Places Study on Tadmor

Places Study on Tadmor

1 Kings 9: And Baalath, and Tadmor in the wilderness, in the land,
2 Chronicles 8: And he built Tadmor in the wilderness, and all the store cities, which he built in Hamath.

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Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Tadmor
TADMOR (Palmyra). In 2 Chronicles 8:4 we read that Solomon built ‘Tadmor in the [Syrian] desert.’ It has long been recognized that Tadmor is here a mistake for ‘ Tamar in the [Judæan] desert’ of the corresponding passage in 1Kings ( 1 Kings 9:18 ). The Chronicler, or one of his predecessors, no doubt thought it necessary to emend in this fashion a name that was scarcely known to him. (That it is really the city of Tadmor so famous in after times that is meant, is confirmed by the equally unhistorical details given in 2 Chronicles 8:3-4 regarding the Syrian cities of Hamath and Zobah.) Hence arose the necessity for the Jewish schools to change the Tamar of 1 Kings 9:18 in turn into Tadmor [the Qerç in that passage], so as to agree with the text of the Chronicler. The LXX [Note: Septuagint.] translator of 1 Kings 9:13 appears to have already had this correction before him. Nevertheless it is quite certain that Tamar is the original reading. But the correction supplies a very important evidence that at the time when Chronicles was composed ( c [Note: circa, about.] . b.c. 200), Tadmor was already a place of note, around the founding of which a fabulous splendour had gathered, so that it appeared fitting to attribute it to Solomon. This fiction maintained itself, and received further embellishments. The pre-Islamic poet Nâbigha ( 1 Kings 9:22 ff., ed. Ahlwardt, c [Note: circa, about.] . a.d. 600) relates that, by Divine command, the demons built Solomon’s Tadmor by forced labour. This piece of information he may have picked up locally; what he had in view would he, of course, the remains, which must have been still very majestic, of the city whose climax of splendour was reached in the 2nd and 3rd cent. a.d.

Tadmor, of whose origin and earlier history we know nothing, lay upon a great natural road through the desert, not far from the Euphrates, and not very far from Damascus. It was thus between Syria, Babylonia, and Mesopotamia proper. Since water, although not in great abundance, was also found on the spot, Tadmor supplied a peaceable and intelligent population with all the conditions necessary for a metropolis of the caravan trade. Such we find in the case of Palmyra , whose identity with Tadmor was all along maintained, and has recently been assured by numerous inscriptions. The first really historical mention of the place (b.c. 37 or 36) tells how the wealth of this centre of trade incited M. Antony to a pillaging campaign (Appian, Bell. Civ. v. 9).

The endings of the two names Tadmor and Palmyra are the same, but not the first syllable. It is not clear why the Westerns made such an alteration in the form. The name Palmyra can hardly have anything to do with palms . It would, indeed, be something very remarkable if in this Eastern district the Lat. palma was used at so early a date in the formation of names. The Oriental form Tadmor is to be kept quite apart from tâmâr , ‘palm.’ Finally, it is unlikely that the palm was ever extensively cultivated on the spot.

Neither in the OT nor in the NT is there any other mention of Tadmor (Palmyra), and Josephus names it only when he reproduces the above passage of Chronicles ( Ant. VIII. vi. 1). The place exercised, indeed, no considerable influence on the history either of ancient Israel or of early Christianity. There is therefore no occasion to go further into the history, once so glorious and finally so tragic, of the great city, or to deal with the fortunes of the later somewhat inconsiderable place, which now, in spite of its imposing ruins, is desolate in the extreme, but which still bears the ancient name Tadmor ( Tedmur, Tudmur ).

Th. Nöldeke.

Easton's Bible Dictionary - Tadmor
Palm, a city built by Solomon "in the wilderness" (2 Chronicles 8:4 ). In 1 Kings 9:18 , where the word occurs in the Authorized Version, the Hebrew text and the Revised Version read "Tamar," which is properly a city on the southern border of Palestine and toward the wilderness (Compare Ezekiel 47:19 ; 48:28 ). In 2 Chronicles 8:14 Tadmor is mentioned in connection with Hamath-zobah. It is called Palmyra by the Greeks and Romans. It stood in the great Syrian wilderness, 176 miles from Damascus and 130 from the Mediterranean and was the centre of a vast commercial traffic with Western Asia. It was also an important military station. (See SOLOMON .) "Remains of ancient temples and palaces, surrounded by splendid colonnades of white marble, many of which are yet standing, and thousands of prostrate pillars, scattered over a large extent of space, attest the ancient magnificence of this city of palms, surpassing that of the renowned cities of Greece and Rome."
Holman Bible Dictionary - Tadmor
(tad' mawr) Place name of uncertain meaning. A city in northern Palestine built by Solomon (2 Chronicles 8:4 ), probably to control a caravan route. Early Hebrew scribes read Tadmor as the city instead of Tamar of the written text in 1 Kings 9:18 . The city enjoyed prosperity at various periods, but especially so during Solomon's reign and again in the third century A.D., shortly before it was destroyed. The site has been identified with Palmyra, a great Arabian city, located about 120 miles northeast of Damascus.



Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Tadmor
2 Chronicles 8:4. Built by Solomon in the wilderness. Τamar , Hebrew (1 Kings 9:18), meaning "the city of palms," corresponding to Palmyra from palma "a palm." Solomon fixed on the site, an oasis in the desert which lies between Palestine and Babylonia, as the commercial entrepot between Jerusalem and Babylon. Subsequently, it linked Rome and Parthia by the mutual advantages of trade. In Trajan's time it fell under Rome. Called by Hadrian, who rebuilt it, Hadrianopolis. Under the emperor Gallienus the Roman senate made Odenathus, a senator of Palmyra, its king for having defeated Sapor of Persia. On Odenathus' assassination his widow Zenobia assumed the title Queen of the East, but was conquered and made captive (A.D. 273) by the emperor Aurelian.

Merchants from the English factory at Aleppo, at the close of the 17th century, visited it, and reported their discoveries (Philos. Transact., A.D. 1695, vol. 19, 83). Aglibelus and Melachbelus, i.e. the summer and the winter sun, are named in one inscription (Bochart, Geogr. Sacr., 2:8, section 811). Long lines of Corinthian columns still remain, producing a striking effect; probably of the second and third centuries A.D. A fragment of a building bears Diocletian's name. There are remains of walls of Justinian's time. Robert Wood's "The Ruins of Palmyra," a folio with splendid engravings (A.D 1753), is the best work on Tadmor; see also chap. 11 of Gibbon's "Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire."

Hitchcock's Bible Names - Tadmor
The palm-tree; bitterness
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Tadmor
City built in the wilderness by Solomon. 2 Chronicles 8:4 . Josephus (Ant. viii. 6,1) says it was the same as that which the Greeks called PALMYRA,and that it was built so far away because there were springs there, but no water nearer in that direction. Palmyra was situated about midway between Damascus and Tiphsah or Thapsacus on the Euphrates. It is still called Tadmur , about 34 40' N, 38 15' E . In the time of the Romans it was a large and splendid city, of which there are columns still standing and remarkable ruins.

In 1 Kings 9:18 a city is called in the A.V. Tadmor; but the Hebrew text is TAMAR, as in the R.V. (Tadmor being the reading of the Keri ). Though this was also built by Solomon in the wilderness, it is added 'in the land,' whereas Tadmor was outside. The towns also mentioned in this passage are connected with the south of the land, so that it is doubtless a different place, and may be the same as Tamar in Ezekiel 47:19 ; Ezekiel 48:28 .

People's Dictionary of the Bible - Tadmor
Tadmor (tăd'môr). Heb. Tamar, palms. A city in the wilderness, built by Solomon. 1 Kings 9:18, R. V., "Tamar;" 2 Chronicles 8:4. There is no other Scripture mention of this city. It has usually been identified with the famous city of Palmyra. Palmyra occupied the most favorable position on the great caravan route between the rich cities of the East and the ports of the Mediterranean. Palmyra was mentioned by Pliny, Josephus, Jerome, and other early writers. The ruins extend over a plain about three or four miles in circuit.

Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Tadmor
a city built by Solomon, 1 Kings 9:18 , afterward called Palmyra; situated in a wilderness of Syria, upon the borders of Arabia Deserta, inclining toward the Euphrates. Josephus places it two days' journey from the Euphrates, and six days' journey from Babylon. He says there is no water any where else in the wilderness, but in this place. At the present day there are to be seen vast ruins of this city. There was nothing more magnificent in the whole east. There are still found a great number of inscriptions, the most of which are Greek, and the other in the Palmyrenian character. Nothing relating to the Jews is seen in the Greek inscriptions; and the Palmyrenian inscriptions are entirely unknown, as well as the language and the character of that country. The city of Tadmor preserved this name to the time of the conquest by Alexander the Great: then it had the name of Palmyra given to it, which it preserved for several ages. About the middle of the third century, it became famous, because Odenatus and Zenobia, his queen, made it the seat of their empire. When the Saracens became masters of the east, they restored its ancient name of Tadmor to it again, which it has always preserved since. It is surrounded by sandy deserts on all sides. It is not known when, nor by whom, it was reduced to the ruinous condition in which it is now found. It may be said to consist at present of a forest of Corinthian pillars, erect and fallen. So numerous are these, consisting of many thousands, that the spectator is at a loss to connect or arrange them in any order or symmetry, or to conceive what purpose or design they could have answered. "In the space covered by these ruins," says Volney, "we sometimes, find a palace of which nothing remains but the court and walls; sometimes a temple, whose peristyle is half thrown down; and now a portico, a gallery, or triumphal arch. Here stand groups of columns, whose symmetry is destroyed by the fall of many of them; there we see them ranged in rows, of such length, that, similar to rows of trees, they deceive the sight, and assume the appearance of continued walls. If from this striking scene we cast our eyes upon the ground, another almost as varied presents itself. On all sides we behold nothing but subverted shafts, some whole, others shattered to pieces or dislocated in their joints; and on which side soever we look, the earth is strewed with vast stones half buried, with broken entablatures, mutilated friezes, disfigured reliefs, effaced sculptures, violated tombs, and altars defiled by dust."

It is probable, says Mansford, that, although Tadmor is said to have been built by Solomon, or, in other words, to have been erected by him into a city, it was a watering station between Syria and Mesopotamia before; with perhaps accommodations suited to the mode of travelling in those times, as we read of palm trees being found there, which are not trees that come by chance in these desert regions. The mere circumstance of wholesome water being afforded by any spot in such a country was sufficient to give it importance, and to draw toward it the stream of communication, for whatever purpose. This was probably the condition of Tadmor long before it received its name and its honours from Solomon. But, after all, what motive could there be to induce a peaceable king, like Solomon, to undertake a work so distant, difficult, and dangerous? There is but one which at all accords with his character, or the history of the times,— commercial enterprise. Solomon was at great pains to secure himself in the possession of the ports of Elath and Ezion-Geber on the Red Sea, and to establish a navy for his Indian commerce, or trade to Ophir,—in all ages the great source of wealth. The riches of India, thus brought into Judea, were from thence disseminated over those countries of the north and west at that time inhabited or known; while the same country, Judea, became, for a season, like Tyre, the point of return and exchange of the money and the commodities of those countries, the centre of communication between the east and the west.

American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Tadmor or Tamar
A palm-tree, 1 Kings 9:18 , a city founded by Solomon in the desert of Syria, on the borders of Arabia Dessert, towards the Euphrates, 2 Chronicles 8:4 . It was remote from human habitations, on an oasis in the midst of a dreary wilderness; and it is probable that Solomon built it to facilitate his commerce with the East, as it afforded a supply of water, a thing of the utmost importance in an Arabian desert. It was about one hundred and twenty miles northeast of Damascus, more than half the distance to the Euphrates. The original name was preserved till the time of Alexander, who extended his conquests to this city, which then exchanged its name Tadmor for that of Palmyra, both signifying that it was a "city of palms." It submitted to the Romans about the year 130, and continued in alliance with them during a period of one hundred and fifty years. In the third century the famous queen Zenobia reigned here over all the adjacent provinces, till conquered and carried captive to Rome by Aurelian. When the Saracens triumphed in the East, they acquired possession of this city, and restored its ancient name. It is still called Thadmor. Of the time of its ruin there is no authentic record; but it is thought, with some probability, that its destruction occurred during the period in which it was occupied by the Saracens.

Of its appearance in modern times Messrs. Wood and Dawkins, who visited it in 1751, thus speak: "It is scarcely possible to imagine anything more striking than this view. So great a number of Corinthian pillars, mixed with so little wall or solid building, afforded a most romantic variety of prospect." Volney observes, "In the space covered by these ruins, we sometimes find a palace, of which nothing remains but the court and walls; sometimes a temple, whose peristyle is half thrown down; and now a portico, a gallery, a triumphal arch. If from this striking scene we cast our eyes upon the ground, another almost as varied presents itself. On which side soever we look, the earth is strowed with vast stones half buried, with broken entablatures, mutilated friezes, disfigured reliefs, effaced sculptures, violated tombs, and altars defiled by the dust." Most of the edifices the ruins of which are above described, date from the first three centuries of the Christian era; while shapeless mounds of rubbish, covered with soil and herbage, contain the only memorials of the Tadmor of Solomon. The city was situated under and east of a ridge of barren hills, and its other sides were separated only by a wall from the open desert. It was originally about ten miles in circumference; but such have been the destructions effected by time, that the boundaries are with difficulty traced and determined.

Sentence search

Tadmor - Tadmor (Palmyra). In 2 Chronicles 8:4 we read that Solomon built ‘Tadmor in the [Syrian] desert. ’ It has long been recognized that Tadmor is here a mistake for ‘ Tamar in the [Judæan] desert’ of the corresponding passage in 1Kings ( 1 Kings 9:18 ). (That it is really the city of Tadmor so famous in after times that is meant, is confirmed by the equally unhistorical details given in 2 Chronicles 8:3-4 regarding the Syrian cities of Hamath and Zobah. ) Hence arose the necessity for the Jewish schools to change the Tamar of 1 Kings 9:18 in turn into Tadmor [the Qerç in that passage], so as to agree with the text of the Chronicler. 200), Tadmor was already a place of note, around the founding of which a fabulous splendour had gathered, so that it appeared fitting to attribute it to Solomon. 600) relates that, by Divine command, the demons built Solomon’s Tadmor by forced labour. ... Tadmor, of whose origin and earlier history we know nothing, lay upon a great natural road through the desert, not far from the Euphrates, and not very far from Damascus. Since water, although not in great abundance, was also found on the spot, Tadmor supplied a peaceable and intelligent population with all the conditions necessary for a metropolis of the caravan trade. Such we find in the case of Palmyra , whose identity with Tadmor was all along maintained, and has recently been assured by numerous inscriptions. ... The endings of the two names Tadmor and Palmyra are the same, but not the first syllable. The Oriental form Tadmor is to be kept quite apart from tâmâr , ‘palm. ... Neither in the OT nor in the NT is there any other mention of Tadmor (Palmyra), and Josephus names it only when he reproduces the above passage of Chronicles ( Ant. There is therefore no occasion to go further into the history, once so glorious and finally so tragic, of the great city, or to deal with the fortunes of the later somewhat inconsiderable place, which now, in spite of its imposing ruins, is desolate in the extreme, but which still bears the ancient name Tadmor ( Tedmur, Tudmur )
Betah, or Tibhath - A city of Syria-Zobath, taken by David, 2 Samuel 8:8 ; 1 Chronicles 18:8 ; perhaps the modern Taibeh, between Aleppo and Tadmor
Tadmor - Tadmor; but the Hebrew text is TAMAR, as in the R. (Tadmor being the reading of the Keri ). Though this was also built by Solomon in the wilderness, it is added 'in the land,' whereas Tadmor was outside
Tiphsah - Passing over; ford, one of the boundaries of Solomon's dominions (1 Kings 4:24 ), probably "Thapsacus, a great and wealthy town on the western bank of the Euphrates," about 100 miles north-east of Tadmor. This expedition implied a march of some 300 miles from Tirzah if by way of Tadmor, and about 400 if by way of Aleppo; and its success showed the strength of the Israelite kingdom, for it was practically a defiance to Assyria
Tamar - The text should perhaps read Tadmor (2 Chronicles 8:4 ), since the Hebrew lacks the qualifying phrase “of Judah” and the Masoretic vowel points correspond Tadmor. See Tadmor
Hamath-Zobah - A city in the neighbourhood of Tadmor, conquered by Solomon ( 2 Chronicles 8:3 )
Tamar - See Tadmor
Tadmor - Early Hebrew scribes read Tadmor as the city instead of Tamar of the written text in 1 Kings 9:18
Tadmor - Tadmor (tăd'môr)
Tiphsah - Hence the building of Tadmor on the desert route
Tadmor - The city of Tadmor preserved this name to the time of the conquest by Alexander the Great: then it had the name of Palmyra given to it, which it preserved for several ages. When the Saracens became masters of the east, they restored its ancient name of Tadmor to it again, which it has always preserved since. "... It is probable, says Mansford, that, although Tadmor is said to have been built by Solomon, or, in other words, to have been erected by him into a city, it was a watering station between Syria and Mesopotamia before; with perhaps accommodations suited to the mode of travelling in those times, as we read of palm trees being found there, which are not trees that come by chance in these desert regions. This was probably the condition of Tadmor long before it received its name and its honours from Solomon
Tamar - Some suppose this was "Tadmor" (q
Tadmor - In 2 Chronicles 8:14 Tadmor is mentioned in connection with Hamath-zobah
Tamar - reading has Tadmor (wh
Palm Tree - " Tadmor in the desert was called by the Greeks and Romans Palmyra, i
Tiphsah - Tadmor was the halting place on the way to Tiphsah
Tadmor or Tamar - The original name was preserved till the time of Alexander, who extended his conquests to this city, which then exchanged its name Tadmor for that of Palmyra, both signifying that it was a "city of palms. " Most of the edifices the ruins of which are above described, date from the first three centuries of the Christian era; while shapeless mounds of rubbish, covered with soil and herbage, contain the only memorials of the Tadmor of Solomon
Tadmor - D 1753), is the best work on Tadmor; see also chap
Building - Besides the buildings he completed at Jerusalem, he also built Baalath and Tadmor (1 Kings 9:15,24 )
Architecture - (Leviticus 14:34,45 ; 1 Kings 7:10 ) The peaceful reign and vast wealth of Solomon gave great impulse to architecture; for besides the temple and his other great works, he built fortresses and cities in various places, among which Baalath and Tadmor are in all probability represented by Baalbec and Palmyra
Tad'Mor - (city of palms ), called "Tadmor in the wilderness," is the same as the city known to the Greeks and Romans under the name of Palmyra
Palmtree - For Tadmor (2 Chronicles 8:4) in 1 Kings 9:18 the best reading is Tamar, "the palm city," Roman "Palmyra," on an oasis of the Syrian desert, in the caravan route between Damascus and the Euphrates
Damascus, Damascenes - While Tadmor and Palmyra, Baalbek and Jerash, have only a ‘glory hovering round decay,’ Damascus is still ‘the head of Syria,’ the queen of Oriental cities
Arabia - "... Tadmor or Palmyra "in the wilderness" was on its N
Solomon - Among his great undertakings must also be mentioned the building of Tadmor (q
Solomon - )... Among his buildings were the famous Tadmor or Palmyra in the wilderness, to carry on commerce with inland Asia, and store cities in Hamath; Bethhoron, the Upper and the Nether, on the border toward Philistia and Egypt; Hazor and Megiddo, guarding the plain of Esdraelon; Baalath or Baalbek, etc. (See Tadmor
Commerce - These lucrative trade routes were controlled in the Roman period by the city of Tadmor, the capital of the Palmyran kingdom, and by the Nabateans
Transportation And Travel - Protecting the valleys and highways which led to the capital at Jerusalem were a series of fortresses including Gezer, Beth Horon, Baalath, and Tadmor (1 Kings 9:17-19 , NIV)
Kings, First And Second, Theology of - Tadmor, II Kings: A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary ; F
Solomon - ] ‘Tadmor’]) in S
Jerusalem - It was resorted to at the festivals by the whole population of the country; and the power and commercial spirit of Solomon, improving the advantages acquired by his father David, centred in it most of the eastern trade, both by sea, through the ports of Elath and Ezion-Geber, and over land, by the way of Tadmor or Palmyra