Places Study on Crete

Places Study on Crete

Acts 2: Cretes and Arabians, we do hear them speak in our tongues the wonderful works of God.
Acts 27: And when we had sailed slowly many days, and scarce were come over against Cnidus, the wind not suffering us, we sailed under Crete, over against Salmone;
Acts 27: And because the haven was not commodious to winter in, the more part advised to depart thence also, if by any means they might attain to Phenice, and there to winter; which is an haven of Crete, and lieth toward the south west and north west.
Acts 27: And when the south wind blew softly, supposing that they had obtained their purpose, loosing thence, they sailed close by Crete.
Acts 27: But after long abstinence Paul stood forth in the midst of them, and said, Sirs, ye should have hearkened unto me, and not have loosed from Crete, and to have gained this harm and loss.
Titus 1: For this cause left I thee in Crete, that thou shouldest set in order the things that are wanting, and ordain elders in every city, as I had appointed thee:

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Dictionary

Webster's Dictionary - Crete
(n.) A Cretan

Holman Bible Dictionary - Crete
(creete) A long, narrow, mountainous island south of mainland Greece, running 170 miles east-west but never more than about 35 miles wide. Crete was the center of the Minoan maritime empire named after the legendary King Minos, and associated especially with the famous palaces of Cnossos and Phaestos, which flourished from 2000 to 1500 B.C. This artistically brilliant civilization fell suddenly, perhaps by earthquake followed by conquest, about 1400 B.C., leaving written tablets in the oldest known scripts of Europe, including the undeciphered “Linear A” and the apparently later proto-Greek “Linear B,” found also on the mainland. The Minoans of Crete were known to the Egyptians as “Keftiu,” which may be the same as biblical “Caphtor,” though the biblical term may include a wider reference to coastlands and islands of the Aegean area. The Philistines came to Palestine from Caphtor (Jeremiah 47:4 ; Amos 9:7 ) and may have been part of the widespread migrant “Sea Peoples” rather than Cretans proper.

In classical Greek times Crete had many city-states, but they played relatively little part in mainstream Greek history. It had become a center of piracy before the Roman occupation in 67 B.C. Under the Romans it became part of a double province Crete with Cyrene, under a governor with the title “proconsul,” who ruled the island and the opposite coast of North Africa from the Roman capital Gortyna. This had already been among the cities to whom the Romans had appealed a century before for fair treatment of their Jewish minorities (1 Maccabees 15:23 ). Cretans were among those listed as present in Jerusalem on the day of Pentecost (Acts 2:11 ), and the gospel may first have reached the island through them.

Paul made his voyage to Rome as a prisoner on a Roman grain ship. The voyage followed the route south of Crete, which gave partial shelter from the northwest winds and avoided the peril of the lee shore on the north coast, while still involving the need to beat up against largely adverse winds. The journey had already been very slow, and it was getting dangerously late in the summer sailing season. The ship doubled Salmone, the eastern cape of Crete, and with difficulty reached Fair Havens, a small anchorage near the city of Lasea (Acts 27:8 ). There the emergency council called by the centurion and shipmaster overruled Paul's advice, and a risky attempt was made to reach Phoenix, a regular port for servicing the grain ships, some 40 miles further west along the coast. The gentle south wind gave way to a violent northeaster (Euroclydon, Acts 27:14 ) when they came out of the shelter of Cape Matala (Loukinos) into an open bay, and the ship was driven helplessly, managing only some emergency action in the lee of the offshore island of Cauda, and thence to shipwreck on Malta.

The only other references to Crete in the New Testament are in the epistle to Titus. Paul had left Titus in Crete to exercise pastoral supervision over the churches there (Titus 1:5 ). The character of the people is described in a quotation from a prophet of their own: “Cretians are always liars, evil beasts, slow bellies” (Titus 1:12 ), words attributed to the Cretan seer Epimenides, who was also credited with having advised the Athenians to set up altars to unknown gods (compare Acts 17:23 ).

It is a problem to know when Paul (or Titus) visited Crete, apart from Paul's voyage as a prisoner. It is difficult to fit the occasions of the Pastoral Epistles (to Timothy and Titus) into Paul's life as recorded in Acts. The most satisfactory answer to this difficulty still seems to be that which argues that Paul was released from his two years' imprisonment in Rome (Acts 28:30 ), and undertook further travels in the East which can only be traced in these epistles. At this last period of his life he may have focused his work on establishing and strengthening the churches throughout the Greek East.

Colin J. Hemer



Easton's Bible Dictionary - Crete
Now called Candia, one of the largest islands in the Meditterranean, about 140 miles long and 35 broad. It was at one time a very prosperous and populous island, having a "hundred cities." The character of the people is described in Paul's quotation from "one of their own poets" (Epimenides) in his epistle to Titus: "The Cretans are alway liars, evil beasts, slow bellies" (Titus 1:12 ). Jews from Crete were in Jerusalem on the day of Pentecost (Acts 2:11 ). The island was visited by Paul on his voyage to Rome (Acts 27 ). Here Paul subsequently left (Titus 1:5 ) "to ordain elders." Some have supposed that it was the original home of the Caphtorim (q.v.) or Philistines.

Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Crete
Crete, now Candia. 158 miles long, from cape Salmone on the E. (Acts 27:7; Acts 27:12) to cape Criumetopen on the W. beyond Phoenice. Its breadth is small. (On its connection with the (See CHERETHIM.) It abounded with Jews in the apostolic age; hence, "Cretans" were among the witnesses of the effusion of the Holy Spirit at Pentecost (Acts 2:11). Paul's ship was constrained by contrary winds off Cnidus to sail under the lee of Crete "over against Salmone"; having passed which with difficulty the ship reached FAIR HAVENS, near Lasea. Thence it made for Phoenice to winter there, but was driven by a sudden gale from the N.E., sweeping down from the region of mount Ida, to the island Clauda, from whence it drifted to Melita or Malta (Acts 27:13-16).

Paul visited Crete between his first and second imprisonment at Rome, and left Titus to "set in order the things wanting, and to ordain elders in every city" (Titus 1:5). (See TITUS.) In Titus 1:12 he quotes Epimenides a Cretan poet. Crete was without wild beasts; the poet's sarcasm was that beastly men supplied their place: "the Cretians are always (not merely at times, as all natural men are) liars, evil beasts, slow bellies." "To Cretanize" was proverbial for to lie, as "to Corinthianize" for to be dissolute. In Crete was the fabled birthplace of Jupiter, king of the gods. They themselves are called "bellies," since it is for their bellies they live (Philippians 3:19). Christianity won its triumphs for truth and holiness even in such an unpromising soil. In the middle ages the cathedral of Megalocastron was dedicated to Titus.

Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Crete, Cretans
CRETE, CRETANS . Crete, the modern Candia , is an island 60 miles S. of Greece proper, about 150 miles long, and varying in breadth from 30 to 7 miles, with mountains as high as 7000 feet. It is about equidistant from Europe, Asia, and Africa, and was inhabited from the earliest times of which we have any knowledge. The researches of Mr. Arthur J [Note: Jahwist.] . Evans and others have revealed traces of a very ancient civilization, including an alphabet hitherto unknown. In historical times it was famed for its archers, who were valued in the armies of Europe. It was conquered by Rome in b.c. 67, and became, in conjunction with the district Cyrenaica on the N. of Africa, a Roman senatorial province, governed by a proconsul. Jews were early to be found there, and were very numerous. Some were present at Pentecost in the year of the crucifixion ( Acts 2:11 ). St. Paul’s ship, on the voyage to Rome, sailed along the Cretan coast close in ( Acts 27:7 ), and came to Fair Havens near Lasea. These places were on the S. coast, which had few harbours.

The epithets which a native of the island, the poet Epimenides (flourished b.c. 600), flung at the Cretans, are quoted in a somewhat un-apostolic manner in the Epistle to Titus (1:12). Epimenides styled them ‘always liars, evil beasts of prey, lazy gluttons.’ Such vituperation, though countenanced by others also, must not be taken too seriously. The ancients were much given to it, and it probably reveals as much of the natures of the persons who used it as of those to whom it was applied. Greeks in general are not, and were not famous for truthfulness, for instance. When and by whom Christianity was planted in Crete cannot be said. It is probable that it was well established there in the 1st century. In the Epistle to Titus we find Titus introduced as having been left by St. Paul in charge of the churches.

A. Souter.

Morrish Bible Dictionary - Crete, Cretians
Large island about midway between Syria and Malta. It was the inhabitants of this island who had the evil report of being alway liars and lazy gluttons, according to one of their own poets (Epimenides). Some from Crete were present on the day of Pentecost. Acts 2:11 . The ship in which Paul started for Rome visited the island. Acts 27:7-21 . Paul left Titus at Crete to set things in order and ordain elders. Titus 1:5,12 .

1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Andrew of Crete, Saint
(c.650-c.740) Confessor, Archbishop of Gortyna, Crete, hymnographer, born Damascus, Syria. He was the author of many scriptural discourses, but is principally interesting as the inventor of the "Greek Canon," a form of hymnology previously unknown. Feast, October 17,.

Hitchcock's Bible Names - Crete
Carnal; fleshly
People's Dictionary of the Bible - Crete
Crete (kreet), now Candia. A large island in the Mediterranean sea, midway between Syria and Italy. It is about 140 miles long by 35 miles wide. The people were proverbially liars, Titus 1:12—a character they are said still to bear. "Homer dates all the fictions of Ulysses from Crete, as if he meant to pass a similar censure on the Cretans." Cretans were at Jerusalem on the day of Pentecost, Acts 2:11; Paul was shipwrecked near the island, and he left Titus there as the first pastor and superintendent, who was "to ordain elders in every city" of the island. Titus 1:5. It is now under the tyranny of the Turks.

Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Crete
an island in the Mediterranean, now called Candia, Titus 1:5 . Nature had endowed this island with all that renders man happy; the inhabitants, likewise, had formerly a constitution which was renowned and frequently compared with that of the Spartans; but at this time, and even long before, all, even laws and morals, had sunk very low. The character of this nation was mutable, prone to quarrelling, to civil disturbances and frays, to robberies and violences. Avaricious and base to a degree of sordid greediness, they considered nothing as ignoble which gratified this inclination. Thence arose their treachery, their false and deceitful disposition, which had passed into a common proverb. Even in the times of purer morals they were decidedly addicted to wine; and their propensity to incontinence was frequently censured and noticed by the ancients. Religion itself was one cause of the many excesses of this nation. Many deities were born among them; they also showed their tombs and catacombs, and celebrated the feasts and mysteries of all. They therefore had continually holydays, diversions, and idle times, and one of their native poets (Diodorus calls him Θεολογος gave them the testimony which Paul found to be so true, Titus 1:12 . Jews also had established themselves among them, who according to all appearance could have improved here but very little in morality. The Apostle seems to have considered them a more dangerous people than the inhabitants themselves.

CRIMSON

כרמיל , 2 Chronicles 2:7 ; 2 Chronicles 3:14 , the name of a colour. Bochart supposes it to be the cochlea purpuraria, or purple from a kind of shell-fish taken near Mount Carmel. But as the name of the mount is said to mean a vineyard, one may rather suppose the colour to signify that of grapes; like the redness of the vesture of him who trod the wine-press, Isaiah 63:1-2 . What our version renders crimson, Isaiah 1:18 ; Jeremiah 4:30 , should be scarlet.

American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Crete
A large island, now called Candia, in the Mediterranean, originally people probably by a branch of the Caphtorim. It is celebrated by Homer for its hundred cities. Being surrounded by the sea, its inhabitants were excellent sailors, and its vessels visited all coasts. They were also famous for archery, which they practiced from their infancy. The Cretans were one of the three Grecian proverb cautioned-Kappadocia, Killicia, and Krete. In common speech, the expression, "to Cretanize," signified to tell lies; which helps to account for that detestable character which the apostle has given of the Cretans, that they were "always liars," brutes, and gormandizers, and Epimenides, and Cretan poet, described them, Titus 1:12,13 .

Crete is famous as the birthplace of the legislator Minos; and in the Bible, for its connection with the voyage of Paul to Rome, Acts 27:1-44 . The ship first made Salmone, the eastern promontory of the island, and took shelter at Fair Havens, a roadstead on the south side, east of cape Matala. After some time, and against Paul's warning, they set sail for Phenice, a more commodious harbor on the western part of the island; but were overtaken by a fierce wind from the east-north-east, which compelled them to lie to, and drifted them to Malta. Paul is supposed to have visited Crete afterwards, in connection with one of his visits to Asia Minor, 1 Timothy 1:3 Philippians 1:22 . Here he established gospel institutions, and left Titus in the pastoral charge, Titus 1:5 .

Smith's Bible Dictionary - Crete,
the modern Candia. This large island, which closes int he Greek Archipelago on the south, extends through a distance of 140 miles between its extreme points. Though exceedingly bold and mountainous, this island has very fruitful valleys, and in early times it was celebrated for its hundred cities. It seems likely that a very early acquaintances existed between the Cretans and the Jews. Cretans, ( Acts 2:11 ) were among those who were at Jerusalem at the great Pentecost. In [ Acts 27:7-12 We have an account of Paul's shipwreck near this island; and it is evident from ( Titus 1:5 ) that the apostle himself was here at no long interval of time before he wrote the letter. The Cretans were proverbial liars. (Titus 1:12 )
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Crete
In Old Testament times the Mediterranean island of Crete was known as Caphtor. It was at one time the homeland of a people who, in the early days of the Old Testament story, sailed east and settled on Canaan’s Mediterranean coast, where they became known as the Philistines (Deuteronomy 2:23; 1 Samuel 30:14; Jeremiah 47:4; Amos 9:7; see PHILISTIA; CHERETHITES).

The New Testament mentions Crete in the account of Paul’s eventful voyage to Rome. While the ship was moving from one Cretan harbour to another, a fierce storm came up and blew the ship out to sea (Acts 27:7-21).

Possibly the first people to take the gospel to Crete were Jews who were converted on the day of Pentecost (Acts 2:11). Churches were established in Crete, but they later became troubled by various disorders. A national characteristic of the Cretans was that they readily accepted anything that made life easier and more enjoyable, and this created problems in their churches. The people accepted false teaching very readily (Titus 1:10-16).

When Paul visited Crete towards the end of his life, he had to deal with this problem. There were serious disorders in the churches, but Paul was not able to stay long. Therefore, when he moved on to other parts, he left Titus behind to continue the work of guiding and strengthening the churches (Titus 1:5; see TITUS, LETTER TO).

Sentence search

Cretans - (cree' tanss), CreteS, CRETIANS Citizens of Crete. See Crete
Cretan - ) Pertaining to Crete, or Candia. ) A native or inhabitant of Crete or Candia
Caphtor - See Crete
Cretes - (Acts 2:11 ) Cretans, inhabitants of Crete
Salmone - end of Crete, now Cape Sidero . Off Salmone ( Acts 27:7 ) he decided to work his way westward under the lee of Crete
Caphtor - Though several places have at times been proposed for its location, current scholarship is generally agreed that Caphtor is the island of Crete. See Philistines; Crete
Phenice - A town and harbor, more properly Phœnix (from the Greek word for the palm tree which was indigenous to Crete). The town was on the southwest coast of the island of Crete
Caphtorim - or CAPHTORITES (NIV) (Caphtorim) Citizens of Caphtor or Crete
Malmsey - ) A kind of sweet wine from Crete, the Canary Islands, etc
Clauda, or Cauda - of Crete
Salmone - The most eastern point of Crete
Lasea - City on south coast of Crete (Acts 27:8 )
Salmone - A sea-sport in the island of Crete
Salmone - A promontory at the northeast extremity of the island of Crete, now cape Sidero, Acts 27:7
Artemas - Paul's companion (Titus 3:12), whom he proposed sending to Titus at Crete
North-West, - The harbour of Phenice in Crete looked towards south-west (λίψ) and north-west
Minotaur - ) A fabled monster, half man and half bull, confined in the labyrinth constructed by Daedalus in Crete
Crete - In Old Testament times the Mediterranean island of Crete was known as Caphtor. ... The New Testament mentions Crete in the account of Paul’s eventful voyage to Rome. ... Possibly the first people to take the gospel to Crete were Jews who were converted on the day of Pentecost (Acts 2:11). Churches were established in Crete, but they later became troubled by various disorders. ... When Paul visited Crete towards the end of his life, he had to deal with this problem
Crete, Cretians - Some from Crete were present on the day of Pentecost. Paul left Titus at Crete to set things in order and ordain elders
Lasea - City of Crete, near the port of the Fair Havens
Lasea - A city near Fair-Havens, on the south side of Crete
Euroclydon - The wave-stirring easter, a tempestuous wind which came down on Paul's ship on the south shore of Crete, and at length wrecked her upon Malta, Acts 27:1-44 . The small island Clauda, south of which she passed, and the "Syrtis" on the African coast, into which the seamen feared she would be driven, Acts 27:17 , lay southwest of Crete
Salmone - A promontory on the east of Crete, under which Paul sailed on his voyage to Rome (Acts 27:7 ); the modern Cape Sidero
Salmo'ne - (clothed ), the east point of the island of Crete
Good-Havens - A small bay on the southern coast of Crete, near Thalassa (Lassa), where Saint Paul was becalmed on his voyage to Rome (Acts 27)
Lase'a, - (Acts 27:8 ) a city of Crete, the ruins of which were discovered in 1856, a few miles to the eastward of Fair Havens
Lasaea - A city in the island of Crete (Acts 27:8 )
Fair Havens - Harbour on the south of the island of Crete, near the city of Lasea, about five miles to the east of Cape Matala
Tychicus - In later years either he or Artemas was to have been sent to Crete, apparently to take Titus’ place ( Titus 3:12 ); but he was sent to Ephesus, probably instead of to Crete ( 2 Timothy 4:12 )
Adria - Paul's time it was extended to all that portion of the Mediterranean between Crete and Sicily. Thus Ptolemy says that Sicily was bounded on the east by the Adriatic, and Crete in a similar manner on the west; and Strabo says that the Ionian Gulf was a part of what, in his time, was called the Adriatic Sea
Lasaes - A city in Crete, a few miles E
Minos - ) A king and lawgiver of Crete, fabled to be the son of Jupiter and Europa
Clau'da - (lame ), ( Acts 27:16 ) a small island nearly due west of Cape Matala on the south coast of Crete, and nearly due south of Phoenice; now Gozzo
Crete - Crete, now Candia. Paul's ship was constrained by contrary winds off Cnidus to sail under the lee of Crete "over against Salmone"; having passed which with difficulty the ship reached FAIR HAVENS, near Lasea. ... Paul visited Crete between his first and second imprisonment at Rome, and left Titus to "set in order the things wanting, and to ordain elders in every city" (Titus 1:5). Crete was without wild beasts; the poet's sarcasm was that beastly men supplied their place: "the Cretians are always (not merely at times, as all natural men are) liars, evil beasts, slow bellies. In Crete was the fabled birthplace of Jupiter, king of the gods
Salmone - (ssal' moh' nih) Promontory on northeast coast of Crete; modern Cape Sidero
Salmone - The eastern promontory of Crete. of Crete. (as often in the Archipelago in late summer) forced her to run under the lee of Crete in the direction of Salmone, which is the eastern point of the island. But at Cnidus that advantage ceased; thence their only course was under the lee of Crete toward Salmone
Clauda - A small island near the southwest shore of Crete, approached by Paul in his voyage to Jerusalem, Acts 27:16
Artemas - Apparently a faithful minister, cooperating with Paul, Titus 3:12 , who thought him worthy to take the place of Titus at Crete, while the latter spent the winter with the apostle at Nicopolis
Phenice - Properly Phoenix a palm-tree (as in the RSV), a town with a harbour on the southern side of Crete (Acts 27:12 ), west of the Fair Havens
Haven - That of Crete, called "Fair Havens," is mentioned Acts 27:8
Fair Havens - A harbour on the south coast of Crete, near Lasea, where St
Dittany - ) A plant of the Mint family (Origanum Dictamnus), a native of Crete
Phenice - A city near the south coast of Crete, having a harbor, now called Lutro, opening to the southeast
Fair ha'Vens, - a harbor in the island of Crete, (Acts 27:8 ) though not mentioned in any other ancient writing, is still known by its own Greek name, and appears to have been the harbor of Lasaea
Cauda Island - Island 20 miles off the south coast of Crete, passed by Saint Paul on his journey to Rome (Acts 27), where precautions were taken for weathering the storm
Clauda - A small island off the southwest coast of Crete, passed by Paul on his voyage to Rome (Acts 27:16 )
Cau'da - (Acts 27:16 ) The form given in the Revised Version to Clauda , an island south of Crete
Zenas - Paul asks Titus to send to him from Crete, with Apoilos ( Titus 3:13 )
Libya - of Egypt, opposite Crete, including Cyrene, the Cyrenaica pentepolitana, containing the five cities Berenice, Arsinoe, Ptolemais, Apollonia, and Cyrene
Phenice - of Crete, which as being safer to winter in the master of Paul's ship made for from Fair Havens, but owing to the tempestuous E. side of the narrow part of Crete (Strabo x
Crete - Crete (kreet), now Candia. "Homer dates all the fictions of Ulysses from Crete, as if he meant to pass a similar censure on the Cretans
Cauda - The island is modern Gavdos, southwest of Crete
Andrew of Crete, Saint - 740) Confessor, Archbishop of Gortyna, Crete, hymnographer, born Damascus, Syria
Phenice - Harbour on the south coast of Crete
a'Dria - In Paul's time it included the whole sea between Greece and Italy, reaching south from Crete to Sicily
Crete - Crete was the center of the Minoan maritime empire named after the legendary King Minos, and associated especially with the famous palaces of Cnossos and Phaestos, which flourished from 2000 to 1500 B. The Minoans of Crete were known to the Egyptians as “Keftiu,” which may be the same as biblical “Caphtor,” though the biblical term may include a wider reference to coastlands and islands of the Aegean area. ... In classical Greek times Crete had many city-states, but they played relatively little part in mainstream Greek history. Under the Romans it became part of a double province Crete with Cyrene, under a governor with the title “proconsul,” who ruled the island and the opposite coast of North Africa from the Roman capital Gortyna. The voyage followed the route south of Crete, which gave partial shelter from the northwest winds and avoided the peril of the lee shore on the north coast, while still involving the need to beat up against largely adverse winds. The ship doubled Salmone, the eastern cape of Crete, and with difficulty reached Fair Havens, a small anchorage near the city of Lasea (Acts 27:8 ). ... The only other references to Crete in the New Testament are in the epistle to Titus. Paul had left Titus in Crete to exercise pastoral supervision over the churches there (Titus 1:5 ). ... It is a problem to know when Paul (or Titus) visited Crete, apart from Paul's voyage as a prisoner
Adria - (Acts 27:27 ; RSV, "the sea of Adria"), the Adriatic Sea, including in Paul's time the whole of the Mediterranean lying between Crete and Sicily
Caphtor - ("The isle of Caphtor" in its later sense may mean Crete. ... Pusey suggests there were different immigrations of the same tribe into Palestine, which afterward merged in one name: the Casluhim first; a second from the Caphtorim; a third the Cherethim or Cretans, Crete being an intermediate resting place in their migrations from whence some passed into Philistia. , 5:2) says "the inhabitants of Palestine came from Crete"; perhaps many of the Cherethim settlers in Crete from Egypt, when disturbed by Minos and the Hellenes, withdrew from Crete to Philistia, where their kinsmen were settled
Gortyna - The most important city in Crete, after Gnossus, situated about midway between the two ends of the island
Fair-Havens - A roadstead or small bay, near the town of Lasea, midway on the southern coast of Crete, where Paul wished to winter when on the voyage to Rome, Acts 27:8
Salmone - (Σαλμώνη; Strabo usually writes Σαμώνιον, sometimes Σαλμώνἱον; Pliny, Sammonium)... Salmone is a promontory in the east of Crete (Acts 27:7). The map of Crete in Encyclopaedia Britannica 11 gives the latter. Paul’s Alexandrian ship was beaten out of her course, which would have taken her straight to Cythera, north of Crete, and obliged to bear S
Titus - One of these took him and Titus to Crete, where Titus remained behind to oversee and administer the church (Titus 1:5 ). It was to Crete that Paul wrote his letter, asking Titus to join him in Nicopolis on the west coast of Greece (Titus 3:12 ). According to church tradition, Titus was the first bishop of Crete. See Crete
Adria - Paul's time it included the whole sea lying between Italy and Greece, and extending on the south from Crete to Sicily, within which the island of Malta or Melita lies
Adria - In the apostle's time it is supposed to have denoted the whole breadth of the Mediterranean sea, from Crete to Sicily
Zenas - A pious lawyer, and a friend of Paul, who, writing from Nicopolis during the last year of his life, commends him and Apollos, then at Crete on a journey, to the kind offices of Titus, Titus 3:13
Pheni'ce - (Acts 27:12 ) (more properly Phoenix, as it is translated in the Revised Version), the name of a haven in Crete on the south coast
Titus - Paul in Crete, after his first imprisonment at Rome, to "set in order the things that were wanting, and to ordain elders in every city," Titus 1:5 . Paul at Nicopolis, Titus 3:12 ; that they went together to Crete to visit the churches there, and thence to Rome. Paul's second imprisonment at Rome, Titus went into Dalmatia, 2 Timothy 4:10 ; and after the apostle's death, he is said to have returned into Crete, and to have died there in the ninety-fourth year of his age; he is often called bishop of Crete by ecclesiastical writers. Paul, not long before he wrote this epistle, had left Titus in Crete for the purpose of regulating the affairs of the church, and at the time he wrote it had determined to pass the approaching winter at Nicopolis, and as the Acts of the Apostles do not give any account of St. It is not known at what time a Christian church was first planted in Crete; but as some Cretans were present at the first effusion of the Holy Ghost at Jerusalem, Acts 2:11 , it is not improbable that, upon their return home, they might be the means of introducing the Gospel among their countrymen. Crete is said to have abounded with Jews; and from the latter part of the first chapter of this epistle it appears that many of them were persons of very profligate lives, even after they had embraced the Gospel. The principal design of this epistle was to give instructions to Titus concerning the management of the churches in the different cities of the island of Crete, and it was probably intended to be read publicly to the Cretans, that they might know upon what authority Titus acted. Paul, after his usual salutation, intimates that he was appointed an apostle by the express command of God, and reminds Titus of the reason of his being left in Crete; he describes the qualifications necessary for bishops, and cautions him against persons of bad principles, especially Judaizing teachers, whom he directs Titus to reprove with severity; he informs him what instructions he should give to people in different situations of life, and exhorts him to be exemplary in his own conduct; he points out the pure and practical nature of the Gospel, and enumerates some particular virtues which he was to inculcate, avoiding foolish questions and frivolous disputes; he instructs him how he is to behave toward heretics, and concludes with salutations
Zenas - ’ We gather that Zenas and Apollos were fellow-travellers who had come to Crete and were contemplating going elsewhere. May it be that these men were chosen as messengers to Crete because they were known to have influence amongst Jewish converts from whom the troubles in Crete seem to have chiefly arisen (cf
Artemas - Artemas would apparently take over Titus' pastoral duties in Crete
Artemas - Paul's disciple, who was sent by that Apostle into Crete, in the room of Titus, Titus 3:12 , while he continued with St
Fair Havens - A harbor on the southern shore of the island of Crete
Cherethites, Cherethim - Crete may have been their original home
Fair Havens - (fayr hay' vihss) An open bay on the southern coast of Crete near the city of Lasea
Phoenix - ” Port on the southeast coast of Crete where Paul and the ship's crew hoped to reach for winter harbor (Acts 27:12 )
Carites - mercenaries from Caria, as the Cherethites were from Crete
Bar-Jesus - A Jewish magician in Crete, who opposed Paul and Barnabas, endeavoring to prevent Sergius Paulus from embracing Christianity, and was struck blind, "not seeing the sun for a season
Lasea - It was the nearest town to Fair Havens in Crete, but it was 5 miles away, and this, apart from the inconvenience of the roadstead, would explain the reluctance of the captain of St
Nicopolis - Paul wrote to Titus, then in Crete, to come to him, Titus 3:12 ; but others, with greater probability, are of opinion, that the city of Nicopolis, where St
Sisters of Saint Joseph of the Apparition - The congregation has approximately houses, include schools, hospitals, and dispensaries in France, Italy, Malta, Bulgaria, Greece, Cyprus, Crete, Chios, Syria, Palestine, Turkey, Armenia, Africa, Burma, and Australia
Alexander v, Pope - (Pietro Philarghi) (1409-1410) Born Crete, c
Cyrene - Cyrenaica and Crete formed one province
Cauda - coast of Crete
Jupiter - He was called the son of Saturn and Ops, and was said to have been born in Crete
Crete, Cretans - Crete, CRETANS . Crete, the modern Candia , is an island 60 miles S. When and by whom Christianity was planted in Crete cannot be said
Island, Isle - ), Crete. , Acts 13:4 , Acts 15:39 , Acts 21:3 ; Acts 21:16 , Acts 27:4 ), Crete ( Acts 27:7 ; Acts 27:12-13 ; Acts 27:21 ), Clauda ( Acts 27:16 ), Melita ( Acts 28:1 ), and Patmos ( Revelation 1:9 )
Titus - Paul afterwards left him at Crete to set things in order, and to ordain elders in every city. It is only the later MSS of the Epistle to Titus that in the subscription say he was 'bishop of Crete
Tychicus - Paul also sent Tychicus to Ephesus on one occasion (2 Timothy 4:12 ) and possibly to Crete on another (Titus 3:12 )
Poet - The line “In him we live, and move, and have our being” (Acts 17:28 ) is sometimes attributed to Epimenides of Crete (around 500 B
Fair Havens - A harbour in the south of Crete, some 5 miles to the east of which was the town of Lasea (Acts 27:8 )
Cherethims, Cherethites - ' It is supposed that they were people from Crete, who had settled on the coast of Palestine
Cherethites or Cherethim - A portion of the Philistines, supposed by many to have originated in Crete, 1 Samuel 30:14 Ezekiel 25:16 Zephaniah 2:5 ... 2
Nicopolis - A city where Paul spent probably the last winter of his life, having previously written to Titus, at Crete, to meet him there, Titus 3:12
Tychicus - The apostle calls him the Lord, and his companion in the service of God, Ephesians 6:21,22 Colossians 4:7,8 2 Timothy 4:12 , and had intentions of sending him into Crete, in the absence of Titus, Titus 3:12
Caphtorim - But whether they came from Cyprus, Crete, or Cappadocia, is not agreed
Cherethites And Pelethites - The appellation ‘Cherethite’ seems to be connected with Crete, and there is good ground (but see Caphtor) for the belief that Caphtor, from which Amos 9:7 says the Philistines came, is to be identified with Crete
Lasea - (Λασαία, Westcott-Hort’s Greek Testament Λασέα)... Lasea was a city near Fair Havens, on the southern coast of Crete (Acts 27:8). It is quite possible that the evangelization of Crete, in which Titus afterwards laboured, was begun at that time
Titus, Letter to - Among the places he visited was the Mediterranean island of Crete, where he found that the churches were in a state of confusion. He therefore left Titus behind in Crete to help correct the problems (Titus 1:5), while he himself sailed on to Ephesus. )... From Macedonia Paul wrote two letters, one to Titus in Crete, the other to Timothy in Ephesus
Caphtor - But the exact situation of Caphtor is unknown, though it is supposed to be Crete, since the Philistines seem to be meant by the "Cherethites" in 1 Samuel 30:14 (see also 2 Samuel 8:18 )
Titus - ... Some eight or ten years later, we find him left by the apostle at Crete, to establish and regulate the churches of that island, Titus 1:5 . Tradition makes him labor for many years in Crete, and die there at an advanced age
Titus - In any case, Paul chose Titus to go with him to Jerusalem in order that the question might be decided by the apostles on appeal to a conCrete case. Crete, to which Paul took Titus, must have been in itself one of the hardest fields to evangelize (Titus 1:12-13), and the appearance of the false teachers, who seem to have gained a foothold after Paul left, made a strong hand all the more necessary. His position in Crete is similar to that of Timothy in the churches of Ephesus-a representative of the Apostle holding a local commission. ... Paul at the end of his life’s work turns towards his disciple, though no reason is given in Titus 3:12; but, as the churches of Crete need a, present director, he promises to send Artemas or Tychicus to relieve Titus and permit him to join the Apostle in Nicopolis. ... Jülicher thinks that Titus may have been the first Greek missionary to Crete and Dalmatia (PBE3 xix. No reliance is to be put upon the later ecclesiastical tradition, which, working upon the Epistle, calls him the first bishop of Crete (Eus
Cherethims - ... Crete seems a kindred name to Cherethites; it was famed for archery, as were they; for which David chose a number of them as his body guard. Some of the Philistine Cherethites probably colonized Crete originally, while others remained in Philistia, where they had migrated from Africa
Crete - ... Crete is famous as the birthplace of the legislator Minos; and in the Bible, for its connection with the voyage of Paul to Rome, Acts 27:1-44 . Paul is supposed to have visited Crete afterwards, in connection with one of his visits to Asia Minor, 1 Timothy 1:3 Philippians 1:22
Crete - Jews from Crete were in Jerusalem on the day of Pentecost (Acts 2:11 )
Clauda - of Crete, and due S
Isles - Crete)
Adria - , and Greece and Crete on the E
Fair Havens - of Crete; connected with the city Lasea; five miles E
Artemas - ’ This implies that Artemas was capable of relieving Titus in the oversight and organization of the Church in Crete
Cappadocia - See Crete
Cherethites - The Cherethites and Pelethites were people who lived among the Philistines and who, like the Philistines, probably came originally from Crete (1 Samuel 30:14; Ezekiel 25:16; Zephaniah 2:5; see PHILISTIA)
ti'Tus - In the interval between the two, he and Titus were together in Crete. In Crete, he is to complete what St. He is also to look for the arrival in Crete of Artemas and Tychicus, ch. Zenas and Apollos are in Crete, or expected there; for Titus is to send them on their journey, and to supply them with whatever they need for it. The traditional connection of Titus with Crete is much more specific and constant, though here again we cannot be certain of the facts
Apollos - Jerome is of opinion that Apollos afterwards returned to Corinth from Crete
Tychicus - Paul considered sending him to relieve Titus in Crete (Titus 3:12), and later he sent him to relieve Timothy in Ephesus (2 Timothy 4:12)
Elishah - Others would locate it as the present Haghio Kyrko in Crete
Philistines - They were a branch of the primitive race which spread over the whole district of the Lebanon and the valley of the Jordan, and Crete and other Mediterranean islands. , probably Crete, or, as some think, the Delta of Egypt. We learn from the Old Testament that they came from Caphtor, usually supposed to be Crete
Miletus - There was another Miletus in Crete, mentioned 2 Timothy 4:20
Tychicus - He had thoughts also of sending him into Crete, to preside over that church in the absence of Titus 3:12
Island - Clauda or Cauda (NRSV) is a small island off Crete (Acts 27:16 ). Crete (the Old Testament Caphtor, Jeremiah 47:4 ; Amos 9:7 ) is an island 152 miles long located to the southeast of Greece (Titus 1:5 , Titus 1:12 )
Titus - ... Epistle of Paul to, was designed to instruct Titus in the right discharge of his ministerial offices in Crete, a difficult field, owing to the character of the inhabitants, who were noted for lying, idleness, and gluttony
Euroclydon - It came down from the island of Crete, S
Mouse - So Sminthian Apollo was worshipped in Crete and the Troad; derived from smintha , Cretan for "mouse"; Apollo was represented with one foot upon a mouse
Bar-Jesus - or, according to some copies, BAR-JEU, was a Jewish magician in the island of Crete, Acts 13:6
Trophimus - It is therefore one of the circumstances which prove that Paul was released, and revisited Asia Minor, Crete, Macedonia, and perhaps Spain, before his second imprisonment and death
Titus, Epistle to - The date of its composition may be concluded from the circumstance that it was written after Paul's visit to Crete (Titus 1:5 ). We may warrantably suppose that after his release Paul sailed from Rome into Asia and took Crete by the way, and that there he left Titus "to set in order the things that were wanting
Titus, Epistle to - It was apparently written after Paul's first imprisonment at Rome (when otherwise could he have left Titus at Crete? Titus 1:5 ), and before his second imprisonment. ... After the introductory salutation in which the counsels of God are referred to, and the acknowledging of truth which is according to piety, Paul states for what purpose he had left Titus at Crete: 1, to set in order things that were still left incomplete; and 2, to establish elders in every city, which elders are in Titus 1:7 called 'bishops,' or overseers. There were at Crete many deceivers, especially those of the circumcision, whose mouths must be stopped
Adria - ’ It was extended to include the Tarentine Gulf, the Sicilian Sea, the Corinthian Gulf, and even the waters between Crete and Malta, as in Acts 27:27
Titus - Probably he met Paul, as the apostle requested, at Nicopolis, for his journey into Dalmatia subsequently would be more probable from Nicopolis than from distant Crete (2 Timothy 4:10; Titus 3:12). Artemas or Tychicus on arriving in Crete would set Titus free from his episcopal commission to go to Nicopolis. " Paul states his latest commission to Titus, Titus 1:5, "for this cause left I thee in Crete, that thou shouldest set in order the things that are wanting (epidiorthosee , 'follow up' the work begun by me, 'setting right the things' which I was unable to complete through the shortness of my stay in Crete) and ordain elders in every city as I had appointed thee" (he does not mention deacons). ... A firm and consistent ruler was needed for the lawless, self indulgent, and immoral Cretans, as they are pictured by their own poet Epimenides (Titus 1:12-13) who sarcastically remarked that the absence of "wild beasts" from Crete was supplied by its human inhabitants
Isle, Island - " It means island when used of Caphtor, for example, or Crete, Jeremiah 47:4 2:10 Psalm 97:1 Esther 10:1 , where the phrase isles of the sea is in antithesis with the land or continent
Titus, Epistle to - Paul ( Titus 1:1 ) to Titus while the latter was acting as his delegate in Crete ( Titus 1:5 ). Paul had come to Crete in company with Titus ( Titus 1:5 ), but, having to leave before he could complete his work there, he left Titus behind to ‘set in order things that were wanting. The false doctrines in Crete are predominantly, if not exclusively, Jewish in origin, and it is known that Jews abounded in Crete
Titus - ... Activities in other places... Many years later, after Paul had been released from his first imprisonment in Rome, Titus went with Paul to Crete to try to correct disorders in the churches there. ... Titus was such a valued worker that Paul could not leave him in Crete indefinitely
Titus - After this his name is not mentioned till after Paul's first imprisonment, when we find him engaged in the organization of the church in Crete, where the apostle had left him for this purpose (Titus 1:5 )
Caphtor - The favourite theory has been that it means the island of Crete (cf
Nicopolis - In an epistolary fragment which has been preserved, he bids Titus, who has been labouring in Crete, give diligence to join him at Nicopolis, as he has decided to winter there (Titus 3:12). It seems certain that Titus’ work in Crete (Titus 1:5) cannot have begun till after the writing of 2 Cor. ] ), and a short campaign in Crete may well have been one of his activities during that period
Phoenix - coast of Crete
Apollos - The last Bible notice of him is in Titus 3:13, where Paul charges Titus, then in Crete, "bring Zenas the lawyer and Apollos on their way diligently, that nothing may be wanting to them. " Jerome states that Apollos remained at Crete until he heard that the divisions at Corinth had been healed by Paul's epistle; then he went and became bishop there
Myrrh - 128); abounding still in Candia (Crete), where they gather it by passing over it an instrument composed of many parallel leather thongs, to which its gum adheres
Libya - ) came under the power of the Romans, who combined it with Crete to form a single province, Creta-Cyrene
Cauda - of Crete
Apollos - Towards the end of Paul’s life, when Apollos visited Titus in Crete, Paul urged Titus to welcome him and to give him all possible help in his service for God
Adria - Luke (Acts 27:27), the term ‘Adria’ was still further extended to signify the whole expanse between Crete and Sicily. He further informs us that Italy is bounded on the south by the Adriatic Sea (14), that the Peloponnesus is bounded on the west and south by the Adriatic Sea (16), and that Crete is bounded on the west by the Adriatic Sea (17)’ (Smith, Vayage and Shipwreck of St
Titus, Epistle to - Paul's letter to Titus, who was pastor of the church on the island of Crete. It was written after Paul left Crete, but before he reached Nicopolis (2 Timothy 3:12 )
Pheoenix - ... Strabo says: ‘Then there is an isthmus of about 100 stadia [the narrow part of Crete to the west of Mt. Brown, the discoverer of Lasea, also convinced himself that PhCEnix ‘is the only secure harbour in all winds on the south-coast of Crete’ (ib
Euraquilo - It is the name given to the tempestuous wind (ἅνεμος τυφωνικός, vorticosus, ‘whirling’) which, suddenly beating down from the central mountains of Crete, caught St
Bishop - In Titus 1:5 , it is said, "For this cause left I thee in Crete, that thou shouldest set in order the things that are wanting, and ordain elders" (Greek πρεσβυτερους ) "in every city;" and then it follows in Titus 1:7 , "For a bishop" (επισκοπον ) "must be blameless
Tychicus - The same conclusion is borne out by the reference in Titus 3:12, where the writer purposes to send either Artemas or Tychicus to Titus in Crete with the injunction that Titus should meet the Apostle at Nicopolis
Tychicus - ... In Titus 3:12 Paul proposes to send Artonus or Tychicus (from Corinth or else Ephesus, where Tychicus was with Paul) to take Titus' place (which his past services to Paul in the neighbouring Asia qualified him for) at Crete, and so to set Titus free to join Paul at Nicopolis
Cnidus - Instead of taking a straight course to the north of Crete-the wind not permitting this (μὴ προσεῶντος ἡμᾶς τοῦ ἀνέμον)-she had to run under the lee of the island
Fair Havens - coast of Crete, where St
Myra - of Asia Minor, and then get under the protection of the south coast of Crete
Bishop - That they are not now called Apostles will appear from the followingstatement: "When the Apostles, in anticipation of their approachingdeath, appointed their successors in the superintendence of theseveral churches which they had founded, as Timothy at Ephesus andTitus at Crete, the title of Apostolos was reserved by way ofreverence to those who had been personally sent by Christ Himself;Episcopos was assigned to those who succeeded them in the highestoffice of the Church, as overseers of Pastors as well as offlocks; and Presbuteros became the distinctive appellation ofthe second order, so that after the first century, no writer hasdesignated the office of one of this second order by the termEpiscope
Melita - And it lies north-west by north of the southwest promontory of Crete; and came nearly in the direction of a storm from the south-east quarter
Order - ... A — 2: τάγμα (Strong's #5001 — Noun Neuter — tagma — tag'-mah ) a more conCrete form of No. ... B — 3: ἐπιδιορθόω (Strong's #1930 — Verb — epidiorthoo — ep-ee-dee-or-tho'-o ) "to set in order" (epi, "upon," dia, "through, intensive," and orthos, "straight"), is used in Titus 1:5 , in the sense of setting right again what was defective, a commission to Titus, not to add to what the Apostle himself had done, but to restore what had fallen into disorder since the Apostle had labored in Crete; this is suggested by the epi
Dionysius (3), Bishop of Corinth - seven which he calls "Catholic Epistles," addressed to Lacedemon, Athens, Nicomedia, Gortyna and other churches in Crete, Amastris and other churches in Pontus, Cnossus and Rome; and one to "his most faithful sister Chrysophora. of Corinth might consider Lacedaemon and Athens as under his metropolitan superintendence, but that he should send letters of admonition to Crete, Bithynia, and Paphlagonia not only proves the reputation of the writer, but indicates the unity of the Christian community. In most of them the bishop of the church addressed is mentioned with honour; Palmas in Pontus, Philip and Pinytus in Crete, Soter at Rome
Apostles Other Than the Twelve - Bassein, India... Saint Rumold Mechlin, Belgium... Blessed Sebastian Valfre Turin... Saint Severinus Austria... Bavaria... Saint Sigfrid Gothland (Sweden)... Saint Suitbert Friesland (Germany)... Saint Titus Crete... Saint Valentine Tyrol... Saint Vedast (Vaast) Artois, France... Saint Vigil Carinthia (Yugoslavia)... Andrew White, S
Apollos - Jerom says that Apollos was so dissatisfied with the division which had happened on his account at Corinth, that he retired into Crete with Zeno, a doctor of the law; but that the evil having been corrected by the letter of St
Bishop - ' The same thing is seen in the epistle to Titus: Paul left Titus in Crete to "ordain elders in every city
Cyrene - 96; was soon after formed into a province, and later, perhaps not till 27, united with Crete, with which under the Empire it formed a senatorial province, under an expraetor with the title of proconsul
Melita - After leaving Fair Havens in Crete, and while sailing along its S. the middle of the Mediterranean between Crete and Sicily
Timothy, Letters to - ... One place that Paul visited after leaving Rome was the island of Crete, where he found that the churches were badly in need of help. After staying a while, he sailed on, but he left Titus behind to help the churches of Crete further (Titus 1:5)
Cyprus - has been found in Asia Minor, Egypt, Palestine, and Syria; contacts also were maintained with Crete, the Aegean Islands, and Greece
Titus - From it we gather that he had accompanied the Apostle, after his release from his Roman imprisonment, on a visit to Crete, and had been left there by him ‘to set in order things that were wanting’ and to ‘ordain elders in every city’ (Titus 1:5 )
Fable - , with a more definite reference to a type of false teaching actually in vogue at Ephesus and in Crete
Melita - of Sicily, and the wind ‘Euraquilo’ ( Acts 27:14 ) would drive them from Crete to Malta if the captain, realizing that his chief danger was the Syrtis quicksands ( Acts 27:17 ), took the natural precaution of bearing up into the wind as much as the weather permitted
Greece - The large islands of Crete and Euboea belonged to Greece, as well as most of those in the Archipelago and on the west
Praedestinatus, an Author - We are thus told of a number of personages whom no one else mentions—Diodorus of Crete who refuted the Secundians, Philo the Alogi, Theodotus of Pergamus the Colorbasians, Crato, a Syrian bishop, who refuted the Theodotians, Tranquillus the Noetians, Euphranon of Rhodes the Severians, and a host of others of whom we should expect to hear elsewhere if they were not imaginary personages
Philistines - They seem originally to have migrated form Egypt to Caphtor, by which some understand Crete, and others with the ancients Cappadocia, Genesis 10:14 , and thence to have passed over to Palestine under the name of Caphtorim, where they drove out the Avim, who dwelt from Hazerim to Azzah, that is, Gaza, and swelt in their stead, Deuteronomy 2:23
Titus, Theology of - Paul may then have been released, during which time, among other things, he revisited Crete and began a church there, leaving Titus in charge. ... The purpose of Paul's writing to Titus, as stated in 1:5, was to give him practical directions for setting in order the things remaining unfinished for the church on the island of Crete
Elders - Titus was delegated by Paul to establish elders in every city in Crete
Church Government - With Titus in Crete only bishops are mentioned ( Titus 1:5 ). To these we add (5) the prominent quasi -episcopal positions of James at Jerusalem in 44 ( Acts 12:17 ), in 50, and in 58; and (6) of Timothy and Titus at Ephesus and in Crete
Timothy, the First Epistle to - The apostle naturally directs Timothy, the church president for the time being at Ephesus, and Titus at Crete, concerning "bishop-elders and deacons," in order to secure due administration of the church at a time when heresies were springing up and when he must soon depart this life. Timothy and Titus exercised the same power in ordaining elders in Ephesus and Crete as Paul had in the Gentile churches in general (2 Corinthians 11:28)
Paul - Excursion to Macedonia, Corinth, and Crete (not mentioned in the Acts); First Epistle to Timothy (?)
Palmtree - ... Phoenicia (Acts 11:19) takes its name from the palm; compare Phenice in Crete, Acts 27:12
Ships, Sailors, And Navigation - The earliest route to Byblos soon was extended to Cyprus, Crete, and possibly other Aegean sites. There the Minoans of Crete especially developed an impressive naval fleet and a merchant marine that linked their island world. Ultimately, however, the Mycenaeans—Greeks from the mainland—overpowered Crete, forming an Aegean confederacy. ) The rounded hulls are best related to Crete from about 1600 B
Games - A board with a similar design was found in Knossos, Crete
Ship - (On PAUL'S voyage, see EUROCLYDON; MELITA; CNIDUS; Crete; FAIR HAVENS
Greece, Religion And Society of - This city, along with Cnossos on the Island of Crete, was the most flourishing city in the Greek homeland. During this era the Greeks established trade colonies on the shores of the Black Sea, the region of the Dardanelles, on the eastern shore of the Aegean Sea, the islands of Crete, Rhodes, Cyprus, Sidon and Tyre, Naucratis in the Nile delta, Italy, Sicily, and Spain. Almost every major city had its Asclepian including Corinth, Athens, Pergammom, cities in Cyprus, Crete, and throughout the Greek world
Corinth - Michaelis has produced another, more simple and natural; namely, that Paul, on his return from Crete, visited Corinth a second time before he went to winter at Nicopolis
Baal - It is probable that Baal, Belus, or Bel, the great god of the Carthaginians, and also of the Sidonians, Babylonians, and Assyrians, who, from the testimony of Scripture, appears to have been delighted with human sacrifices, was the Moloch of the Ammonites; the Chronus of the Greeks, who was the chief object of adoration in Italy, Crete, Cyprus, and Rhodes, and all other countries where divine honours were paid him; and the Saturn of the Latins
Palm Tree - The term in Greek (applied only to a genus) is φοίνιξ, which gave its name to a town in Crete (Acts 27:12)
Timothy, Epistles to - From other allusions in the Epistles we gather that the Apostle visited not only Ephesus and Macedonia, but also Troas ( 2 Timothy 4:13 ), Corinth and Miletus ( 2 Timothy 4:20 ), and Crete ( Titus 1:5 ), and that he purposed wintering in Nicopolis ( Titus 3:12 ). 61), we must conclude, if we accept the Pastorals as genuine, that the Apostle visited Ephesus, Macedonia, and Crete after a release from imprisonment
Memphis - Menes (compare Minos in Crete, Genesis 10:6; Bochart makes him Mizraim, and thinks Memphis was called Μezri from him, as the Arabs now call it) its founder dates 2690 B
Lamp - Lampstands of stone, about 30 inches in height, have been found in the recent excavations in Crete; one of limestone is figured in Bliss, Mound , etc
Colors - The peoples of Crete, Phoenicia, and Canaan produced the dye from mollusks taken from the Mediterranean Sea
Philistines - They are said to have come from Caphtor ( Amos 9:7 , Jeremiah 47:4 , Deuteronomy 2:23 ), which is with much probability identified with Crete
Philis'Tines - (Genesis 10:14 ) It has been generally assumed that Caphtor represents Crete, and that the Philistines migrated from that island, either directly or through Egypt, into Palestine
Messiah - 434, another impostor arose, called Moses Cretensis. He pretended to be a second Moses, sent to deliver the Jews who dwelt in Crete, and promised to divide the sea, and give them a safe passage through it
Dionysius, Pseudo-Areopagita - Carpus had in Crete. of Crete refers to matters treated in the Symbolic Theology
Episcopalians - In like manner he says to Titus, "For this cause left I thee in Crete that thou shouldest set in order the things that are wanting, and ordain elders in every city, as I had appointed thee," Titus 1:5 . He describes to Titus the qualifications of a bishop or elder, making him the judge how far any person in Crete was possessed of these qualifications; he gives him authority over all orders of Christians there; and he empowers him to reject heretics
Melita - Paul’s ship drifted must have been the modern Adriatic, or Gulf of Venice, whereas the term is known to have included in the Apostle’s time the whole expanse of sea between Sicily, Italy, Greece, and Crete (Adria); and (2) that the N
Decius, Emperor - of Jerusalem, Acacius of the Phrygian Antioch, Epimachus and Nemesius of Alexandria, Peter and his companions of Lampsacus, Irenaeus of Neo-Caesarea, Martial of Limoges, Abdon and Sennen (Persians then at Rome), Cassian of Imola, Lucian a Thracian, Trypho and Respicius of Bithynia, the Ten Martyrs of Crete, have all found a place in the martyrologies of this period, and, after allowing uncertainty to some of the names, the list is enough to shew that there was hardly a province of the empire where the persecution was not felt
Appoint, Appointed - The RV translates it by "appoint" in Titus 1:5 , instead of "ordain," of the elders whom Titus was to "appoint" in every city in Crete
Ornaments - 1000, in which a profusion of jewelry has been found similar in character and workmanship to the ornaments of the Mycenæan age found in Cyprus and Crete
Timothy - The office at Ephesus and Crete (Titus 1:5) became permanent on the removal of the apostles by death; "angel" (Revelation 1:20) was the transition stage between "apostle" and our "bishop
Bishop - Similarly the elders in Crete ( Titus 1:6 ) are ‘appointed’ by Titus, and apparently the bishops at Ephesus by Timothy
Paul - His movements from that time are not definitely recorded; apparently he visited Ephesus and Macedonia, 1 Timothy 1:3 ; wrote the FIRST EPISTLE TO TIMOTHY; visited Crete, Titus 1:5 ; and Nicopolis, Titus 3:12 ; wrote the EPISTLE TO TITUS (the early writers say that he went to Spain, which we know he desired to do, Romans 15:24,28 ); visited Troas and Miletus, 2 Timothy 4:13,20 ; wrote the EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS; and when a prisoner at Rome the second time, wrote the SECOND EPISTLE TO TIMOTHY, when expecting his death
Gods - ) Four-footed beasts have had their altars; as the bull, dog, cat, wolf, baboon, lion, and crocodile, in Egypt and elsewhere; the hog in the island of Crete; rats and mice in the Troas, and at Tenedos; weasels at Thebes; and the porcupine throughout all Zoroaster's school
Tyre - They trafficked up the Nile as far as Memphis; worked copper mines in Cyprus and Crete (cf
Apollos - Paul, Apollos tried to avoid fomenting the party spirit in Corinth; and the NT leaves him in Crete, as a travelling preacher
Timothy And Titus Epistles to - -The Epistles to Timothy and Titus are conveniently, if inaccurately, called the Pastoral Epistles, because, in contrast to Paul’s other letters, their object has been thought to be primarily that of equipping his two lieutenants, Timothy and Titus, for pastoral work in two particular regions-Ephesus, with its circle of churches, and Crete. and Titus, to impress upon the recipients the necessity of taking measures to preserve in its purity and strength the gospel which they had learnt from Paul, in view of special false teaching already present in Ephesus and Crete and threatening to increase
Church - )... The steps were apostle; then vicar apostolic or apostolic delegate, as Timothy in Ephesus and Titus in Crete, temporarily (1 Timothy 1:3; 2 Timothy 4:21; Titus 3:12; Titus 1:5), then angel, then bishop in the present sense
Episcopacy - That Timothy and Titus were bishops of Ephesus and Crete, whose business it was to exercise such extraordinary acts of jurisdiction as are now claimed by diocesan bishops, 1 Timothy 1:3
Bishop, Elder, Presbyter - Paul at Ephesus or in Crete; they were forerunners of the monarchical bishops, not the first examples of them
Phoenicia, phNicians - Perhaps they were pioneers in the art of seamanship, but of this we cannot be sure; they may have borrowed this from Crete or the Mycenæans
Serpent - The same learned writer discovers traces of the serpent worship among the Hyperboreans, at Rhodes, named Ophiusa, in Phrygia, and upon the Hellespont, in the island Cyprus, in Crete, among the Athenians, in the name of Cecrops, among the natives of Thebes in Boeotia, among the Lacedaemonians, in Italy, in Syria, &c, and in the names of many places, as well as the people where the Ophites settled
Roman Law in the nt - The senatorial provinces mentioned in the NT are: Macedonia (senatorial after the time of Claudius); Achaia; Asia (the western part of Asia Minor); Bithynia-Pontus, a united province in NT times (part of ancient Pontus was joined to Galatia, part given to the Polemonian kingdom; see below, c); Cyprus (see above); Crete-Cyrene, a joint province
Vespasian - As quaestor he was allotted to the province Crete and Cyrene
Hellenistic And Biblical Greek - Crete and Rhodes, the gradual subsidence of dialectic forms which is traceable in the inscriptions reflects the changes in the living language
Presbyterians - "There is nothing in Scripture upon which the Episcopalian is more ready to rest his cause than the alleged episcopacy of Timothy and Titus, of whom the former is said to have been bishop of Ephesus, and the latter bishop of Crete; yet the Presbyterian thinks it is clear as the noon-day sun, that the presbyters of Ephesus were supreme governors, under Christ, of the Ephesian churches, at the very time that Timothy is pretended to have been their proper diocesan
Presbyterians - "There is nothing in Scripture upon which the Episcopalian is more ready to rest his cause than the alleged episcopacy of Timothy and Titus, of whom the former is said to have been bishop of Ephesus, and the latter bishop of Crete; yet the Presbyterian thinks it is clear as the noon-day sun, that the presbyters of Ephesus were supreme governors, under Christ, of the Ephesian churches, at the very time that Timothy is pretended to have been their proper diocesan
Book - Porphyry makes mention of some pillars preserved in Crete, on which the ceremonies observed by the Corybantes in their sacrifices were recorded
Ordination - It is also probable that election existed at Ephesus and in Crete, though we nowhere read of it in the Pastoral Epistles
Messiah - In the reign of Theodosius the younger, in the year of our Lord 434, another impostor arose, called Moses Cretensis. He pretended to be a second Moses, sent to deliver the Jews who dwelt in Crete, and promised to divide the sea, and give them a safe passage through it
Paul - It seems probable, that, immediately after he recovered his liberty, he went to Jerusalem; and that afterward he travelled through Asia Minor, Crete, Macedonia, and Greece, confirming his converts, and regulating the affairs of the different churches which he had planted in those countries
Egypt - Their names betray a Semitic language: they were probably barbarian, but in the end took on the culture of Egypt, and it is a strange fact that inscribed relics of one of them, Khyan, have been found in places as far apart as at Cnossus in Crete and Baghdad; no other Egyptian king, not even Thetmosi III
Marcion, a 2nd Century Heretic - is proved by its antagonists in numerous countries: Dionysius in Corinth writing to Nicomedia, Philip in Crete, Theophilus in Antioch, besides Modestus (Eus