum 2:1—fortifications; ramparts. ... Tabering, Nahum 2:7—beating, as on a taber-drum
Assyria - Nahum 1 - 3. See Isaiah 10:5-19 ; Isaiah 14:25 ; Ezekiel 31:3-17 ; Nahum 3:18,19 ; Zephaniah 2:13
Assyria - 625), and Assyria fell according to the prophecies of (Isaiah 10:5-19 ), (Nahum 3:19 ), and (Zephaniah 3:13 ), and the many separate kingdoms of which it was composed ceased to recognize the "great king" (2 Kings 18:19 ; Isaiah 36:4 )
Colour - It was also the hue of the warrior's dress (Nahum 2:3 ; Isaiah 9:5 )
Locust - See this circumstance referred to, Judges 6:5 ; Judges 7:12 ; Psalms 105:34 ; Jeremiah 46:23 ; Jeremiah 51:14 ; Joel 1:4 ; Nahum 3:15 ; Jdt_2:19-20 ; where the most numerous armies are compared to the arbeh, or locust
Games - In the Old Testament, lots decided things such as slave allotments (Nahum 3:10 ), apportionment of land (Joshua 18:6 ), and care of the Temple (Nehemiah 10:34 ; 1 Chronicles 24:5 )
Assyr'ia, as'Shur, - The prophecies of Nahum and Zephaniah (Zephaniah 2:13-15 ) against Assyria were probably delivered shortly before the catastrophe
Oracles - Nahum and Habakkuk wrote of a vision or of seeing their oracles (Nahum 1:1 ; Habakkuk 1:1 )
Rock - Convulsions of nature and the power of God are connected with breaking the rock ( 1 Kings 19:11 , Job 14:18 , Jeremiah 23:29 , Nahum 1:6 , Matthew 27:51 ), and in Jeremiah 5:3 it is a symbol of obstinacy
Rebuke - Psalms 106:9, Nahum 1:4)
Fig (Tree) - ... Nahum 3:12 (b) This is a type of the curse that is to come upon Nineveh
Think, Devise - 21:11); and Nahum complained of those who “imagine” evil against the Lord (Nah
Prophecy - Hence we read concerning the acts of Manasseh, that they were written among the sayings of the Seers, (2 Chronicles 33:19)... It were unnecessary to remark, what every reader of the Bible is supposed to know, that we have recorded, from the grace of God the Holy Spirit, the writings of four of what, by way of distinction, are called the greater prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and Daniel; and the Writings of the twelve of lesser prophets, as they are named, Hoses, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi
Whirlwind - "The Lord hath his way in the whirlwind and in the storm, and the clouds are the dust of his feet," Nahum 1:3
Vision(s) - A prophetic work could be titled as a vision (Isaiah 1:1 ; Nahum 1:1 ), and certain prophecies—Ezekiel, Daniel, Zechariahdeveloped a greater capacity for visionary revelation
Poetry - ... Poetry in the Old Testament... Genesis 2:23 ; Genesis 3:14-19 ; Genesis 3:23-24 ; Genesis 8:22 ; Genesis 9:25-27 ; Genesis 14:19-20 ; Genesis 16:11-12 ; Genesis 25:23 ; Genesis 27:27-29 ,Genesis 27:27-29,27:39-40 ; Genesis 48:15-16 ; Genesis 49:2-27 ... Exodus 15:1-18 ,Exodus 15:1-18,15:21 ... Leviticus 10:3 ... Numbers 6:24-27 ; Numbers 10:35-36 ; Numbers 12:6-8 ; Numbers 21:14-15 ; Numbers 21:17-18 ,Numbers 21:17-18,21:27-30 ; Numbers 23:7-10 ; Numbers 23:18-24 ; Numbers 24:3-9 ,Numbers 24:3-9,24:15-24 ... Deuteronomy 32:1-43 ; Deuteronomy 33:2-29 ... Joshua 10:12-13 ... Judges 5:2-31 ; Judges 14:14 ,Judges 14:14,14:18 ; Judges 15:16 ... Ruth 1:16-17 ,Ruth 1:16-17,1:20-21 ... 1 Samuel 2:1-10 ; 1Samuel 15:22-23,1 Samuel 15:33 ; 1 Samuel 18:7 ; 1 Samuel 21:11 ; 1 Samuel 29:5 ... 2 Samuel 1:19-27 ; 2 Samuel 3:33-34 ; 2 Samuel 22:2-51 ; 2 Samuel 23:1-7 ... 1 Kings 8:12-13 ; 1 Kings 12:16 ... 2 Kings 19:21-28 ... 1 Chronicles 16:8-36 ... 2 Chronicles 5:13 ; 2 Chronicles 6:41-42 ; 2 Chronicles 7:3 ; 2 Chronicles 10:16 ; 2 Chronicles 20:21 ... Ezra 3:11 ... Job 3:2-42:6 ... Psalm 1-150 ... Proverbs 1-31 ... Ecclesiastes 1:2-11 ,Ecclesiastes 1:2-11,1:15 ,Ecclesiastes 1:15,1:18 ; Ecclesiastes 3:2-9 ; Ecclesiastes 7:1-13 ; Ecclesiastes 8:1 ; Ecclesiastes 10:1-4 ,Ecclesiastes 10:1-4,10:8-20 ; Ecclesiastes 11:1-4 ... Song of Song of Solomon 1-8 ... Isaiah—largely poetry... Jeremiah—poetic selections throughout except for 32–45... Lamentations 1-5 ... Ezekiel 19:2-14 ; Ezekiel 23:32-34 ; Ezekiel 24:3-5 ; Ezekiel 26:17-18 ; Ezekiel 27:3-9 ; Ezekiel 27:25-36 ; Ezekiel 28:1-10 ; Ezekiel 28:12-19 ; Ezekiel 28:22-23 ; Ezekiel 29:3-5 ; Ezekiel 30:2-4 ; Ezekiel 30:6-8 ; Ezekiel 30:10-19 ; Ezekiel 31:2-9 ; Ezekiel 32:2-8 ; Ezekiel 32:12-15 ; Ezekiel 32:19 ... Daniel 2:20-23 ; Daniel 4:3 ; Daniel 4:34-35 ; Daniel 6:26-27 ; Daniel 7:9-10 ; Daniel 7:13-14 ; 7:23-27 Hosea—all poetry except for 1; Daniel 2:16-20 ; Daniel 3:1-5 ... Joel—all poetry except for Daniel 2:30-3:8 ... Amos—largely poetry... Obadiah 1:1 ... Jonah 2:2-9 ... Micah 1-7 ... Nahum 1-3 ... Habakkuk 1-3 ... Zephaniah 1-3 ... Zechariah 9-11:3 ; Zechariah 11:17 ; Zechariah 13:7-9 ... Parallelism The predominant feature of Hebrew poetry is parallelism
Nicodemus - " Spite made them to ignore Jonah and Nahum
Longsuffering - In the Septuagint the word occurs in the following passages: Exodus 34:6, Numbers 14:18, Nehemiah 9:17, Psalms 86:15; Psalms 103:8; Psalms 145:8, Proverbs 14:29; Proverbs 15:18; Proverbs 16:32; Proverbs 19:11; Proverbs 25:15, Ecclesiastes 7:8, Jeremiah 15:15, Joel 2:13, Jonah 4:2, Nahum 1:3
Mouth - ... Nahum 3:12 (b) By this we understand that Nineveh would become an easy prey to an invading army, who would destroy her inhabitants and carry away her possessions
Thorn - In Ecclesiastes 7:6 , and Nahum 1:10 , they are mentioned as fuel which quickly burns up; and in Hosea 2:6 , as obstructions or hedges; it may be the lycium Afrum
Flood, the - The prophets Nahum (Nahum 1:8 ) and Daniel (9:26) depict the eschatological judgment in language probably alluding to the Genesis flood
Habakkuk - The powerful poetry of Nahum celebrates its fall
Crimes And Punishments - Often the phrase “cut off” is used in parallel with words or phrases or in contexts which clearly indicate death (Exodus 31:14 ; Deuteronomy 12:29 ; Deuteronomy 19:1 ; 2 Samuel 7:9 ; 1 Kings 11:16 ; Jeremiah 7:28 ; Jeremiah 11:19 ; Ezekiel 14:13 ,Ezekiel 14:13,14:17 ,Ezekiel 14:17,14:19 ,Ezekiel 14:19,14:21 ; Ezekiel 17:17 ; Ezekiel 25:7 ; Ezekiel 29:8 ; Amos 1:5 ,Amos 1:5,1:8 ; Amos 2:3 ; Obadiah 1:9-10 ; Nahum 3:15 ; Zechariah 13:8 )
Arms - The MAUL or mace is alluded to in Psalms 2:9; Proverbs 26:18; Jeremiah 50:23; Jeremiah 51:20; Nahum 2:1; literally "that which scatters in pieces
Prophets - Nahum, in the latter part of the reign of Hezekiah, and after the expedition of Sennacherib
Assur - ... Huzzab (Nahum 2:7), answering to Adiabene, the richest region of all, lying on the rivers Zab or Diab, tributaries of the Tigris, whence it is named, is the only district name which occurs in Scripture. Never again did Assyria rise as a nation, for God had said (Nahum 3:19) "there is no healing of thy bruise
War - It was their business to make known any thing that they discovered at a distance; and whenever they noticed an irruption from an enemy, they blew the trumpet, to arouse the citizens, 2 Samuel 13:34 ; 2 Samuel 18:26-27 ; 2 Kings 9:17-19 ; Nahum 2:1 ; 2 Chronicles 17:2 . Those who obtained the victory were intoxicated with joy; the shout of triumph resounded from mountain to mountain, Isaiah 42:11 ; Isaiah 52:7-8 ; Jeremiah 50:2 ; Ezekiel 7:7 ; Nahum 1:15
Mining And Metals - Only in Nahum 2:3 (RV [Note: Revised Version
Cloud, Cloud of the Lord - Nahum's theophanic vision portrays clouds as the dust of Yahweh's feet (1:3). Clouds of theophany are also associated with eschatological judgment/salvation (Isaiah 4:5 ; Nahum 1:3 )
Fig Tree - " And on Nahum 3:12 , he observes, that "the boccores drop as soon as they are ripe, and, according to the beautiful allusion of the prophet, fall into the mouth of the eater upon being shaken
Gestures - To clap one's hands can mean either contempt (Job 27:23 ; Lamentations 2:15 ; Nahum 3:19 ) or joy and celebration (2 Kings 11:12 ; Psalm 47:1 ; Psalm 98:8 ; Isaiah 55:12 )
Sorcery - The noun בָּשָׁף in Isaiah 47:9; Isaiah 47:12 is translated by ‘sorceries (Authorized Version and Revised Version ), and by φαρμακεία in the Septuagint ; but in 2 Kings 9:22, Micah 5:11 (12), Nahum 3:4 it is translated by ‘witchcrafts,’ Septuagint φάρμακον, where clearly the right translation is ‘magic arts
Ate - ... Nahum 2:6 (b) Probably this refers to the control of the rivers
Interpretation - Nahum; Galatians), but others require readers to work through the material to find its central theme (e
Nile - " The Nile is called "the sea" (Isaiah 19:5), for it looks a sea at the overflow; the Egyptians still call it El Bahr "the sea" (Nahum 3:8)
Magic - Magic—the attempt to exploit supernatural powers by formulaic recitations to achieve goals that were otherwise unrealizablewas seen in a negative light in the Old Testament (Leviticus 19:26,31 ; 20:6 ; 1 Samuel 28:9 ; Isaiah 8:19 ; 44:25 ; 57:3 ; Jeremiah 27:9 ; Ezekiel 22:28 ; Micah 5:12 ; Nahum 3:4 ; Malachi 3:5 ) and was banned under penalty of death (Exodus 22:18 ; Leviticus 20:27 ; Deuteronomy 18:10-11 )
Messiah - We may assign Nahum 2:2 to Nahum 3:19 to the same period
Inspiration of Scripture - At times the inspiration came through visions ( Genesis 15:1 ; Numbers 12:6 ; 1 Samuel 3:1 , Isaiah 1:1 ; Ezekiel 1:1 ; Daniel 2:19 ; Obadiah 1:1 ; Nahum 1:1 ; Habakkuk 2:2 )
Wine - ... Nahum 1:10, Hebrew "soaked" or "drunken as with their own wine
Grace - of Proverbs 5:10 ; Proverbs 11:16 , and Ecclesiastes 10:12 , Proverbs 17:8 , under the adjectival renderings ‘pleasant,’ ‘gracious,’ ‘precious,’ and in Nahum 3:4 (‘well-favoured’)
Prophets, the - It may be premised that the burden of the prophets Obadiah, Jonah, and Nahum has special reference to Edom and to Nineveh, that is, to peoples that were always hostile to Israel
Obadiah, Book of - Isaiah 1:1 , Nahum 1:1 ) and ascribes it to Obadiah
Forgiveness - Leviticus 19:2 , Joshua 24:19 ; see Numbers 14:18 , Job 10:14 , Nahum 1:3 )
Names of God - ... Fortress ( Psalm 18:2 ; Nahum 1:7 ) God is a defense against the foe
God - He is a jealous God, taking himself seriously and insisting that others take Him seriously (Exodus 34:14 ; Nahum 1:2 ; 1 Corinthians 10:22 )
Gospel - A direct act of God puts the Syrians to flight (2 Kings 7:1-9 ); he breaks the Assyrian yoke (Nahum 1:13,15 )
Joel, Book of - ; Joel 1:15 c and Isaiah 13:6 ; Isaiah 2:2 and Zephaniah 1:15 ; Zephaniah 2:6 and Nahum 2:10 ; Joel 2:13 and Exodus 34:6 ; Exodus 2:14 and 2Sa 12:22 ; 2 Samuel 2:27 b and Ezekiel 36:11 etc
Divination - Nahum 3:4
Egypt - , driving the Ethiopians southward and eventually sacking Thebes (biblical No-Amon; Nahum 3:8 ) in 664 B
Lots - A war was the war primarily not of Israel but of Jahweh, and that specially if it was for the punishment of wrong-doing; hence the members of a punitive expedition were chosen by lot (Judges 20:9), hence also the spoil taken in war (Judges 5:30), whether captives (2 Samuel 8:2, Nahum 3:10, Joel 3:3) or sections of a conquered city (Obadiah 1:11), The services of the sanctuary were sacred; hence the priestly functions were assigned to the orders by lot (1 Chronicles 24:5; 1 Chronicles 24:7, Luke 1:9), Shemaiah the scribe writing out the lots in the presence of a committee consisting of the king, the high priest, and other functionaries (1 Chronicles 24:6; 1 Chronicles 24:31)
Heaven, Heavens, Heavenlies - It includes the heavenly lightsstars having "fixed patterns" (Jeremiah 33:25 ; Nahum 3:16 ), and the sun and moon (Genesis 1:14-16 )
Capernaum - But there are difficulties in the way of regarding Hûm as a contraction for ‘Nahum’; and some good philologists (Buhl, op
Ethics - ... Long sections in the Old Testament text are specifically addressed to the nations at large including Isaiah 13-23 ; Jeremiah 45-51 ; Ezekiel 25-32 ; Daniel 2:1 ; Daniel 7:1 ; Amos 1-2 , Obadiah; Jonah; and Nahum
Zechariah, Theology of - Achtmeier, Nahum-Malachi ; J
Lots - A war was the war primarily not of Israel but of Jahweh, and that specially if it was for the punishment of wrong-doing; hence the members of a punitive expedition were chosen by lot (Judges 20:9), hence also the spoil taken in war (Judges 5:30), whether captives (2 Samuel 8:2, Nahum 3:10, Joel 3:3) or sections of a conquered city (Obadiah 1:11), The services of the sanctuary were sacred; hence the priestly functions were assigned to the orders by lot (1 Chronicles 24:5; 1 Chronicles 24:7, Luke 1:9), Shemaiah the scribe writing out the lots in the presence of a committee consisting of the king, the high priest, and other functionaries (1 Chronicles 24:6; 1 Chronicles 24:31)
Abortion - Further testimony to this profound interest in society's least protected is heard from texts that single out the destruction of pregnant women and children among the atrocities perpetrated by enemy troops (2 Kings 8:12 ; 15:16 ; Hosea 10:14-15 ; Nahum 3:10 ; cf
Dead Sea Scrolls - One approach to such interpretation was the production of continuous commentaries on the following Old Testament books: Habakkuk, Micah, Psalms, Isaiah, Hosea, Nahum, and Zephaniah
Forgiveness - ... There is, however, a tension in the character of God as depicted in the Old Testament, because juxtaposed to the characterization of God as merciful is the warning that God as righteous will not forgive sin or at least not leave sin unpunished (Exodus 34:7 ; Numbers 14:18 ; Nahum 1:3 )
Christ, Christology - Nahum 1:15), proceeds to remind his hearers of something already familiar to them-the ministry of ‘Jesus the one from Nazareth,’ which began from Galilee after the baptism proclaimed by John
Fortification And Siegecraft - These are intended by the ‘shield’ of 2 Kings 19:32 , the ‘buckler’ of Ezekiel 26:8 , and the ‘ mantelet ’ of Nahum 2:5 , all named in connexion with siege works
Bible - gives us Nahum, Zephaniah, Jeremiah, and Habakkuk among the prophets, also Deuteronomy, and at the beginning of this century we have the earliest complete historical books, Samuel and Judges
Jeremiah - The giant power of Asshur, which for a century had dominated Israel’s world, is in rapid decline, and is threatened by the new Median State on its eastern border; Nahum (wh
Canaan - His fury is poured out like fire, and the rocks are thrown down by him," Nahum 1:5-6
Babel - Compare Nahum 2:3, "the fir trees shall be terribly shaken
Archaeology And Biblical Study - Nineveh is mentioned often in the Old Testament and is featured prominently in two books, Jonah and Nahum
Bible - the Pentateuch or five books of Moses, called Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy, the books of Joshua, Judges, Ruth , 1 & 2 Samuel , 1 & 2 Kings , 1 & 2 Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther, Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, the Song of Solomon, the prophecies of Isaiah, Jeremiah with his Lamentations, Ezekiel, Daniel, Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi
Egypt - side of the Delta, is not once mentioned, and the situation of Thebes (No-Amon) is quite misunderstood by Nahum