Places Study on Idumea

Places Study on Idumea

Isaiah 34: For my sword shall be bathed in heaven: behold, it shall come down upon Idumea, and upon the people of my curse, to judgment.
Isaiah 34: The sword of the LORD is filled with blood, it is made fat with fatness, and with the blood of lambs and goats, with the fat of the kidneys of rams: for the LORD hath a sacrifice in Bozrah, and a great slaughter in the land of Idumea.
Ezekiel 35: As thou didst rejoice at the inheritance of the house of Israel, because it was desolate, so will I do unto thee: thou shalt be desolate, O mount Seir, and all Idumea, even all of it: and they shall know that I am the LORD.
Ezekiel 36: Therefore thus saith the Lord GOD; Surely in the fire of my jealousy have I spoken against the residue of the heathen, and against all Idumea, which have appointed my land into their possession with the joy of all their heart, with despiteful minds, to cast it out for a prey.

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Holman Bible Dictionary - Idumea
(ihd yoo mee' uh) In Isaiah 34:5 , a nation destined for judgment. “Idumea” is the term used in the Greek version of the Old Testament and in the writings of the Jewish historian Josephus for Edom. The region was southeast of the Dead Sea. The Herods came originally from Idumea. Crowds from Idumea followed Jesus early in His ministry (Mark 3:8 ). See Edom .



Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Idumea
(See EDOM.)

Hitchcock's Bible Names - Idumea
Red; earthy; bloody
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Idumea
The name given by the Greeks to the land of Edom, or mount Seir, which extended originally from the Dead sea to the Elanitic gulf of the Red sea, including a territory about on hundred miles long, and fifteen or twenty wide. Afterwards is extended more into the south of Judah, towards Hebron. A large part of it was occupied by the long chain of mountains lying between the great sandy valley El-Ghor and El-Arabah on the west, (see Genesis 27:39 . But at this day, desolation reigns. The capital of East Idumaea was Bozra; but the chief capital of Edom was Petra, or Sela, that is, the rock, because it was excavated in part from a mountain. It is now called Wady Mousa, the valley of Moses. See SELA .

The original inhabitants of this country were called Horites, and were dispossessed by the Idumaeans of history, Genesis 14:6 36:21 Deuteronomy 12:2 . The true Idumaeans, or Edomites, were, as their name implies, descendants of Edom, or Esau, elder brother of Jacob, Genesis 36:6-9 . They were governed by dukes or princes, Genesis 36:15 , and afterwards by their own kings, Genesis 36:31 . Compare Exodus 15:15 Numbers 20:14 . On the approach of the Israelites from Egypt to the western border of Edom, they were refused a peaceful passage through that country to Moab. See EXODUS. They were divinely charged, however, to preserve friendly relations with their "brother" Esau, Numbers 20:14-21 Deuteronomy 2:4-7 23:7 . Yet, hostilities seemed inevitable. Saul was involved in war with them, 1 Samuel 14:47 ; but they continued independent till the time of David, who subdued them, in completion of Isaac's prophecy, that Jacob should rule Esau, Genesis 27:29 2 Samuel 8:14 1 Kings 11:15 1 Chronicles 18:11-13 . The Idumaeans bore their subjection with great impatience, and at the end of Solomon's reign, Hadad, an Edomite prince who had been carried into Egypt during his childhood, returned into his own country, where he pronounced himself to be acknowledged king, 1 Kings 11:14-22 . It is probable, however, that he reigned only in East Edom, 1 Kings 22:47 2 Chronicles 20:36 ; for Edom south of Judea continued subject to the kings of Judah till the reign of Jehoram, against who it rebelled, 2 Chronicles 21:8 , in fulfillment of the second part of Isaac's prophecy, Genesis 27:40 . Amaziah king of Judah also discomfited the Edomites, killed 1,000 men, and cast 10,000 more from a precipice, 2 Kings 14:7 2 Chronicles 25:11,12 . But these conquests were not permanent. When Nebuchadnezzar besieged Jerusalem, the Idumaeans joined him, and encouraged him to raze the very foundation of the city; but their cruelty did not long continue unpunished. Many predictions of the prophets foreshadowed Edom's real doom, Obadiah 1:1-21 Jeremiah 49:7 Ezekiel 25:17 Malachi 1:3,4 . Five years after the taking of Jerusalem, Nebuchadnezzar humbled all the states around Judea, particularly Idumaea, though he did not carry them captive; and subsequently John Hyrcanus drove them from Southern Judea, into which they had penetrated, entirely conquered them, and obliged them to receive circumcision and law. They continued subject to the later kings of Judea till the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans. Josephus informs us that 20,000 of them were summoned to aid in the defense of that city, but gave themselves up to rapine and murder. Ultimately, the Idumaeans were supplanted and absorbed by the Nabathean, descendants of Nabaioth, a son of Ishmael. In the time of their prosperity, the Edomites were numerous and powerful, devoted to commerce by land and by sea, and also to agriculture and the raising of cattle, Numbers 20:17 . But neither their strong rock-fortresses, Jeremiah 49:16 , nor their gods, 2 Chronicles 25:20 could save that rich and salubrious country from becoming a desert, and a striking monument to the truth of prophecy.

Sentence search

Idumean - ) An inhabitant of Idumea, an Edomite. ) Of or pertaining to ancient Idumea, or Edom, in Western Asia
Idumea - “Idumea” is the term used in the Greek version of the Old Testament and in the writings of the Jewish historian Josephus for Edom. The Herods came originally from Idumea. Crowds from Idumea followed Jesus early in His ministry (Mark 3:8 )
Masrekah - Vineyard of noble vines, a place in Idumea, the native place of Samlah, one of the Edomitish kings (Genesis 36:36 ; 1 Chronicles 1:47 )
Mount Hor - ) Hor was situated on the confines of Idumea
Zair - A place in Idumea where Joram defeated Edom after having been first shut in, then cutting his way through; 2 Chronicles 21:9, omit Zair and have instead im saraio , "with his captains
Nebaioth - See Idumea
Eder -
A city in the south of Judah, on the border of Idumea (Joshua 15:21 )
Nettle - Isaiah 34:13 (b) This is a type of the multitude of little, tiny, sticking, pricking troubles that the Lord would send upon the inhabitants of Idumea because they rejected Him and His Word
Edom - See ESAU and Idumea
Bittern - The accompaniment of the desolation reigning in Babylon (Isaiah 14:23), Idumea (Isaiah 34:11), Nineveh (Zephaniah 2:14). Still the columns might be fallen on the ground within reach of the hedgehog, and Idumea is not a marshy region suited to an aquatic bird such as the bittern
Acrabatene - This was also the name of another district of Judea on the frontier of Idumea, toward the northern extremity of the Dead Sea
Teman - ... ... A place in Southern Idumea, the land of "the sons of the east," frequently mentioned in the Old Testament
Seir - See Idumea
Dumah - The place mentioned in the "burden" of the prophet (Isaiah 21:11 ) is Edom or Idumea
Elath - ); called by the Greeks and Romans Elana; a city of Idumea, on the east, i
Archelaus - , Idumea, Judea, and Samaria, and hence is called "king" (Matthew 2:22 )
Archelaus - He succeeded his father as Ethnarch of Idumea, Judaea, Samaria, and the maritime cities of Palestine
Archelatus - He was educated with his brother Antipas at Rome, and after his father's death was placed over Judea, Idumea, and Samaria, (the cities Gaza, and Hippo excepted,) with the title of ethnarch or tetrarch; whence he is said to reign, Matthew 2:22
Eliphaz - , a native of Teman, in Idumea
Bittern - Is found three times in connection with the desolations to come upon Babylon, Idumea, and Nineveh (Isaiah 14:23 ; 34:11 ; Zephaniah 2:14 )
Dumah - Put for all Idumea, to imply it should soon be put to silence, i
Zin - Kadesh lay in it, and here also Idumea was conterminous with Judah; since Kadesh was a city in the border of Edom
Archelaus - Herod bequeathed to him his kingdom, but Augustus confirmed him in the possession of only half of it—Idumea, Judea, and Samaria, with the title of ethnarch, or chief of the nation
Edom - Hence that tract of Judea, which they inhabited, retained the name of Idumea in the time of our Saviour, Mark 3:8 . Under Moses and Joshua, and even under the kings of Judah, the Idumeans were confined to the east and south of the Dead Sea, in the land of Seir; but afterward they extended their territories more to the south of Judah. The Edomites, or Idumeans, the posterity of Esau, had kings long before the Jews. The Idumeans bore this subjection with great impatience; and at the end of Solomon's reign, Hadad, the Edomite, who had been carried into Egypt during his childhood, returned into his own country, where he procured himself to be acknowledged king, 1 Kings 11:22 . When Nebuchadnezzar besieged Jerusalem, the Idumeans joined him, and encouraged him to rase the very foundations of that city. Five years after the taking of Jerusalem, Nebuchadnezzar humbled all the states around Judea, and in particular Idumea. John Hyrcanus entirely conquered the Idumeans, whom he obliged to receive circumcision and the law. However, they did not continue there till it was taken, but returned into Idumea loaded with booty. There are numerous prophecies respecting Idumea, that bear a literal interpretation, however hyperbolical they may appear. "My sword shall come down upon Idumea, and upon the people of my curse, to judgment. ... Is there any country once inhabited and opulent, so utterly desolate? There is, and that land is Idumea. We cannot be surprised at these traces of ancient population, when we recollect that this was the country of the Nabatheans, the most powerful of the Arabs, and of the Idumeans, who, at the time of the destruction of Jerusalem, were almost as numerous as the Jews, as appears from Josephus, who informs us, that on the first rumour of the march of Titus against Jerusalem, thirty thousand Idumeans instantly assembled, and threw themselves into that city for its defence. The Idumeans, from whom the Jews only took their ports at intervals, must have found in them a great source of wealth and population. It even appears that the Idumeans rivalled the Tyrians, who also possessed a town, the name of which is unknown, on the coast of Hedjaz, in the desert of Tih, and the city of Faran, and, without doubt, El-Tor, which served it by way of port. From this place the caravans might reach Palestine and Judea, (through Idumea,) in eight or ten days. That the Idumeans were a populous and powerful nation long posterior to the delivery of the prophecies; that they possessed a tolerably good government, even in the estimation of Volney; that Idumea contained many cities; and these cities are now absolutely deserted; and that their ruins swarm with enormous scorpions; that it was a commercial nation, and possessed highly frequented marts; that it forms a shorter route than the ordinary one to India; and yet that it had not been visited by any traveller; are facts all recorded, and proved by this able but unconscious commentator. A greater contrast cannot be imagined than the ancient and present state of Idumea. The Idumeans were, without doubt, both an opulent and a powerful people. There is a prediction which, being peculiarly remarkable as applicable to Idumea, and bearing reference to a circumstance explanatory of the difficulty of access to any knowledge respecting it, is entitled, in the first instance, to notice: "None shall pass through it for ever and ever. The ancient greatness of Idumea must, in no small degree, have resulted from its commerce. Bordering with Arabia on the east, and Egypt on the southwest, and forming from north to south the most direct and most commodious channel of communication between Jerusalem and her dependencies on the Red Sea, as well as between Syria and India, through the continuous valleys of El Ghor, and El Araba, which terminated on the one extremity at the borders of Judea, and on the other at Elath and Ezion Geber on the Elanitic gulf of the Red Sea, Idumea may be said to have formed the emporium of the commerce of the east. A Roman road passed directly through Idumea, from Jerusalem to Akaba, and another from Akaba to Moab; and when these roads were made, at a time long posterior to the date of the predictions, the conception could not have been formed, or held credible by man, that the period would ever arrive when none would pass through it. The prediction is yet more surprising when viewed in conjunction with another, which implies that travellers would "pass by" Idumea: "Every one that goeth by shall be astonished. " And the Hadj routes (routes of the pilgrims) from Damascus and from Cairo to Mecca, the one on the east and the other towards the south of Idumea, along the whole of its extent, go by it, or touch partially on its borders, without passing through it. " Volney's account is sufficiently descriptive of the desolation which now reigns over Idumea; and the information which Seetzen derived at Jerusalem respecting it is of similar import. '" In the interior of Idumea, where the ruins of some of its ancient cities are still visible, and in the extensive valley which reaches from the Red to the Dead Sea, the appearance of which must now be totally and sadly changed from what it was, "the whole plain presented to the view an expanse of shifting sands, whose surface was broken by innumerable undulations and low hills. " "I will stretch out upon Idumea the line of confusion, and the stones of emptiness
Gebal - The Gebalene of the Romans, was a district of Idumea, called also at the present day Djebal, signifying mountains
Teman - The southern part of Idumea
Cave - Petra, in Idumea, was a city of caves, Numbers 24:21 Song of Song of Solomon 2:14 Jeremiah 49:16 Obadiah 1:3
Obadiah, Book of - His pride is spoken of, exalting himself as the eagle, setting his nest in the firmament of heaven, and seeking his safety in the high caves of the rocks, which well answers to their habitations in Idumea. Idumea will be their rendezvous, and the sword of the Lord will be filled with blood
Willows, Brook of the - " Now called in its upper part wady el Ahsa, and then wady es Safieh, dividing Moab from Idumea
Elath - A city of Idumea, on the extremity of the eastern Gulf of the Red Sea, which is called from it Sinus Elaniticus— Elanitic Gulf, or the Gulf of Akabah. It was again recovered by the Idumeans; and once more subdued by Uzziah, king of Judah; but Rezin, king of Syria, took it at length from the Jews, who seem never again to have recovered it
Hor -
One of the mountains of the chain of Seir or Edom, on the confines of Idumea (Numbers 20:22-29 ; 33:37 )
Amalek - He was probably the father of the Amalekites, an ancient and powerful people, Genesis 14:7; Numbers 24:20, who inhabited the regions on the south of Palestine, between Idumea and Egypt, and also to the eastward of the Dead Sea and Mount Seir
Elath - or ELOTH, a part of Idumea, situate upon the Red Sea, the emporium of Syria in Asia
Elath - Or ELOTH, a city of Idumea, situated at the northern extremity of the eastern gulf of the Red Sea, which was anciently called the Elantic gulf, and now the gulf of Akaba
Job - Bishop Warburton, in like manner, admits them to bear the marks of high antiquity; and Michaelis confesses the manners to be perfectly Abrahamic, that is, such as were common to all the seed of Abraham, Israelites, Ishmaelites, and Idumeans. That it was composed before Abraham's migration to Canaan, may also be inferred from its silence respecting the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah, and the other cities of the plain, which were still nearer to Idumea, where the scene is laid. Melchizedec, king of Salem, was a priest of the primitive order, Genesis 14:18 ; such also was Jethro, the father-in-law of Moses, in the vicinity of Idumea, Exodus 18:12 . A farther evidence of the remote antiquity of this book is the language of Job and his friends; who, being all Idumeans, or at least Arabians of the adjacent country, yet conversed in Hebrew. This carries us up to an age so early as that in which all the posterity of Abraham, Israelites, Idumeans, and Arabians, yet continued to speak one common language, and had not branched into different dialects. Good, and some later critics and philologers, have shown that the scene is laid in Idumea. In effect, nothing is clearer than that the history of an inhabitant of Idumea is the subject of the poem which bears the name of Job, and that all the persons introduced into it were Idumeans, dwelling in Idumea, in other words, Edomite Arabs. Ezekiel, Amos, and Obadiah, Jeremiah 49:7 ; Jeremiah 49:20 ; Ezekiel 25:13 ; Amos 1:11-12 ; Obadiah 1:8-9 , formed a principal part of Idumea; Bildad, of Shuah, who is always mentioned in conjunction with Sheba and Dedan, the first of whom was probably named after one of the brothers of Joktan or Kahtan, and the two last from two of his sons, all of them being uniformly placed in the vicinity of Idumea, Genesis 25:2-3 ; Jeremiah 49:8 ; Zophar of Naama, a city importing pleasantness, which is also stated by Joshua, Joshua 15:21 ; Joshua 15:41 , to have been situate in Idumea, and to have lain in a southern direction toward its coast, on the shores of the Red Sea; and Elihu, of Buz, which, as the name of a place, occurs only once in Sacred Writ, Jeremiah 25:23 , but is there mentioned in conjunction with Temen and Dedan; and hence necessarily, like them, a border city upon Uz or Idumea. Allowing this chirography to be correct, (and such, upon a fair review of facts, we may conclude it to be,) there is no difficulty in conceiving that hordes of nomadic Chaldeans as well as Sabeans, a people addicted to rapine, and roving about at immense distances for the sake of plunder, should have occasionally infested the defenceless country of Idumea, and roved from the Euphrates even to Egypt
Arabia - ), but in later times by the descendants of Esau, and known as the Land of Edom or Idumea, also as the Desert of Seir or Mount Seir. The whole land appears (Genesis 10 ) to have been inhabited by a variety of tribes of different lineage, Ishmaelites, Arabians, Idumeans, Horites, and Edomites; but at length becoming amalgamated, they came to be known by the general designation of Arabs
Cave - "The excavations at Deir Dubban, on the south side of the wady leading to Santa Hanneh, are probably the dwellings of the Horites," the ancient inhabitants of Idumea Proper
e'Dom, Idumae'a - Edom was called Mount Seir and Idumea also
Archelaus - Archelaus received Idumea, Judaea, Samaria, and the cities Caesarea, Sebaste, Joppa, and Jerusalem, which yielded 600 talents income
Edom - ... ... Idumea (Isaiah 34:5,6 ; Ezekiel 35:15 )
Edom - ... The Greek form of Edom is Idumea,which occurs only in Isaiah 34:5,6 ; Ezekiel 35:15 ; Ezekiel 36:5 ; Mark 3:8
Judah - Judah formed one small province alongside Samaria, Galilee, and Idumea
Edom - In New Testament times, even the southern end of the Judean hill country (south of approximately Hebron) was known officially as Idumea (Edom). Only the formerly Edomite territory west of the Arabah was still known as Idumea (Edom). Herod the Great was of Idumean ancestry
Palm-Tree - ... Several parts of the Holy Land, no less than of Idumea, that lay contiguous to it, are described by the ancients to have abounded with date-trees
Edom - Idumea. Idumea abounds in cave dwellings. Idumea S. Antipater, one of the Jewish prefects, an Idumean by birth, by the Roman senate's decree (37 B. Just before the siege under Titus 20,000 Idumeans were admitted into Jerusalem and filled it bloodshed and rapine
Edom - Various Arab groups mingled with them, and the region later became known as Idumea (Mark 3:8). ... Years later, after the Romans had conquered Palestine (63 BC), an Idumean named Herod was appointed ‘king’ of Palestine under the governing authority of Rome. The modern nation of Israel includes this Idumean territory along with much of old Edom, and extends to the Red Sea port of Elath (or Elat)
Assyria - From an early period Assyria had entered on a conquering career, and having absorbed Babylon, the kingdoms of Hamath, Damascus, and Samaria, it conquered Phoenicia, and made Judea feudatory, and subjected Philistia and Idumea
Ara'Bia - It was mostly peopled by descendants of Esau, and was generally known as the land of Edom or Idumea [EDOM ], as well as by its older appellation, the desert of Seir or Mount Seir
Hasmonean - Hyrcanus substantially expanded his territorial claim to include regions east of the Jordan river, and Idumea (Edom) to the south. He forcibly converted the Idumeans, who were traditional enemies of ancient Judaism, by demanding circumcision, and he profoundly alienated Judean Jews and Samaritan Jews by attacking Samaria and the Samaritan Temple at Mount Gerizim
Jericho - ... According, to Pococke, the mountains to which the absurd name of Quarantania has been arbitrarily given, are the highest in all Judea; and he is probably correct; they form part of a chain extending from Scythopolis into Idumea
Unicorn - Isaiah 34:7 , who of all the prophets seems to have known Egypt and Ethiopia the best, when prophesying about the destruction of Idumea, says, that the reem shall come down with the fat cattle: a proof that he knew his habitation was in the neighbourhood
Canaan - Idumea was conquered a few years after. The Asmonean dynasty, which united, in the person of the monarch, the functions of king and pontiff, though tributary to Roman conquerors, lasted one hundred and twenty-six years, till the kingdom was given by Anthony to Herod the Great, of an Idumean family, B. At the time of the Christian aera, Palestine was divided into five provinces; Judea, Samaria, Galilee, Perea, and Idumea. On the death of Herod, Archelaus, his eldest son, succeeded to the government of Judea, Samaria, and Idumea, with the title of tetrarch; Galilee being assigned to Herod Antipas; and Perea, or the country beyond Jordan, to the third brother, Philip
Herod - ... The most prominent family member and ruler was Herod, son of Antipater who had been appointed governor of Idumea by Alexandra Salome, the Maccabean queen who ruled Palestine 78-69 B
Palestine - ... Exclusive of Idumea, the kingdom of Herod the Great comprehended the whole of the country originally divided among the twelve tribes, which he divided into four provinces or districts
Herod - He was very much under the influence of a part-Jewish Idumean friend, Antipater, who was carefully and cunningly planning to gain control himself. (Idumea was a region in the south of Judea
Division of the Earth - 2614, or five hundred and forty-one years after the deluge, and one hundred and ninety-one years after the death of Noah, in the following order:—"To the sons of Shem was allotted the middle of the earth, namely, Palestine, Syria, Assyria, Samaria, Singar, [or Shinar,] Babel, [or Babylonia,] Persia, and Hegiaz; [Arabia;] to the sons of Ham, Teimen, [or Idumea, Jeremiah 49:7 ,] Africa, Nigritia, Egypt, Nubia, Ethiopia, Scindia, and India; [or India west and east of the river Indus;] to the sons of Japheth, also, Garbia, [the north,] Spain, France, the countries of the Greeks, Sclavonians, Bulgarians, Turks, and Armenians. Of Cush's sons, Seba, Havilah, Sabtah, Sabtacha, and Raamah; and the sons of Raamah, Sheba, and Dedan, seem to have settled in Idumea and Arabia, from the similar names of places there; and of his descendants, Nimrod, the mighty hunter, first founded the kingdom of Babylon, and afterward of Assyria, invading the settlements of the Shemites, contrary to the divine decree
Judea - The portion of the tribe of Judah comprised all the country between Edom, or Idumea, on the south, the Mediterranean on the west, the Salt Sea on the east, and an imaginary line on the north, from the northern extremity of the Salt Sea to the Mediterranean. Judea Proper, situated in 31 40' north latitude, was bounded on the north by Samaria, on the west by the Mediterranean, on the east by the river Jordan, on the south by Arabia Petraea; and comprised the ancient settlements of Judah, Benjamin, Dan, and Simeon, with Philistia and Idumea
Judgment - The following are the prophecies to which they appeal:— Isaiah 34:4 , where the destruction of Idumea is foretold under the figures of dissolving the host of heaven, and of rolling the heaven together as a scroll, and of the falling down of all their host as the leaf falleth off from the vine
Herod - surnamed the Great, king of the Jews, second son of Antipater the Idumean, born B. In the civil war between the republican and Caesarian parties, Herod joined Cassius, and was made governor of Coelo-Syria; and when Mark Antony arrived victorious in Syria, Herod and his brother found means to ingratiate themselves with him, and were appointed as tetrarchs in Judea; but in a short time an invasion of Antigonus, who was aided by the Jews, obliged Herod to make his escape from Jerusalem, and retire first to Idumea, and then to Egypt
Simeon - Five hundred Simeonites undertook a second expedition under four chiefs, sons of Shimei, against the remnant of Amalek that had escaped from Saul and David (1 Samuel 14:48; 1 Samuel 15:7; 2 Samuel 8:12) to the mountains of Idumea; they smote them utterly, and dwelt in their place, and were there at the date of the composition of 1 Chronicles, i
Jews - ... Herod, by birth an Idumean, but of the Jewish religion, whose father, Antipater, as well as himself, had enjoyed considerable posts of honour and trust under Hyrcanus, immediately set out for Rome, and prevailed upon the senate, through the interest of Antony and Augustus, to appoint him king of Judea. Archelaus succeeded to the largest share, namely, to Judea Propria, Samaria, and Idumea. The Emperor Claudius gave him Judea, Samaria, the southern parts of Idumea, and Abilene; and thus at last the dominions of Herod Agrippa became nearly the same as those of his grandfather, Herod the Great
Assur - ... By the end of Esarhaddon's reign Hamath, Damascus, and Samaria had been absorbed, Judaea made tributary, Philistia and Idumea subjected, Babylon recovered, and cities planted in Media
Moab - Their place, together with the adjoining part of Idumea, is characterized, in the map of Volney's Travels, by the ruins of towns
Palestine - "Judaea" in the Roman sense was part of the province "Syria," which comprised the seaboard from the bay of Issus to Egypt, and meant the country from Idumea on the S
Jews - ... Simon was succeeded by his son Hircanus, who subdued Idumea, and reduced the Samaritans